Diarrhea in rabbits: main causes, treatment and prevention
Diarrhea (diarrhea) is one of the most common manifestations of digestive tract disorders in rabbits. While for most farmers this process does not raise serious concerns, diarrhea can be a symptom of serious pathological processes, which in a neglected case can lead to the death of rabbits. The article will describe in detail the main reasons for the development of diarrhea in rabbits, as well as the most effective ways to combat it.
Causes of Diarrhea
Today, veterinary medicine knows several dozen reasons that can cause digestive upset in rabbits. According to scientists, they can include both natural and artificial factors, so if you notice diarrhea in your rabbits, you need to find out the nature of this phenomenon as soon as possible. Most often, diarrhea is the result of gross violations of the basic rules for keeping animals, but sometimes it can also be caused by a variety of infectious lesions.
Most often, diarrhea can be seen in a small rabbit. This is explained, first of all, by the incompletely formed digestive system, which is simply not able to cope with a variety of negative factors. In this case, the pathology with untimely treatment causes severe inhibition of the body.
- Early weaning from breast milk (at the age of less than 1 month) - in this case, diarrhea occurs sharply after the first independent feeding.
- Introduction to the diet of a new product - diarrhea occurs within a few tens of minutes after eating a new product. Most often, this disorder can be found in a decorative rabbit, while in industrial breeds, a sharp reaction of the digestive tract to a new feed is not so common.
- Coccidiosis is an infectious lesion of the body by the protozoa of the coccidia class. In addition to diarrhea, the infection causes general depression of the body, lethargy, ruffle, anemia, bluish skin, bloating. In addition, the defeat of rabbits with an infection can be judged if the disease was diagnosed with a rabbit.
Did you know? The causative agents of coccidiosis are characterized by stable specificity with respect to the host. Each individual animal species has its own coccidia, unable to develop in organisms of other species.
In adult animals, loose stools are not as common as in adult rabbits. Its main reasons can be called:
- Poor quality food - indigestion occurs almost immediately after feeding. When feeding rabbits with such food, the animal behaves sluggishly and eats nothing, especially if diarrhea lasts for several days.
- Obesity and joint diseases - lead to inhibition of motor activity, making it difficult for the rabbit to take care of itself. This leads to the accumulation of feces on the wool around the anus, which becomes a source of intestinal infection.
- Stress - diarrhea can occur after changing the conditions of detention, including the cell or its location.
- Helminths - it is almost impossible to independently determine parasites in the rabbit’s intestines, however, if diarrhea occurs periodically without any systematic nature, this is a sure sign of worms.
- Drug treatment - diarrhea is often observed after prolonged antibiotic therapies that lead to intestinal dysbiosis.
- Dental pathologies - lead to the fact that the rabbit fails to thoroughly grind food. Coarse dietary fiber irritates the stomach and intestines, which leads to diarrhea. At the same time, watery feces often have large inclusions, and diagnosing a rabbit for the presence of pathologies of the oral apparatus (malocclusion, abscesses and suppuration, overgrowing of tooth roots, etc.) will help to recognize the problem among others.
- Improper diet - the predominance of excessive amounts of protein or starch compounds in food negatively affects digestion. A careful analysis of the daily diet of animals will help to distinguish pathology from the rest: their nutrition should be based on vegetables and all kinds of plant foods.
- Paratyphoid fever is an acute intestinal infection, which, in addition to loose stools, is accompanied by general oppression of the body, loss of appetite, and the hair of the animal becomes disheveled.
- Stomatitis is a pathology of the oral cavity that leads to infection of the digestive tract. The disease is characterized by characteristic ulcers on the inner surface of the oral cavity, as well as profuse salivation.
Did you know? Paratyphus was first described by the famous Greek scientist Hippocrates in the 5th century BC. e.
After detecting diarrhea in both dwarf and other types of rabbits, the first thing to do is to isolate sick animals from the rest of the livestock, this will help to avoid infection of the remaining rabbits in case of an infectious disease.
At this time, it is necessary to clean the stool of the sick animal from the remains of feces and drink it with clean boiled water or a decoction of chamomile (1 tbsp. L / 1 l of water). The liquid in a sick rabbit should be in unlimited quantities, this will help to avoid dehydration of the body, from which they most often die.
These symptoms often indicate a viral or bacterial damage to the body, which can only be diagnosed by a veterinarian.
After that, you should carefully analyze the living conditions and diet of the rabbit. If it is they that caused the poisoning of the animal - it is necessary to drink it with a decoction of chamomile or give it half a tablet of activated charcoal. This will help eliminate toxins from the body and bring digestion back to normal.
Important! If you are unable to identify the main cause of rabbit diarrhea, and its manifestations have not stopped within a day, you should immediately contact your veterinarian.
