Blackcurrant In memory of Potapenko - main characteristics
Currant bushes can be seen in almost every garden plot. In the wild, it grows along the banks and in floodplains. Modern varieties are very different from a wild relative in improved characteristics and methods of agricultural technology. You will learn about the new variety of Potapenko memory currant from this material.
Description of blackcurrant variety in memory of Potapenko
Variety of Memory Potapenko early and fruitful. It has complex immunity from pests and diseases, which reduces the use of chemicals and allows you to get crops of environmentally friendly and safe berries. The variety can be grown on private sites and on farms with high performance indicators.
In Russia, many varieties of currants were bred, one of which is a large-fruited variety of black currants in memory of Potapenko. The merit of selection belongs to the Novosibirsk ZPYaOS (zonal fruit experimental station) them. I.V. Michurina.
The variety was obtained from crossing varieties Agrolesovskaya and Bredtorp, patented and included in the State Register of the Russian Federation approved for cultivation of varieties in 2001. The admission region is East Siberian. The authorship belongs to A. A. Potapenko, A. I. Degtyarev, V. N. Sorokopudov.
Appearance, characteristics of berries, ripening time, yield
The variety is mid-ripening (ripening period - July). The bush is of medium height - 1–1.2 m, semi-spreading (crown diameter - 60–80 cm). Young shoots are erect, of medium thickness, light green. Older woody branches are curved at the base, they are gray-brown in color.
The leaves are three-lobed (lobes clearly defined), medium-sized (3-5 cm), dark green, arranged alternately on the branches. The leaf blade is bare, dull, leathery, slightly wrinkled, the teeth are sharp and short. The base of the sheet is straight, with a very shallow recess. Petiole dark green, 3-5 cm long, raspberry in the groove. Check out
The sepals are bent up. Long brushes (5-7 cm). The variety is self-pollinated, that is, berries will form on one variety.
The berries are large, round, black with a natural bluish coating, their weight is 2-3 g, diameter is 1-1.2 cm, they contain 3-12 seeds. Ripen in July 80-100 days after pollination. The separation is dry. The peduncle is medium, light green, thin.
Berries are located on drooping bunches. Under favorable conditions during the growing season and with fewer fruits on the shrub, the berries are larger, since competition for nutrients is excluded.
The peel is dense, which ensures high transportability and preservation of berries. Harvesting is possible in a mechanized way. The fruit is soft. The taste is sweet and sour, the composition of sugars (7.2%) and acids (2.2%, ) is balanced. Tasting score - 4.5 points.
Variety early-ripening with friendly ripening berries. Productivity - 3-4 kg of berries from each bush. Originators predict productivity in commodity production - 5 t / ha.
The variety is characterized by resistance to diseases and pests: to powdery mildew, anthracnose and to damage by a kidney mite - high, to hazel and septoria - medium. According to gardeners, in memory of Potapenko has a high winter hardiness of shoots and flower buds (zone 3).
Currant has healing properties due to the unique composition of biologically active components (per 100 g of product):
|calories - 63 kcal||B1 (thiamine) - 0.05 mg||calcium - 55 mg|
|proteins - 1.4 g||B2 (riboflavin) - 0.05 mg||iron - 1.54 mg|
|fats - 0.4 g||B5 (pantothenic acid) - 0.398 mg||magnesium - 24 mg|
|carbohydrates - 15.4 g||B6 (pyridoxine) - 0.07 mg||Manganese - 0.256 mg|
|water - 83.3 g||C (ascorbic acid) - 181 mg||phosphorus - 59 mg|
|ash - 0.9 g||E (alpha-tocopherol) - 1 mg||potassium - 322 mg|
|dietary fiber - 4.8 g||-||sodium - 2 mg; zinc - 0.27 mg|
Important! By the content of vitamin C, phosphorus and potassium, blackcurrant berries are superior to other fruits. They are second only to elderberry in terms of iron and protein and contain less fat than any other berries.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- simplicity of agricultural technology and care;
- does not require large areas - the bush is compact, medium-sized;
- annual fruiting and average ripening;
- good productivity and transportability;
- resistance to diseases and insect damage;
- increased winter hardiness, which makes it possible to cultivate in the northern regions.
- branching of the bush, lodging of the lower shoots;
- tendency to shed berries.
