Zamia flower: home care
Zamia is an evergreen relic plant that grew on the planet more than 200 million years ago and can still be found in the wild. In indoor floriculture, zamia is also quite popular, of the 26 known species, only a few take root at home. In this article, we will consider a detailed description of a unique plant, features of care, growing and reproduction conditions.
Botanical description of the plant
The genus of these plants belongs to the Zamiev family, which settled in the tropics and subtropics of America. Depending on the type of zamia, it is characterized by the presence of a low, underground, tuberous trunk, which is covered with scars from dead leaves. There are not very many leaves on the plant; they have a loose-feathery structure.
Petioles can be smooth or contain a small number of thorns. The leaves are quite dense, can be oval or lanceolate, at the base have a wide and narrow lobe, the edge is solid or jagged. Some species have leaves with solid, dense and prominent parallel veins.
Did you know? The word "zamiya" from Latin is translated as loss or damage. In ancient times, empty or damaged cones of conifers were called zamia. At home, zamia almost never blooms. You can observe flowering in the wild, although the flower in the usual representation of this word, the zamia is very peculiar and in appearance resembles a corncob with unripened (empty) grains.
Over time, the inflorescence darkens and becomes like a cone in which seeds are formed. The flower is milky yellow, eventually turns into a fruit and acquires a brownish-gray color. Flowering falls in the middle of summer.
|Root system||Powerful, long|
|Stem||The main stem is thick and small, with a rough surface, from which thin shoots with leaves depart.|
|Leaf shape||Oval or Lanceolate|
|Leaf color||Bright green|
|Flower shape||Reminds a little corncob|
|Fruit shape||Reminds a long bump|
|Fruit color||Brown gray|
|Fruit flavor||Not eatable|
The main types
There are 26 types of substitution, some are grown at home.
Consider the main ones:
- false parasitic - common in the tropics of South America, has a very long stem, which can reach 3 m in height. Adult plants have 2-meter shoots, the petioles of which are covered with a small number of thorns. On each shoot linear leaves are planted 40 cm long and 3 cm wide, bright green in color, with serrated edges;
- powdered - common in Mexico. It is the most popular type for indoor cultivation, distributed in all corners of the world. The plant does not have a stem, the leaves are planted on a repetitive trunk, most of which is underground. The leaves are collected in a rosette, have a green color with a grayish-bluish tint. They can reach 50-100 cm in length. Each shoot has 12 pairs of leaves, which differ in dense structure and pronounced parallel veins on the back side. There are light scales on the leaves, in young zamia - on both sides of the leaf, in old - only on the back;
- broadleaf - a short plant that has a thick club-like underground or towering above the soil trunk. Distributed in Honduras. The leaves are planted on top of shoots, the length of which can reach 1 m, have an oblong-oval shape with a length of 15 cm;
- dwarf - in the wild grows in Cuba, the trunk is underground, so it seems that several plants grow nearby, as the shoots move away from the trunk in different directions. The shoots reach a length of 0.5 m, on each shoot there are 6-8 pairs of leaves;
- Florida - common in Florida. It is the only species that is able to dump the leaf part for the winter. The height of the plant itself does not exceed 30 cm, while the shoots are quite long - 1 m. Each shoot is covered with 50 pairs of leaves with pointed, jagged edges.
The main stimulator of good growth and the absence of problems in the process of growing a loan is the indoor microclimate.
Location and Lighting
Zamia is very demanding on lighting, loves bright sunlight and does not respond well to cultivation in full shade. The plant tolerates direct sunlight as well, if you gradually accustom it to the sun (from partial shade sometimes set in the bright sun, gradually increasing the amount of time).
Important! The plant has a tendency to uneven development of leafy plates, due to the fact that some of them may feel a lack in sunlight, so it is recommended sometimes to unfold the pot so that all leaves are lit evenly. As for the location of the substitution - this should be the southern window sill, western or eastern is also suitable. Placement should be free of drafts.
Temperature and humidity
In the spring-summer period, the air temperature in the room with the substitution should be +25 ... + 28 degrees, in the fall you should slightly lower the temperature to +20, and in winter - to +18 degrees. Strong temperature differences cannot be allowed day and night; only 2-3 degrees of oscillation are allowed.
Zamia will feel bad if the room temperature drops below +16 ° C, when it drops to +12 ° C - the plant develops severe stress, it starts to hurt, if you do not adjust the temperature regime - the zamia will die.
It is not necessary to maintain high humidity in the apartment for growing a deputy, it grows well even with average humidity. In the hot summer period, humidity is allowed to increase to 75–80%, the rest of the time - 50–60% is sufficient.
Zamia grows very slowly, therefore, in order to stimulate the growth of the ground part, it needs to follow certain care procedures.
Also learn how to grow and care for such decorative and deciduous plants as: asparagus sprenger, alocasia polly, fern nephrolepis, delicious monstera and asplenium.