How and how to treat diarrhea at home
The treatment of diarrhea in rabbits should be started immediately. For this, a sick animal should create optimal comfort and conditions for quick treatment. The cage with the pet is installed in a warm and drafts-free place. All unnecessary items are removed from it, and instead of the litter they put a clean piece of fabric, which is changed as they become dirty.
Important! Infusions and decoctions must necessarily be fresh, since a day after preparation they become practically useless for the body.
Among the traditional drugs for the treatment of diarrhea in fur animals, the most commonly used are:
- "Linex" - a remedy favorably affects the intestinal microflora, which normalizes the state of digestion in almost any poisoning. Give the drug twice, morning and evening, half the capsule. Therapy is continued until the traces of the disorder are completely eliminated.
- "Baytril" is a powerful antibiotic used for any disorders of the body caused by infectious damage to organs and tissues. Enter it subcutaneously into the withers at 0.1 ml / 1 kg of animal weight, 3 times a day, until the symptoms of infection are eliminated.
- Ringer's solution - helps prevent dehydration. It is administered intramuscularly, 2–4 times a day, 10–12 ml / 1 kg of weight throughout the course of therapy.
- "Furazolidone" - effective for diarrhea caused by paratyphoid. Give it 1 time per day, with a calculation of 30 mg / 1 kg of rabbit weight, for 7 days.
- "Espumisan" - the most appropriate for diarrhea, accompanied by severe gas formation in the intestine. Give it orally, 1 ml / 1 kg of animal weight, 1 time per day, throughout the course of therapy.
To maintain it, the most often used drug is “Baykoks”. The tool helps to protect the rabbit from other pathogenic microflora. An aqueous solution is prepared from it (1 ml / 1 l of water), which completely replace drinking water. The duration of such therapy is 2–5 days.
Learn about treating coccidiosis in rabbits.
Alternative methods of treatment
Unfortunately, most rabbit breeders have no idea what to do and how to water sick rabbits if there is no traditional medicine at hand. Effectively overcome diarrhea can be using folk remedies.
The most effective among them are:
- Chamomile broth - prepare it from a mixture of 250 ml of water and 1 tbsp. l chamomile, which is insisted on a water bath for 30 minutes. The resulting liquid is cooled and filtered. A decoction of the sick animals is administered orally, 3 times a day, at the rate of 1 tbsp. l decoction of 0.5 ml of pure water. The duration of therapy is 7-10 days.
- Decoction of oak bark - 1 tbsp. l oak bark insist on a water bath for 30 minutes in 250 ml of water. The solution is cooled, filtered and given to sick animals for 1 tbsp. l 3 times a day. The duration of such therapy is about 10 days.
- Infusion of cinquefoil - 1 tbsp. l dry herbs insist in 200 ml of boiling water until cool. The resulting liquid is filtered and given to animals 1 tbsp. l 3 times a day for 10-13 days.
How to feed sick rabbits
Diarrhea negatively affects the entire digestive system, so for the period of its treatment it is necessary to provide a sparing diet to sick animals. For this, vegetables, root crops, fresh grass and various food concentrates are necessarily eliminated from their diet. The basis of nutrition in this period should be clean and high-quality hay from field or meadow forbs.
See also if rabbits can be fed apples and other fruits.
In a small amount during this period, rabbits are allowed oats and complex feed, enriched with vitamin and mineral compounds. In addition, in order to enhance the effectiveness of the main therapy, dried yarrow, wormwood or burdock are included in a small amount in the diet of fur animals. They have an immunomodulatory effect, and also have an astringent effect on the body.
Diarrhea is a dangerous disorder that in just a few days leads to the instant loss of the body not only valuable moisture, but also many nutrients. Quite often, this leads to serious pathologies, the treatment of which requires significantly more time than the elimination of the causes of diarrhea itself.
- introduce a new product into the diet gradually, in small portions, over several weeks;
- base a diet of eared ears on roughage and grass, give vegetables and fruits in moderation;
- to feed rabbits with high-quality and pre-cleaned food;
- carry out disinfection of rabbitry and periodic inspection of animals;
- minimize the amount of stress in the life of the wards;
- timely prophylactic vaccination of rabbits;
- for prophylactic use of rabbits with complex antibiotic agents and anthelmintic drugs.
Find out in more detail how to not feed rabbits at home.
Diarrhea in rabbits, as in other mammals, is quite common. It is caused by all kinds of digestive disorders, which can be both infectious and physiological in nature. Pathology is quite dangerous for the body, since it causes instant dehydration and the loss of vital vitamins, therefore, its treatment should be resorted to immediately. Otherwise, it may result in the death of your wards.