Features of growing and caring for cherries Big Star
Big Star is a new variety of cherries that is part of the Star Series, launched on the market by the University of Bologna (Italy). Read about the variety and the features of its agricultural technology in the review.
Breeding History and Breeding Region
Big Star cherries were developed by the University of Bologna in collaboration with CRPV. Cherry ripens in the mid-season and demonstrates excellent characteristics: beautiful fruits and high organoleptic qualities.
Did you know? Now in the world there are about 500 varieties of cherries.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The variety is characterized by an early ripening period, stable yield, large fruits. Big Star is a self-fertile tree that does not need pollinating companions. Its winter hardiness and drought tolerance are rated as high.
- The tree belongs to the vigorous with high growth energy. Its height is about 6 m.
- The crown is thick, pyramidal in shape.
- Fruit formations are placed on bouquet branches.
- The shoots are thick, mostly vertical, brown.
- Leaves of elliptical shape, pointed, with a flat sheet plate, medium size.
- The flowers are white, with a goblet cup shape and an average peduncle.
Appearance of cherries Big Star
The tree is tall enough. If you do not form a crown, then the height can exceed 6 m, which is not very convenient for maintenance. The shape of the crown is classical - pyramidal. The trunk is always vertical. The root system of the tree is the rod type.
Important! Cherry yield depends on the amount of sun received. The more it is, the higher the yield.
Fruits are characterized by:
- large size: 20 × 24 mm;
- shape: flat round;
- weight: 9-12 g;
- color: dark red;
- flesh: very dense pink, fragrant;
- taste: sweet and sour.
The peculiarity of cherry fruits is that they have a unique set of antioxidants, which give them a rich color. They also have excellent taste characteristics.
In the composition of berries (in 100 g):
- sugar - more than 16.5 on the Brix scale;
- acids - 0.1-0.15%.
Fruits are considered universal and are suitable for fresh consumption. The variety is characterized by friendly ripening of berries. Due to the short shelf life, they are harvested for the winter, frozen or processed into juices and other drinks.
Fruit ripening occurs in the second decade of June. Fruiting occurs at 4 years. The average yield of 1 tree is 35-50 kg of fruit.
Important! Two identical varieties are not suitable for cross-pollination, and cherries and cherries are not recommended for pollination of each other.
Big Star is self-pollinating, which means that a mature tree will bear fruit without requiring pollen from another variety of sweet cherry. However, additional nearby (within 15 m) cherries of a different variety can improve fruiting and yield. If it seems to you that there are not enough pollinating insects in the garden, sprinkle the trunk with sweet water to attract bees with an additional aroma.
Pros and cons of the variety
- Grade advantages:
- high productivity - up to 50 kg;
- large fruits - 12 g;
- good organoleptic properties;
- high winter hardiness;
- good resistance to cracking;
- resistance to fungal diseases.
- As a disadvantage, it can be noted that:
- the variety was not represented by the manufacturer on the Russian market. Accordingly, there is no confirmed data on the yield and resistance of the tree to the climatic conditions of Russia.
Features of cultivation and care
Growing cherries is quite simple. They can grow in winter hardiness zones from 6 to 8. Permissible winter temperatures are from –12 ° С to –23 ° С. A plot for cherries must be selected sunny. Trees need well-drained soil and will have difficulty growing on clay soils.
Did you know? A typical cherry tree produces about 7, 000 berries.
When planting on poor soils - the deeper the pit and the more under the roots of rotted manure, the better your tree will develop. It also makes sense to ask about the type of stock on which the tree is grafted. Its characteristics affect yield, disease resistance and frost resistance.
Choosing a place and planting material
Trees will thrive in a sunny area with fertile, drained soil. Full sunlight should last at least 6 to 8 hours a day. The sun is necessary not only for the production of quality fruits, but also for the prevention of fungal diseases. Drainage is needed to maintain the health of the root system of the tree. Heavy clay retains water, contributing to the development of rot and mold.
Did you know? Harvest cherries can be harvested in 7 seconds. That is how much a mechanical shaker will need, which collects cherries in the gardens of Europe. The shaker just shakes the tree, and the fruits fall on a special tarp. But this efficiency reduces the life of cherries by 7 years.
Make sure that:
- the crown will not touch the wires or come into contact with other obstacles during growth;
- the roots will not interfere with underground cables, pipes, irrigation systems, utility or other lines;
- the tree will not block the view from the windows;
- neighboring trees will not disturb him.
The selected seedling is characterized by the following parameters:
- age: 3 years;
- bark: brown;
- trunk: smooth, without mechanical damage;
- roots: 3 roots of 0.2 m, on the cut white, fibrous;
- branches: with unopened buds.
Cherries are planted even when the air is pretty cool - about +5 ... + 10 ° С. If severe frost is expected, it is recommended to postpone landing until the temperature becomes positive. The roots should not be exposed to low temperatures, otherwise the seedling will die. Before planting: soak the roots in a bucket or large bath with water for 1-2 hours. This prevents them from drying out. Avoid soaking for more than 6 hours.
- Dig a landing hole. The depth should be 0.6 m. The diameter is also about 0.6 m. The pit should always be larger than the root ball to give the tree more free space for root development.
- To loosen the soil, mix rotted manure, garden compost or peat moss with soil in a ratio of 1/3 of organic matter and 2/3 of soil.
- Place the tree in the center of the planting hole, straightening the roots.
- Fill the hole. Keep the junction point of the scion and rootstock at a distance of 5 cm from the ground.
