Variety of mother-in-law cucumbers: characteristics and features of cultivation
Among the many varieties and hybrid varieties of cucumbers, cultivated plants with such an interesting name Mother-in-law may get lost, but this does not mean at all that the culture has nothing to surprise gardeners. Despite the relatively high whimsical care, these cucumbers have many advantages, which can be seen by examining in more detail the basic description of the vegetable and studying its requirements for growing conditions.
Hybrid cucumbers of Mother-in-law were bred by Russian breeders from the Research Institute of Vegetable Production of Protected Ground, in collaboration with scientists from the seed company Gavrish, Moscow. The plant entered the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation in 2007, and since then it has been increasingly found in various regions of the state. The developers of the new variety tried hard to adapt it to cultivation not only in the Central, but also in the Northern and Middle Volga regions, so with proper preparation of the site and the planting material itself, growing it in any climate will not be a problem.
The first crop can be harvested already 48 days after sowing seeds, and from 1 m² it is often possible to get up to 12 kg of high-quality fruits. All of them have a pleasant and delicate taste that does not change even after prolonged storage of cucumbers.
Did you know? Features of the peel of cucumbers determine their attractiveness for people of different nationalities. Whereas for Russians, pimply varieties of this vegetable are considered real, European consumers call them “Russian shirts” and prefer fruits with a smooth surface.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages of the hybrid variety of mother-in-law cucumbers are the following characteristics:
- high taste data;
- increased productivity;
- stage-by-stage ripening of fruits (prolongs the period of harvesting the crop);
- high seed germination rates;
- universality of application (suitable both for fresh consumption and for processing into billets);
- the possibility of growing in any type of soil and in any climatic conditions;
- lack of need for pollination by insects;
- good resistance to powdery mildew and peronosporosis.
- Among the disadvantages of this hybrid variety of cucumbers are:
- the relatively high cost of planting material;
- whimsical care, taking into account the requirements for irrigation, tillage and fertilizer.
On the greater territory of the Russian Federation, the cultivation of mother-in-law cucumbers provides for their preliminary sowing for seedlings, because sufficient heating of the soil is observed not earlier than the beginning or even the end of May. The specific timing of sowing seeds must be taken into account at home, just like the requirements for the preparation of the substrate and the technology for placement of planting material in prepared containers.
Optimum seeding time
Sowing cucumbers in seedlings is carried out about a month before planting at a constant place of growth. The ideal age of young cucumber seedlings for replanting in the garden is considered to be 20–25 days from the moment of seedling sowing, that is, if it is planned for mid-May (air temperature should reach + 22 ... + 28ºC during the day, and up to + 18 ... + 22ºC at night ), then sowing seeds can be done already in mid-April. Lowering these values to + 8ºC, which lasts longer than two days, threatens the destruction of the stands.
Read more about the timing of planting cucumbers for seedlings.
The ideal substrate for cucumber seedlings are light, nutritious soils with neutral acidity. You can buy this soil in finished form (sold in any gardening shop) or prepare it yourself by mixing peat or leaf soil (1 bucket), sand (0.5 buckets) and ash (1 l). Ashes can be replaced with dolomite flour or lime, which is especially valuable when it comes to substrates with high acidity.
Alternatively, you can use a mixture of two parts of turf land, one part of compost or peat and the same amount of sand (or perlite). When mixing all components, always try to get a homogeneous mixture, without any lumps.
Important! Before use, the finished substrate must be decontaminated by placing a bag with it in a bucket of very hot (up to +70 ° C ) water. The bucket must be covered with a lid and in this form, leave the soil until the water has cooled completely. You can also disinfect your own prepared substrate by calcining in the oven or spilling it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Capacity for growing
Almost any capacity is suitable for sowing cucumber seeds. This can be a small plastic box, separate plastic boxes or special cassettes with individual holes. Peat pots will be a good option for placing seeds, but they are not necessary. If seedlings were previously grown in the container, then it should be scalded before re-use.
Pre-planting preparation is needed not only in the soil, but also in the seeds of the mother-in-law cucumbers. Choosing only high-quality planting material (all seeds should be even and about the same size), it is immersed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and left there for 30 minutes. After the specified time, it remains only to wash the seeds in clean water and dry them a little before sowing in the soil. Instead of potassium permanganate, you can also use special preventive drugs (for example, Fitosporin-M), which will help protect future seedlings from root rot and bacteriosis.
For the quick germination of planting material (especially in depleted soils), they are additionally soaked in rooting solutions, such as Epin or Zircon, but not less than for 12 hours.
The scheme of planting mother-in-law cucumbers in seedlings depends on the type of prepared container. For example, in separate cups, 2-3 seeds can be placed, deepening each of them by 2-3 cm in the soil. When using boxes, sowing of planting material should be carried out taking into account the necessary distance between adjacent plants: at least 5 cm. Grooves are made at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other.