During the period of active growth of the loan, from spring to autumn, it is watered regularly and quite abundantly. It is recommended to water 2-3 times a week, when the top layer of the soil dries well. For irrigation use settled water at room temperature. You can water it under the root or install the pot in a container with water so that the roots absorb the necessary amount of liquid.
It is not recommended to spray the hitch; in the summer, to moisten the leaves, it is better to wipe them with a damp sponge. In winter, watering is greatly reduced and watered 1-2 times a month, when the soil is almost completely dry. Such a measure is necessary to avoid root decay, since zamia is very susceptible to root rot.
Throughout the summer and spring, the zamia should be fed with any complex fertilizer for foliage plants according to the instructions on the package. Fertilizers are applied once a month, making a nutrient solution and replacing one watering with ordinary water.
Fertilizers are usually applied to slightly moist soil so as not to burn the roots. In autumn and winter, the plant stops growing, there comes a period of "rest", therefore, feeding the zamia at this time does not need.
Read more than feed indoor plants.
Zamia is not recommended to be cut, since shoots with leaves do not grow evenly and slowly enough. If you want to achieve “splendor” of the bush by cutting the shoots, nothing will work out, the zamiya can suffer greatly from such an impact and even die. The only reason for trimming some shoots is their damage, defeat by disease, pests or natural death.
The young plant needs an annual transplant. When the substitution is 5 years old, they begin to transplant the plant less often - once every 3 years. The transplantation is carried out in early spring, so that by the beginning of the active growth of the plant, the root system is "accustomed" to the altered soil composition.
As a container for transplantation, it is better to choose unglazed clay pots that pass air through the pores well. The pot is chosen of medium depth, 2-3 cm larger in diameter than the previous one. For transplantation, an earth mixture is prepared on the basis of sheet, sod land, humus and sand (all components are taken in equal amounts).
- At the bottom of the new pot (which has enough through holes in the lower part), drainage is poured - expanded clay with a layer of 5 cm.
- A plant is carefully removed from the old pot with an earthen lump.
- Without destroying the earthen lump, the plant is lowered into a claydite pot.
- The voids between the pot and the plant are filled with prepared earth mixtures, periodically shaking the pot to compact the soil.
- The transplanted plant is watered with a small amount of water.
Read also how to properly and when to transplant indoor plants.
Usually, the breeding is propagated in two ways: by cuttings and by seeds. Let us consider in more detail the entire process of reproduction of each method separately.
For cuttings on the plant, a young shoot is selected and carefully separated with a sharp knife from the mother. The cutlery must be put in water and wait for the roots to appear. After the roots appear, the cuttings are planted in the soil based on peat and sand (1 to 1), so that the zamiya builds up a strong root system.
Pot for planting choose 6 cm in diameter, medium height. After a year, the plant can be transplanted into the soil with the addition of leafy, soddy earth and humus (all in equal parts), a layer of expanded clay is poured on the bottom of the pot.
To grow seed seed, you need to purchase seed material in a specialized store. Seeds must be sown in a peat-sand mixture (1 to 1) in wide long containers or individual plastic cups.
- 1 cm in depth, 4-5 cm - between each seed, 5 cm - between rows.
- After deepening the seeds into the soil, the soil is sprayed on top of the spray gun and covered with a transparent plastic film to create a greenhouse effect.
- Every day, seedlings are aired, removing the film for 1 hour.
- After emergence, the film is removed and the plants continue to grow up to 5 cm in height.
After the zamya gets stronger, it can be transplanted into permanent pots, the soil used is the same as in the case of propagation by cuttings.
Important! In order for the seeds to germinate, the air temperature in the room is kept at +25 degrees, the containers are put on a well-lit window sill.
In the process of growing a substitute, some difficulties may arise:
- yellowing of leaf plates - occurs when the roots are injured, for example, after transplantation. To restore the root system, it is recommended to add a little “Kornevin” to the soil during watering, which will stimulate the growth of new roots;
- yellowing and falling of leaves - the plant was affected by a fungal variety of rot. You can save the battle by transplanting into a new soil, after removing the affected roots. Before planting in a new soil, the roots of the plant are soaked for 20 minutes in Fitosporin;
- discoloration, the appearance of dark spots, decay - is associated with infection with a scale. It is necessary to fight “Actellicus” according to the instructions;
- the appearance of cobwebs on the plant, leaf wilting - infection with a spider mite. You can overcome the pest by treating with “Agravertin” according to the instructions.
Zamia in Feng Shui Philosophy
Oriental philosophy of Feng Shui says that zamiya is able to attract wealth and happiness to the house. In order to get a positive effect and attract money, you need to hang special Chinese coins on the shoots of the plant and water the reserve with plenty of water.
Did you know? In ancient times, zamia was used as a raw material for the manufacture of clothing from the American Indians. Also, according to the teaching, the location of the flower in the apartment affects the fate of the owners in different ways. When placing the pot in the living room or in the kitchen, the plant will bring good luck. If you install the pot in your office, the flower will help in career growth.
Thus, it is not difficult to grow a zamia at home, the main thing is to follow the care recommendations to ensure that the flower has normal growth to maintain a decorative look.