- Gently fill the soil, tamping it when filling the landing pit. This will eliminate the landing air pockets.
- Spread the soil evenly around the tree.
Video: instructions for planting cherries
Watering and feeding
Productivity depends on how well the cherry is watered. The seedling is watered 2-3 times a week, pouring 1-2 buckets of water under the tree. Make sure that the soil is neither marshy nor dry. If moisture quickly leaves the soil due to its lightness or heat, cover the root zone with mulching material: sawdust, straw, etc.
Did you know? It is believed that the word "cherry" comes from the name of the Greek city of Serasus, modern Giresun, located in Turkey. It was from here that the cherries allegedly got to Europe. But some historians believe that the city itself was named after sweet cherry.
Before fertilizing, always check the soil for the level of various minerals. To do this, you can purchase a special tester or check the soil in the laboratory. Different soils may have different amounts of elements needed to support the growth and development of cherries.
Trees thrive when macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are available. Nitrogen is responsible for vegetative growth. Phosphorus provides root system development and flowering. Potassium is responsible for the resistance of the tree to disease, it also supports cellular processes. Since cherries do not consume too many nutrients, fertilizer with a low nitrogen content will be required.
You will be interested to know how to distinguish cherries from cherries.
Cropping and shaping the crown
Pruning is a very important part of proper fruit tree care. Plan it every year during the rest period. Most often it is planned for the end of winter. The natural form that cherries take is not always the best for maximum fruiting.
In early autumn, the garden begins to prepare for wintering. It is cleaned of weeds, foliage, carrion. Dig the soil. If a hole for irrigation was made at the near-trunk zone, then it is leveled so as not to accumulate excess moisture at the roots in autumn. To make the branches lignified, watering is stopped in August-September.
Also carry out the following activities:
- In the near-stem zone, a layer of mulch is placed 5-6 cm deep. It will become an insulating layer that will protect the roots from freezing.
- The trunk is whitened at the end of September. This will protect it from cracking during extremes of day and night temperatures in winter.
- A mesh fence is installed for young trees, which will protect them from contact with rodents that feed on young branches and bark.
Pest and Disease Control
To understand how often you need to spray trees, read about potential pests and diseases in your area. Many problems can be prevented by timely spraying. The main part of the disease has a fungal nature. Their prevention begins with spraying with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid until the buds open.
Read more about fighting sweet cherry diseases.
The main diseases:
- Cherry blistering sporulation or perforated spotting. The name of the disease characterizes well its main symptom that appears on the leaves. To combat fungus, treat the tree and soil with 1% solution of copper sulfate before budding.
- Coccomycosis is a reddish-brown spot. Before blooming, the tree is treated with a 3% solution of iron sulfate. Processing can be repeated again, after harvesting. In advanced cases, another spray is carried out 2 weeks after the first.
- Moniliosis (gray rot) is manifested in the form of drying out part of the leaves, as well as the appearance of rot on the fruit. For treatment using a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. It is also necessary to remove all damaged fruits from the tree.
- Bacteriosis (black cancer) affects plants after frost. Branches with damage, signs of cracking and black bark must be removed during pruning. All sections are treated with copper sulfate and then coated with a thin layer of oil paint to form a protective film.
- Gommosis (gum disease) has many causes: fungi, pests, excess nitrogen. The wood in the place where the drips appear is cleaned to a healthy layer, treated with copper sulfate and covered with garden varnish.
Varieties that are not damaged by pests or resistant to them do not exist. Therefore, spraying with insecticides is used to detect pests. Using any chemically active preparation, use glass containers, personal protective equipment and follow the directions on the packaging exactly.
The pests of sweet cherry can be divided into several groups: those that affect the roots, skeletal parts of the tree, buds, buds, leaves and fruits:
- Pests of the roots - the bear, goldfish, and grubs. They are especially dangerous for seedlings. To combat them, it is recommended to loosen the soil well before planting, be sure to remove the roots of old trees from the site and treat the trunks with phosphorus-containing fertilizers. They serve not only as fertilizing, but also as a means of counteracting soil insects.
- Skeletal parts of trees affect woodworms and bark beetles. They make moves, which causes the branches to dry out. The same phosphorus-containing fertilizers protect the tree from this category of insects. Additionally, during the growing season, cherries can be sprayed with “Zolon”.
- The kidneys are damaged by various species of butterflies and their larvae. Among them are weevils, leafworms, pipeworks, and goldfish. To combat them, hunting belts and spraying with drugs "Fufanon-Expert", "Barguzin 600" are widely used.
- The pests of buds, leaves and fruits are extremely diverse. This and the apple bee-eater, and leaf-flap and many others. To combat them, insecticides are sprayed with a wide spectrum of action.
Harvesting and storage of crops
The fruits will appear 4 years after planting a seedling under normal growing conditions and proper care. The main sign of fruit ripeness is the acquisition of saturated red color. You may also notice birds starting to visit your sweet cherry for breakfast. To combat them, farmers cover the trees with a net.
Fruit picking is carried out on a dry sunny day. Cherries cannot ripen after harvest. And sugar content increases sharply precisely in the last week of ripening. Therefore, wait for the best possible taste and begin the collection. The refrigerator will allow you to keep the crop for several days - about 7.
We recommend that you familiarize yourself with the features of growing cherries of the Napoleon and Valery Chkalov varieties.
The Big Star variety is undemanding in care and has many advantages. It is perfect for growing on an industrial scale or on a personal plot. Observing the simple rules of tree care, you will be regularly provided with a good harvest of delicious berries.