Tomatoes “Mongolian dwarf”: characteristics, features of cultivation
Tomatoes are one of the most frequently grown crops on the planet. In the world there are about 10 thousand varieties. Among this variety, low-growing early varieties, which include the Mongolian dwarf, are especially popular.
Adult plants of the Mongolian dwarf variety are significantly different in appearance from the usual bushes. They are very low and spread along the ground, expanding in width to 1 meter.
Did you know? The largest tomato listed in the Guinness Book of Records was grown in Minnesota, America, and it weighed 3.7 kg.
The main characteristics of these tomatoes:
- undersized bushes - up to 20 cm;
- many lateral shoots that do not remove;
- high-yielding - up to 10 kg of crop leaves from one bush;
- super-early - bears fruit from the end of June;
- does not require a garter - spreads on the ground;
- fruits are bright red, round, weighing up to 200 g;
- the tomatoes taste juicy and sweet;
- resistant to late blight.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of the variety are as follows:
- does not require garter and stepsoning;
- does not suffer from late blight;
- early ripening of fruits;
- resistant to weather changes;
- does not break in the wind;
- not afraid of drought.
- The disadvantages include:
- the need to mulch the soil, since the fruits lie on the ground;
- takes up a lot of space, growing up to 1 m wide.
The requirements for growing seedlings of this variety are the same as for any other tomatoes. Seedlings are distinguished by their size - it is low but strong.
To get the crop at the end of June, the seeds are laid in the soil in mid-February. Then in May the plants will bloom, and you will get an early harvest. Seedlings of this variety can be planted in open ground earlier than other tomatoes. And if the temperature suddenly drops, it can be easily covered by using, for example, flower pots or ordinary cans.
Despite the fact that adult tomatoes love fertile soil, it is better to buy a ready-made mixture for seedlings, which is lighter than taken from the garden. A specially designed composition contains everything that is necessary for young plants. You can stock up on land from the garden, peat and sand, and mix all this in a ratio of 2: 1: 1. Purchased soil can be used immediately, but it is better to pre-process boiling water from the garden and dry it. This will kill pest larvae and bacteria.
Also superderminant tomatoes include such varieties as: "Red Guard", "Olya" and "Little Red Riding Hood".
Capacity for growing
You can sow seedlings in purchased containers, in any plastic container: disposable glasses, cut-off bottles, yogurt cups. At the bottom, holes are made for the outflow of water. Many gardeners prefer to sow in peat tablets. In this case, the plants are planted in the ground directly with a tablet and do not spend time diving.
The structure is covered with glass from above and insulated with warm old clothes at night. In this primitive greenhouse, crops are not threatened by spring frosts. After the emergence of shoots and in warm weather, the shelter is removed for a day, leaving only glass. But after sunset, you must definitely wrap it up.
Did you know? We are used to referring the tomato to vegetables, but from the point of view of botany it is right to call it a berry, since it has fleshy pulp with seeds and a thin peel.
To properly prepare the seeds, you need to:
- discard empty ones by dropping them in saline;
- soak the seeds in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes;
- rinse in clean water
- hold in a growth stimulator;
- to dry.
Now they are ready to be laid in the ground.
Finished seeds are sown in soil at a distance of 2 cm from each other. This is done with a special manual seeder or toothpick, moistening it in water. Between the rows the distance is up to 4 cm. Sprinkle seeds on top with loose earth up to 2 cm and moisten the soil from the sprayer. After that, create a mini-greenhouse - cover with glass or film so that moisture does not evaporate.
For seed germination, a temperature of at least + 23 ° C is needed. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the temperature in the room does not drop. After the emergence of sprouts, tanks open and monitor the moisture of the soil. The ingress of water on the leaves is unacceptable, it is necessary to water only under the root. It is convenient to do this with a syringe. When two true leaves appear, seedlings are dived into larger containers.
Check out the diseases of tomato seedlings.
Young tomatoes need enough light, but direct sunlight is fatal to them. It is advisable to place containers on the windowsill, where the sun will shine early in the morning or after lunch. You can make partial shade by covering the blinds, as well as using newspapers and pieces of wallpaper. After sunset, the seedlings are illuminated. A fluorescent lamp is suitable for this.
Hardening procedures can be carried out with the appearance of the first sheet. The containers are placed on the veranda or balcony at +15 ° C and left for 30 minutes. After 5 days, the temperature can be reduced to +10 ° C. However, it is less troublesome to do this before planting in the ground - for 14 days. In the evenings, plants are exposed on the balcony or on the street and kept there for 1-2 hours. A week later, they carry it out in the morning, leaving it for the whole day, but not in the sun. They gradually join the sun - starting from 30 minutes in partial shade, increasing the duration of the sunbathing every day.
Important! In the United States, a study was conducted and found that men who eat at least 4 tomato-based meals a week are half as likely to get prostate cancer.
Planting seedlings in a permanent place
This variety must be planted as early as possible if you want to get an early harvest. Save it from frost is not a problem, just stick sticks next to the bushes and throw any unnecessary things or burlap. Since the bushes grow to a width of 1 meter, this feature must be taken into account when planting and leave a distance between the bushes of at least 80 cm.
Care for tomatoes of this variety is somewhat different from the usual in terms of watering, pinching and garter.
Find out when and how to plant tomatoes in open ground.
For the Mongolian dwarf, the absence of moisture is much better than its excess. It tolerates droughts well, therefore, in the absence of rain, it is enough to water twice a week, always under the root and water protected in the sun. Watering is carried out towards evening, when the sun is leaning towards the horizon. Under one bush, pour 1 liter of water.
The variety responds well to both organic and inorganic fertilizers.
Important! It is imperative to water before feeding, since if the soil is dry, the fertilizer simply will not get to the roots.
Now, most gardeners prefer natural remedies, such as:
- ash solution;
- mullein infusion;
- herbal infusions;
- yeast top dressing.
Since the variety is very stunted, it does not need pinching. It is on the side shoots that the fruits are tied. Shoots grow long and literally lie on the ground.
The Mongolian dwarf needs constant oxygen access to the roots, respectively, the soil must be loose. Weeding is carried out as necessary, avoiding overgrowing the beds. Loosen the ground under the bushes once a week. This type of cultivation is enough once a summer. When it begins to grow wide, it will be impossible to do so.
Read more about why leaves on tomatoes turn yellow.
For this tomato, mulching is necessary, because it will not only retain moisture, but also eliminate the need to remove weeds, and also save the fruits that are on the ground from decay and attack of slugs.
Due to its low growth, the variety does not need a garter. In creeping form, the fruits grow larger.