Jalapeno pepper: photo and description - benefit and harm
Jalapeno is a hot pepper variety that has gained popularity in the cuisines of the whole world. What is Jalapeno pepper from a botanical point of view, whether it is hot or not, how to use it in cooking and medicine - all this can be found in our article.
Mexican variety from the group of chili peppers. The pods have an average size of 5–9 cm and a bright green color. The growing season is 70–80 days.
Did you know? The name of the vegetable is associated with the city of Jalapa, the capital of the Mexican state of Veracruz. 25–35 peppers are removed from one bush up to 1 m tall. Ripening, the fruits begin to redden and are considered poor quality. Such peppers are dried or processed in smokehouses.
Calorie content and chemical composition
The variety under consideration is classified as medium-sharp. The main nutritional indicators in 100 g of the product are presented in the table below.
|Calorie content||30 kcal|
|Vitamins||group B, A, E, K, C, PP, beta-carotene|
|Minerals||potassium, sodium, copper, magnesium and phosphorus|
What is the use of jalapeno peppers
- The useful properties of hot pepper have long been known and are used in both folk and conservative medicine:
- improves digestion;
- helps prevent heart and vascular diseases;
- lowers blood cholesterol;
- normalizes metabolism;
- increases the number of red blood cells and provides the prevention of viral diseases;
- normalizes sleep quality;
- improves vision function;
- strengthens and improves the appearance of hair.
Contraindications and harm
With diagnosed chronic diseases, the possibility of incorporating spicy foods into the daily diet should be clarified.
- The use of Jalapeno in food and as part of medicines should be excluded or limited in such cases:
- problems in the oral mucosa (burns, gum weakness, damage);
- inflammation in the mouth and throat (tonsillitis, tonsillitis, inflammation of the tonsils and tonsils);
- ulcers, colitis, gastritis and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract;
- kidney and bladder diseases;
Jalapeno pepper is used both for cooking and for medicinal purposes.
The hot taste of pepper is an indispensable attribute of Mexican cuisine. It can also be found in recipes of the Mediterranean countries (Italy, Spain).
Jalapenos are added to such dishes:
- sauces and salad dressings;
- salads and marinades;
- vegetable and meat stews;
- stuffing for pizza, fajitas, enchiladas.
Did you know? There are original recipes for hot pepper jam. Pods are also glazed or added to chocolate. Pepper is an important ingredient in the Mexican Sangrita drink, which contains citrus and tomato juices.
For medicinal purposes, tinctures and extracts of the plant are used.
Pepper tincture can be bought at a pharmacy or prepared according to the following recipe:
- chop 1 pod of pepper;
- in a glass jar pour pepper with vodka (100-120 ml).
It is recommended to add tincture to oil or balm.
You can also prepare a mask for hair loss:
- 2 tablespoons of pepper tincture;
- 50 g of high-quality liquid honey.
Important! Pepper tincture is a concentrated product and is used in diluted form! From dried fruits, you can get pepper powder, which is added to the ointment for the treatment of joint and muscle pain.
With reduced blood circulation or foot sweating, foot baths with pepper solution are recommended.
Growing at home
Pepper has long been grown both in open ground and in greenhouse conditions. Next, consider how to grow Jalapeno peppers at home.
Sowing seeds for seedlings at home
The optimal time for sowing seeds is the first months of spring (depending on the region). It is necessary to prepare high-quality seeds and soak them in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for a day.
For seedlings, a container made of plastic or peat is suitable. If the container does not have a ready-made lid, you need a sheet of glass or a film that can tighten the fit.
The easiest way to buy a ready-made soil mixture for seedlings in a specialized store.
If you prepare the soil yourself, you need such components:
- one part of sand and peat;
- two parts of turf land (disinfected).
Pepper sprouts are exposed on a light windowsill at a temperature of + 23–25 ° С. Watering is carried out when the soil dries with warm, settled water. Important! Unlike tomatoes, you can’t shorten the central root of the pepper! When 2-3 true leaves appear, they pick: transplant each sprout into its own pot. Pepper seedlings tolerate such a procedure worse than tomato, because its root system is fragile and recovers for a very long time. Any transplant significantly slows the growth of pepper, for about 2 weeks, so some gardeners recommend immediately sowing the seeds in separate cups.