Agricultural technology for growing currants has no particular difficulties. Having carefully understood and mastered the technique of caring for the culture, even a beginner can easily and quickly cope with these procedures.
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Seat selection and landing
Currant bushes live 12-15 years, so you should carefully consider the choice of site and proper soil preparation. Blackcurrant allows a wide range of soil characteristics, but prefers well-drained, water-holding areas. It needs light (sandy) or medium (loamy) fertile soils with neutral or slightly alkaline pH values (optimal - 6.0-6.5).
If the soil of the site is clay or sandy, then it is necessary to add more organic matter before planting, and in case of poor drainage - raise the beds. Check out
In the southern regions, it is advisable to choose a site in partial shade, and in the hot season to shade the bushes in order to avoid wilting of foliage and the formation of small berries. Despite the winter hardiness of the buds, spring return frosts can dramatically decrease yields even in varieties such as Pamyatya Potapenko.
For this reason, you should choose a site that is protected from cold winds and drafts, which can interfere with the flight of pollinating insects, eliminating unnecessarily humid places located in the lowland where water accumulates. You can choose a site with a slight slope for planting, which facilitates drainage, but avoid the southern exposure of the slope.
The crop rotation rule provides for the selection of a plot where vegetables and row crops, perennial and annual leguminous herbs have been grown for at least 2 years with careful maintenance and fertilizer. You can not plant young currant seedlings in the area where old currant bushes, raspberries or gooseberries grew before this.
The site must be dug to a depth of 25–35 cm, to remove perennial weeds, as they are much more difficult to control after planting. Organic fertilizers (humus or compost) are applied depending on the fertility of the soil (6-8 kg / m²). Planting pattern: 90-120 cm between the bushes and 150-180 cm in rows.
Read more about how to plant currants in open ground.
Care for berry shrubs consists of timely watering, fertilizing, pruning and keeping the soil clean from weeds. Optimum irrigation allows you to maintain the proper level of humidity throughout the season. This is especially important when planting young seedlings. Adult currant bushes need water in dry periods - 2-3 times a week.
Drip irrigation is considered the best way of watering, because it uses water economically, moisturizes the earth deeply and evenly and does not erode the upper layers of the soil. If the soil on the site is well fertilized before planting bushes, then fertilizing will not be needed for a year.
In subsequent seasons, the following nutrients and elements are needed for plant development and fruiting:
- nitrogen - provides strong plant growth and stimulates the production of flower twigs;
- phosphorus - contributes to the formation of fruits and increase productivity, of all berry crops, currants are most responsive to this element;
- potassium - stimulates the growth of shoots and increases the weight of berries;
- magnesium - is an integral part of chlorophyll and helps to increase yield due to interaction with potassium;
- calcium - necessary for cell division and enlargement, and is especially important for young plants and buds.
Compound fertilizer NPK 10:10:10, which is applied in the spring for each bush 150–200 g, is well suited for top dressing currants. You can divide this rate in half and add one part in the spring and the other half in the summer.
Important! Fertilizers are applied at a distance of 30-40 cm from the base of the bush to avoid root burns.
One-year spring mulch from well-rotted manure is also a good top dressing. When using bird droppings, it must first be poured with straw or other plant waste.
Since composted materials release their nutrients more slowly than synthetic fertilizers, they can be used in late autumn for each plant.
Mulching the soil around the bushes with organic materials (5–10 cm layer) will reduce the need for watering and improve soil fertility — this is humus, straw, peat, mowed grass, pine needles, leaves, wood chips.
Mulching cools the soil, retains moisture and inhibits weed growth. This is a good practice for partially shaded areas, essential in sunny places.
Starting from the year after planting, mulch is updated annually.
If you use low-nitrogen mulch, such as wood chips or sawdust, you may need additional nitrogen fertilizer.
Signs of nitrogen deficiency are yellowing of the leaves (old leaves turn yellow first) and poor plant growth. In early spring, the soil around the plant is weeded and mulched, using well-rotted manure to suppress weeds.
Pest and Disease Control
The variety has a high immunity and is protected from damage by powdery mildew and from leaf spot (anthracnose, septoria, and hazel), it is resistant to damage by a currant bud mite.
Thus, in memory of Potapenko does not require complex measures to combat diseases and pests. Careful selection of sites and good agricultural technology (mulching, pruning, sanitary cleaning of the territory) will minimize problems with lesions.
