Brugmansia: description, planting, growing and care at home
Brugmansia is a plant of the Solanaceae family, growing in a tropical and subtropical climate. Its characteristic feature is fragrant flowers in the form of a gramophone shout. Brugmansia can be yellow, pink, red and other colors.
Brugmansia is a tree-like shrub reaching 5 m in height. It has oval leaves of large sizes (up to 50 cm) with wavy edges and pronounced veins. They are located on the bush in tiers. So, the first of them has elongated leaves, which have smooth edges, and the second - even, with curved edges.
Did you know? Brugmansia is poisonous, it contains hallucinogenic and toxic substances, including alkaloids and scopolamines.
Brugmansia flowers are similar to bells and are capable of reaching 50 cm in length and 20 cm in diameter. Depending on the variety, they can have a different structure and color. So, there is terry brugmansia. She exudes a sweetish aroma, and her flower stays on a branch for up to 5 days.
Types of Brugmansia:
You can grow this plant at home, but you should take into account the fact that it develops quickly, has powerful roots and reaches impressive size. After sowing the seeds, the container with the flower should be kept at a temperature of +20 ... + 25 ° С in bright light, and at the end of autumn these indicators should be lower - +7 ... + 12 ° С. During this period, the bush is able to drop part of the leaves.
In order for the flower to have enough light, it is necessary to keep Brugmansia under the rays of sunlight for at least 4 hours a day, since it will bloom slowly in the shade. The air humidity should be 50% and higher, however, at a temperature below + 27 ° C, it is not necessary to water the flower. Moreover, in the winter it is better not to do this at all, so as not to provoke rotting of the trunk.
Important! The higher the air temperature, the more the plant needs moisture and the sun, and the lower it is, the less brugmansia requires light and humidity.
To create comfortable conditions for growing this flower, it is necessary to prepare the soil, which should consist of sod and leaf humus, peat and coarse sand.
To grow this plant at home, you need to choose the right capacity for its maintenance, as well as get acquainted with the nuances of soil treatment. In addition, it will not be superfluous to study the planting technology so that the flower is well received and shows positive dynamics of growth and flowering.
In the summer, the plant may well bloom in the garden, but in winter it should be moved to home conditions. To do this, you need to pick him a pot of appropriate size. Brugmansia tree, for example, can be grown exclusively in a pot.
A larger container should be chosen so that massive flower roots can fit in it. In addition, it must be heavy so as not to tip over under the weight of the plant. For this, vases of 10-15 liters, tall tubs and plastic pots are suitable.
The soil for seedlings must be fertile. In addition, it should contain peat and sand in equal proportions and be sterilized in a water bath or in the oven. Before landing, the tank must be filled with this substrate, laying a drainage layer on the bottom. This will prevent moisture from accumulating at the roots of the plant.
Did you know? This flower was named after the chemist, botanist and doctor from Holland, Zebald-Justin Brugmans (1763-1819), the court physician of King Napoleon III.
To plant a plant on open ground, you must choose a place that is not prone to drafts. If the plant has already grown, then humus and loamy soil should be added to the substrate instead of peat.
You should also pre-prepare a solution of potassium permanganate, then to pour the resulting pink liquid into the soil. When planning a transplant into the open ground, it is necessary to feed the plant with liquid fertilizers containing nitrogen or ash from April.
Landing technology consists of the following:
- First you need to purchase the appropriate seeds.
- Since the seeds have a dense texture, they should be soaked in warm water for 24 hours. In this case, it is recommended to add a root stimulant to the liquid. It is also recommended to slightly violate the integrity of the seed by scratching it with a knife. This will stimulate germination.
- Then, from January to May, it is necessary to plant the seed in the ground, immersing it to a depth of 0.5-1 cm.
- Then it is necessary to moisten the soil, cover with polyethylene and keep at a temperature of +24 ... + 28 ° С.
Video: Brugmansia landing
Growing and caring at home
To grow Brugmansia at home, you must adhere to some rules of watering and top dressing, as well as monitor its timely pruning and transplanting. Let us consider in detail what exactly actions should be performed on a plant in order to obtain the expected result.
Watering and feeding
Since Brugmansia grows in tropical rainforests, it prefers plentiful watering. However, an excess of water is harmful to the plant. In hot weather, he needs daily watering, in the cold season, he should wait until the top layer of earth in the pot dries somewhat. Water should be settled.
It is accepted to feed a flower in the spring and in the summer. To do this, you can choose complex fertilizers that are designed specifically for flowering plants.
Find out more than to feed indoor plants.