If picking can not be avoided, it is necessary to water the seedlings a day before the process. This will allow you to get the desired degree of moisture in the earthen coma and not damage the roots.
When transplanting, they try to preserve the root system as much as possible, and the depth of planting should be the same as in the last place.
When using high-quality and nutritious soil for seedlings, you may need only 2-3 feeding.
At the same time, they adhere to such a schedule, fertilizing:
- after the appearance of the 2nd true leaf;
- 2 weeks after the first;
- 2-3 days before transplanting into open ground or a greenhouse.
10 days before the transplant, seedlings begin to harden in order to reduce the stress of staying in a new place. The air temperature is gradually reduced to + 14-16 ° C, exposing the cups on a balcony or fresh air. At first, direct sunlight should not fall on the foliage. Drafts should also be avoided.
Transplanting seedlings to a permanent place
Seedlings are ready for transplanting when 7-8 real leaves have formed on the plant. This occurs approximately on the 50th day after germination. When planting in open ground, it is necessary to wait for steady heat, and after freezing a minimum of 2 weeks should pass.
Peppers are planted in a sunny, calm place, but the procedure is best done on a cloudy day. The optimal distance between plants during planting is 30–40 cm. The level of penetration should be observed and the growth point should not be covered with earth, otherwise the plant will freeze for a long time in development. When planting in open ground, you need to cover the landing with agrofabric, which will provide the seedlings with the necessary heat in the first nights.
Important! All pepper varieties are prone to cross pollination, so sharp varieties plant as far as possible from sweet ones!
The root system of the plant is located in the upper layer, so it requires frequent and plentiful watering with settled water and does not need loosening. It is best to close the ground under mulch bushes (hay or dried grass). This will help solve the weed problem and save the earth from drying out.
Pinch the bush when it reaches a height of 15 cm, leaving several side branches. After tying the fruit, a garter may be necessary if the branches are overloaded.
The first fertilizer is applied 2 weeks after transplantation, and the next - after 3-4 weeks. Before flowering, a higher nitrogen content is required, and during flowering and fruit ovary increase the amount of phosphorus. You can use a solution of bird droppings, fermented infusions of grass, vermicompost.
Jalapeno pods are harvested in the stage of technical ripeness, when the skin color is bright green. The fruiting of the pepper goes in waves, and on one bush there can be both the ovaries that have appeared, and the finished fruits. If green peppers are not removed from the bush, they turn red, and the possible further yield is reduced by 20-30%. Read more about the features of growing hot peppers.
Jalapeno Pickled Peppers
One quick and easy way to make jalapenos is to marinate in rings. Such pepper can be used as a separate snack or added chopped to fillings for pizza or fajitas, to salads, meat.
To prepare a spicy dish, you need to prepare the following ingredients:
- pepper pods;
- 1 liter of water;
- 200 ml of 9% vinegar;
- 2 tablespoons of salt and sugar.
Step by step recipe
Pepper must be washed in advance and cut into rings. It is better to work in tight latex gloves, and it is imperative to thoroughly wash the knife and board after cutting. To reduce severity, seeds and internal partitions can be removed. Cans and lids for preservation are sterilized. See also how to pickle hot peppers at home. Then do this:
- sugar and salt are dissolved in a pan with water, then vinegar is added and brought to a boil;
- chopped pepper is transferred to the marinade and turn off the fire;
- after 10 minutes, the color of the pepper will change, and it must be decomposed into sterilized containers;
- the remainder of the marinade is again brought to a boil and poured into jars;
- Now you can twist or roll up the lids, turn the cans upside down and leave to cool.
Video: Pickled Jalapeno Peppers
Grow "Jalapeno" on their own plot on the strength of each gardener. Adhering to the basic recommendations for care, you can get burning green pods and the expressive taste of the original dishes.