Read more: the fight against diseases and pests of blackcurrant.
But adverse weather conditions or infection from neighboring plants can cause such problems:
- Rust (goblet and columnar) is a fungal disease. It is characterized by the appearance on the leaves, cuttings and ovaries of brownish orange spots and pustules. Affected parts of the plant dry and fall. Fungicides (Topaz, Phytosporin, Agrolekar, Tiovit Jet), copper (1%) or iron (3%) vitriol are used for control, support the optimal content of trace elements in the soil.
- Striped mosaic and terry (reversion) are viral diseases that cannot be treated. Bushes must be uprooted and burned, the soil must be disinfected.
- Gallica of blackcurrant - leaf, flower, stem gall aphid. Tiny white larvae feed on the tips of blackcurrant shoots, not allowing the leaves to reach their full size, the affected leaves dry out and die. In case of damage, treat the bushes in the fall with karbofos (0.3%), the soil with Bordeaux mixtures. In the spring, before the buds open, spray with the Nitrafen complex-action drug.
- Beetles and larvae . They feed on plant juices and gnaw holes on the leaf surface, the edges of which dry out, sometimes red and brown spots appear. For the fight, systemic action insecticides are used (Lepidocide, Actellic CE, Bitoxibacillin P, Fitoverm).
- observe the plants during flowering to detect insects and disease symptoms;
- select a site with good soil and adequate lighting;
- regularly trim to ensure good air circulation;
- remove affected or dead parts of plants and the remains of plant debris from the garden or burn;
- try to avoid damage to the plant and pick berries in time;
- plant zoned varieties resistant to harmful lesions.
Trimming and shaping a bush
Annual cutting of currants is useful for the plant: it allows you to maintain the shape and size of the bushes and guarantee good crops every season. After planting, young seedlings cut to 4-6 aboveground buds. As a result, a small number of kidneys contributes to the development of new strong branches.
Pruning adult blackcurrant bushes is carried out at rest - in late autumn or early spring. Bushes bear fruit on young wood, mainly on one- or two-year-old branches, and this is important to remember when pruning.
During the first 4 years after planting, weak and thin shoots are removed, which can be burdened by fruiting, and retain the basic structure of the bush of 6-10 healthy shoots. After 4 years, about a third of the old bush is cut out at the base using delimbers or a saw.
This will free up space and stimulate the growth of younger and healthier wood. Also, weak shoots inside the bush and low inclined to the ground are removed. Proper pruning will improve the penetration of the sun into the plant and maintain good air circulation to reduce the risk of disease.
Also find out if currant bushes should be whitened.
Preparing for the winter
After harvesting, to ensure a better wintering, it is necessary to carry out water-charging irrigation. In winter, the bushes are not sheltered, since the variety of Memory Potapenko is very winter-hardy. In late autumn (October - November), you need to remove all fallen leaves and other plant debris and mulch the plantings before the snowfall with composted manure.
Harvesting and transportation of the crop, shelf life of berries
Harvest of currant In memory of Potapenko harvested in July - August. First, the berries ripen at the ends of the branches and on the periphery of the bush, therefore, the crop is harvested selectively, as it ripens for 2-3 weeks.
Completely ripe currants have a characteristic color of the variety, it is slightly soft and juicy. For jelly and jam, it is better to choose not fully ripe berries, since they are more useful and they have a higher level of natural fruit pectin. It is better to pluck currants in clusters, rather than individual berries.
Like all berries, fresh currants have a relatively short shelf life. Fruits are best left to cool immediately after harvest and stored in small containers. Currants can be stored in the refrigerator for 2 weeks at a temperature of + 2 ... + 4 ° C.
Wash currants immediately before use - the humidity of the fruit reduces the shelf life and quality of storage and leads to the formation of mold and decay even in a refrigerator. For a longer (up to 6 months) storage, the berries can be frozen, put in sealed plastic bags and kept in the freezer.
Did you know? Despite widespread worldwide, currants do not grow in Australia and Antarctica.
By choosing a variety of Pamyatnaya Potapenko currant for growing on your site and mastering the subtleties of agricultural technology of this crop, you can replenish the garden with valuable berry shrubs that will not disappoint you with the quality of the berries, the yield, or the ease of care.