In addition, organic fertilizer is also suitable: it is prepared by mixing 1 part mullein with 10 parts water. This top dressing should be added at intervals of 10 days. In mid-September, soil fertilizer can be stopped.
So that damaged and dry branches do not spoil the appearance of the crown and do not deplete the plant, they must be trimmed. For this procedure, usually choose the time until mid-March.
You should not trim the Y-shaped shoots, since flower stalks form on them during the flowering period. In addition, you should not get rid of small and side branches, since flower buds will appear on them. In case of urgent need, they can be shortened by 1/3. It is also necessary to remember that before seed formation, the fruits should be cut to extend the flowering period.
Important! Pruning the plant must be done with gloves, because all parts of the shrub are poisonous and contain alkaloids and scopolamine.
Naturally, the plant needs a transplant - this is due to the fact that it has a branched root system. In addition, the shrub grows rapidly and is able to reach impressive sizes.
But if you just purchased a flower pot, then the first time it is not necessary to transplant it. Subsequently, you will have to do this several times a season.
Video: When and how to plant Brugmansia
Reproduction of Brugmansia can be done in 2 ways: by cuttings and seeds.
As a rule, seeds are sown in the winter, but in conditions of additional illumination this can be done at any time of the year. If they were fresh, then the first shoots will appear in a week. Otherwise, the flower will germinate for longer than a month. The most common are white aromatia seeds.
For propagation by cuttings, it is necessary to purchase annual lignified shoots, the length of which should be more than 20 cm.
Important! The shoots should have an apical growth point - this is the very top of the stem, where actively dividing cells are located, thanks to which the plant grows .
- From the shoots, cuttings should be cut so that each of them has 2-3 buds. In this case, large-sized leaves must be removed.
- Then you need to prepare an opaque container and pour a little water into it with the addition of 2 tablets of activated carbon - this will prevent decay. After this manipulation, you can put the cuttings in the container.
- Then put it in a well-lit place where the air temperature is about + 20 ° C above zero.
- After 2 weeks, you will be able to observe the appearance of small roots. Now they can be planted in a pot.
This plant blooms in large, funnel-shaped flowers from early summer to late autumn. To increase this period, you can feed it with mineral fertilizer.
Flowering is accompanied by a pleasant aroma, which is especially strong in the evening. If during the period when the plant begins to form buds, a temperature difference occurs with a difference of + 10 ° C, then flowering will be successful.
Also decorative-deciduous plants, such as:
Preservation of a flower for the winter
Since Brugmansia is thermophilic, it is extremely important to create comfortable conditions for it in the winter.
There are several ways to protect the bush from the cold season. One of them is that the flower is dug up, placed in a pot and subsequently it hibernates at home.
In this case, the roots should be trimmed, because their diameter with a positive growth dynamics can reach 1 meter, which will complicate the placement of the flower in the pot.
Recommendations on creating the most favorable conditions for a good wintering:
- Place the pot in a dark and cool place. Some gardeners allocate a place in the cellar for wintering.
- Set the temperature mode +5 ... + 7 ° С above zero.
- Provide moderate watering to the plant, solely to maintain soil moisture.
- In February, increase the number of irrigations.
Also learn how to care for gloxinia and geraniums in winter.
The second method is relevant for those gardeners who do not have the opportunity to save the entire bush:
- Even in the summer, the apical bud should be pruned during flowering. This will lead to bifurcation of the trunk.
- Then you need to place the cuttings in a vase or a jar of water.
- When the roots appear, the plant is planted in a pot and placed in ample lighting conditions.
- With the advent of winter, it is not watered or fed, and 12-hour lighting is used for care.
Video: Preparing Brugmansia for the winter
Mistakes in care and methods for solving them
The most common mistakes in caring for this plant include a lack of moisture or lighting. To solve such problems, it is only necessary to increase watering or rearrange the flower in a more suitable place. Did you know? The rituals of the Indian tribes were full of rites with elements of the use of infusion of Brugmansia flowers, since it had a stupefying effect. This was regarded as the ability to communicate with spirits and predict the future. If you notice that Brugmansia slowed down, then you should not panic, because its most intensive development is observed during the first year. After that, growth may stop.
If the buds began to crumble, this may be due to sudden changes in temperature and a change in climate. To solve this problem, the flower should be provided with abundant lighting and regular watering.
If rot occurs, this may indicate that the pot is too heavy soil and there are no drainage holes. In this case, you have to transplant the plant, after removing the damaged roots.
In general, growing Brugmansia will not cause much trouble with proper care and timely transplantation. In addition, compliance with the required temperature and humidity levels in the room will also contribute to the successful growth and development of the shrub.