- To begin with, the prepared soil is leveled and appropriate grooves are made in it, with a depth of 3 cm.
- Then the soil is moistened a little and the prepared seeds are placed in it, observing the required distance, according to the above scheme.
- At the end of the process, the seeds of the cucumbers are covered with soil and covered with glass or plastic wrap boxes.
For seedlings emerging from the earth, a sufficient level of lighting is an important condition for their normal growth and development. However, it is desirable that it be dispersed, otherwise immature sprouts can get burns. The first watering is usually carried out several days after sowing the seeds, focusing on the state of the soil: the dried top layer of the substrate is always slightly moistened so that a dense crust does not appear on it. A few hours after making the liquid, the soil in the boxes can be loosened using a small stick or even a match, deepened into the areas between the plants. Before the emergence of seedlings, it is better not to perform the procedure, since there is a high probability of getting the planted seeds out of the ground.
About a week before the planting of the grown seedlings at a constant place of growth in the open ground, it begins to harden. In the early days, it is enough to take out the boxes with seedlings on a closed balcony and leave them there for 1-2 hours, and after another 2-3 days, the time spent by the seedlings in a cool place is increased to 4-5 hours. On warm days, the windows on the balcony can be opened, most importantly, to protect the seedlings of cucumbers from sudden gusts of cold air.
Did you know? The record for growing the longest cucumbers belongs to British pensioner Claire Pierce, who managed to grow a vegetable, 119 cm long.
Planting and growing cucumbers
Growing cucumbers of the Tescha variety is possible both in seedling and seedlings, each of which although has its own characteristics, but at the same time provides for the fulfillment of general requirements: for example, the organization of nutritious soil for cucumbers (rotten humus, manure must be introduced into depleted soils and superphosphate, which is sometimes better replaced with wood ash).
For seedlings, mother-in-law cucumbers are sown in the middle or end of April, pre-preparing the soil and the seeds themselves as described above. At the stage of formation of 3-4 real leaflets (approximately 25 days from sowing), the plants are already ready to transplant to a constant place of growth, which on average falls in mid or late May, when the threat of return frosts completely passes. Planting seedlings on the beds is carried out according to the scheme 50 × 50 cm, which guarantees sufficient space for the growth of any bush. For several hours to move the grown cucumbers, it is useful to spill them with warm water, which will facilitate the process of extracting seedlings from seedlings.
In harsh climatic regions, over vertically planted sprouts (each plant should take a stable position), it is useful to stretch a temporary film shelter to protect cucumbers from possible return frosts.
In a reckless way
In warm regions, sowing of cucumber seeds is often practiced directly in open soil, so the planting dates in this case will be slightly shifted: around the end of May or early June. On a previously dug up, fertilized and loosened bed, it is necessary to organize furrows with a depth of about 4–5 cm. For successful growth and development of cucumber bushes, at least 2–3 plants must be on 1 m² of territory. You can also sow seeds using the tape method, that is, according to the 50 × 90 cm pattern. Check out the best varieties of cucumbers for open ground and greenhouses. When sowing seeds, the soil temperature at a depth of 8 cm should be at least + 8 ... + 12ºC, then on light substrates, planting material is embedded 6 cm deep, and on well-moistened soils you can not deepen the seeds more than 5 cm. On heavy and In dense soils, Tescha's cucumbers are sown to a depth of no more than 3-4 cm. If there is a chance of return frosts, you can additionally cover the crops with a film cover, which will only accelerate the emergence of shoots. As soon as the young plants are a little stronger, the film can be removed so that the sprouts can warm up well in the sun.
Cucumber care after hanging
After planting in open soil, further care for the mother-in-law cucumbers involves the implementation of standard actions in the form of timely watering and top dressing, loosening the soil and other measures to improve the condition of both the cucumbers themselves and the soil on which they grow.
Top dressing and watering
The first moistening of the soil after transplanting seedlings to a constant place of growth is carried out only after 2-3 days. In general, the period of active watering of cucumbers stretches from the time of the appearance of the first seedlings to the fruiting of the plant, after which the amount of liquid introduced must be significantly reduced.
Learn more about how to feed cucumbers with potassium, iodine, ash, yeast for a good harvest. Before the appearance of the ovaries, the irrigation regularity is 1 time in 2-3 days or as the top soil layer dries (it should not crack and over-compact). One adult bush should have at least 2 liters of liquid settled in the sun, which is carefully poured under the root of the cucumbers.
Periodic (1 time per month) foliar top dressing with a solution of 1 liter of water, 1.5 g of potassium permanganate and the same amount of boric acid will not interfere with the variety. As for the regularity of fertilizers, then in the growing season of cucumbers they should be carried out no more than 1 time in 2 weeks.
Important! During the formation of the ovaries and the beginning of fruiting, nitrogen-containing compounds that contribute to increased growth of leaves and stems to the detriment of fruit growth will be especially undesirable for plants.
Bush garter and shaping
Despite the fact that the bushes of this variety of cucumbers are not too tall, the length of their lashes often reaches 2 m, which means that they still need a garter to support, which will help significantly reduce the likelihood of decay of fruits in the ground. In addition, well-ventilated parts of the plant will not suffer from pests and fungal diseases, therefore, as soon as the first whiskers and stems with 5-6 leaves appear on young bushes, you will have to tie them up.
In greenhouse conditions, the easiest way to accomplish this task would be to tie the plants to twine stretched between the metal reinforcement laid on the ground and the same section fixed under the roof of the greenhouse. In open soil, instead of it, you can stretch the mesh, with large cells. The stems of growing cucumbers should be regularly wrapped around the support clockwise, which repeats the trajectory of the sun through the sky (all plants stretch towards it).
Important! The more lateral shoots on the culture, the more light, water and nutrients are required, not to mention a sufficient place for growth, which is not always convenient.
All flowers and stepsons that are formed in the sinuses of the first 5 leaves should always be removed, and if you decide to leave the stepsons, then you will have to pinch them over the second leaf to a height of 1 m. At a height of 1 to 1.5 m, such shoots pinch over a 3-4 leaf, and the uppermost stepsons - over a 5-6 leaf. The central shoot, having reached the maximum length, needs to be thrown over the crossbar and left to grow down. It is advisable to remove leaf plates growing from below as the bush grows, so that they do not get dirty with earth and do not cause the development of fungal ailments.
Given the high frequency of watering during the growing season of Tescha cucumbers, the first thing you should pay attention to when caring for the soil is loosening the top layer at a certain distance from the stem part. Выполнять процедуру желательно каждую неделю, но не углубляя инструмент больше чем на 10–15 см. Одновременно с рыхлением можно выполнять и уборку сорняков, но по правде говоря, они страшны только молодым и ещё не окрепшим культурам. В дальнейшем, при умеренном загущении посадок и правильной подвязке огурцов, проблем быть не должно: удалять сорняки можно будет 3–4 раза за весь вегетационный период.
Pest and Disease Control
Как и в случае с другими гибридными сортами, вырастить огурцы Тёща можно без активной борьбы с вредителями и болезнями, особенно если с момента высева семян и до самого сбора урожая огородник чётко следует всем требованиям агротехники. В редких случаях на листьях и побегах культуры всё же могут появиться небольшие пятна буро-оливкового цвета, свидетельствующие о поражении огурцов пероноспорозом (ложной мучнистой росой).
При появлении на стеблях огурцов признаков гнилостных процессов можно обработать растения составами с содержанием мела, воды и марганцовки, которые предварительно наносят на ватный тампон, а затем уже обрабатывают само растение. Поражённые участки культуры нужно обязательно удалить, что послужит хорошей профилактикой дальнейшего распространения болезни на участке. Дополнительными профилактическими мерами выступают:
- compliance with crop rotation rules;
- своевременное удаление с грядок всех растительных остатков;
- weed control;
- соблюдение норм полива и подкормок.
Видео: Профилактика болезней огурцов народными средствами
Гибридный сорт огурцов Тёща характеризуется поэтапным созреванием плодов, то есть максимальное количество урожая, указанное производителем на упаковке с семенами, вы сможете собрать не за один или два раза, а за весь сезон. Чтобы получить максимально хрустящие и ароматные плоды небольших размеров придётся срывать зеленцы каждые 2–3 дня, не позволяя им перерастать.
В свежем виде собранные плоды могут храниться в холодильнике или подвале не дольше недели, поэтому тем, кто хочет заготовить зеленцы на зиму, придётся прибегнуть к стандартному способу — консервации. Для закладки плодов на хранение в свежем виде, их нужно протереть влажной тряпкой и поместить в герметичный полиэтиленовый пакет. Перед консервированием рекомендуется замочить зеленцы в холодной воде на 8 часов, каждые 2 часа меняя жидкость на свежую. Для засолки никакой особой предварительной подготовки не требуется и после очистки можно сразу же отправлять плоды в банку.
Did you know? Огурцы можно использовать не только в кулинарных целях. Попробуйте протереть разрезанным плодом зеркало в ванной комнате, и вы избавитесь от проблемы его запотевания во время принятия ванны.
Огурцы гибридного сорта Тёща — неплохой вариант даже для начинающих дачников, ведь, несмотря на повышенную требовательность к уходу, урожай зеленцов всегда радует своим качеством и обильностью. Согласитесь, это уже весомый повод, чтобы вырастить культуру и на своём участке.