Yakut mini-cow: characteristics, care and feeding
At the moment, breeders have not ignored the Yakut breed of cows. In fact, this is an indigenous animal, taken from pristine nature. As a result, furry northerners are characterized by unique properties. The products obtained as a result of their breeding (milk, meat) compares favorably with nutritional characteristics. In addition, these animals have an interesting appearance. Sounds tempting? Then our article is for you.
The Yakut cow is a bedrock of cattle (RED) of the Republic of Sakha. At the beginning of the 20th century, they began to cross it with the Kholmogorsk and Simmental breed, as a result of which purebred was disturbed. Today, “natural” yakuts can be found only in the nurseries of Novosibirsk and in the Eveno-Bytantaysky national ulus.
Yakut cows are immediately noticeable with their thick fur coat. By the degree of shaggy, only the Scottish high-breed cattle can compete with them, and even those are larger in size. The cows considered by us have the following parameters:
Did you know? Today, there are about 2.5 thousand purebred representatives of the Yakut breed of cattle. At the moment, this species is under restoration. Since 2014, a ban was introduced on slaughtering cows for meat.
|Torso||Small, strong, 140-150 cm long|
|Legs||Strong, small, smooth, without genetic defects|
|Head||Small, typical, with a strong straight forehead|
|Horns||Short, curved up|
|Neck||Short, powerful, wrinkled in males|
|Chest||Medium (30–35 cm) wide|
|Back||Direct, in the withers area there is a small hump|
|Udder||Small, pulled up to the torso, hairy|
|Wool||Wavy, long, thick|
Important! In the warm season, Yakut cows lose most of their hair, and by winter they increase their density by 6 times.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of the northern cows are the following indicators:
- high quality milk and meat;
- unpretentiousness in nutrition and maintenance;
- good acclimatization and tolerance of frost;
- compact dimensions;
- good survival of young animals;
- excellent health;
- easy tolerance of insect bites;
- productivity does not depend on environmental conditions.
- The disadvantages of the Yakut breed include such characteristics:
- Manual milking. The milking mechanism is not able to capture small nipples.
- Woolen udder. In the cold period, the udder is covered with wool, which inhibits the milking process.
- Low productivity. Unlike its larger relatives, the Yakuts cannot boast large volumes of meat and milk. But they compensate for everything with quality.
- The high cost of young animals. Due to supply shortages, the purchase price per head is several times higher than the market value of standard breeds.
- Love for high jumps. This is especially evident during pregnancy. Given this feature, the pen should have walls at least 1.5 meters high.
Maintenance and care
It was already mentioned above that the Yakut cows are unpretentious to the conditions of detention. And this means that the cultivation of such cattle will not be difficult even for an inexperienced breeder.
Warm shed is not a prerequisite for Yakut. These animals are mobile and love to move. But in the stalls they also feel comfortable.
Did you know? The Hindu zebu is considered to be a distant ancestor of the Yakut cow.
Summer walking area
In the summer and in the autumn-spring period, the Yakut people do not need a stable, they can be safely kept outdoors. And in the summer, a canopy is built on the pasture so that the cattle have constant access to the grass, which will protect the cows from rain and overheating. Yakut cows do not like rain.
Settlement of a barn
The stable for keeping representatives of the Yakut breed should be equipped with the most necessary things. It is advisable to set the feeders mounted, dividing them according to the type of food: for rough and wet feed. The most important thing is to build a feeder for hay and green mass, and troughs and buckets can play the role of dishes for wet food and water.
Important! The best material for feeders is wood. Plywood or chipboard should not be used, because they do not differ in durability. The ideal feeder is shallow with low sides, 80 cm long, in the shape of a trapezoid.
Basically, the floors in the barn are made of cold materials. But Yakuts can even lie in the snow, so the flooring is not necessary. But if you want to create a cow more comfortable conditions, you can arrange a litter of such materials:
- straw cutting.
Conditions of detention
The main distinguishing feature of Yakut cows is the excellent tolerance of severe (up to -50 ° C) frosts. They perfectly tolerate both cold and heat. At home, representatives of the Yakut breed are sleeping right on the snow. After all, nature endowed them with the ability to cover themselves with thick wool for the winter and dump it in warm weather.
But in the period after calving, the animal needs protection. At this time, they provide him with protection from showers and drafts, withstanding the temperature in the barn not lower than +10 ° C.
Did you know? The milk of Yakut cows in the concentration of lactose and protein took a leading position in the world. Even representatives of breeding breeds of dairy use cannot boast of such characteristics. If cows live outdoors, additional lighting or ventilation is not necessary. And in the stable it is necessary to organize daylight hours of at least 12 hours a day.
Also in the barn there must be ventilation (both artificial and natural), which will supply fresh air to the room, and stagnant output to the outside. The system does not have to be complicated. The main thing is its performance. Usually use the type of ventilation.
Yakut care is not a concern. There is practically no odor and humidity from manure, so the usual daily cleaning of the crib is enough.
Flooring is changed, if necessary. But experienced farmers argue that you can change it more often, diluting with fresh material.
Drinking bowls and feeders are also regularly cleaned (as soon as pollution or food stagnation has occurred). Discard old feed and replace it with fresh feed.
Did you know? Cattle harms the environment more than vehicles. Excrement excreted by these animals contributes almost 18% to the greenhouse effect.
A unique feature of the breed is its unpretentiousness in nutrition. The main feed for the Yakut cows is hay, compound feed and root crops. But at different times of the year, cows can have a varied diet.
Summer walk in the pasture
In summer, the cows have enough fresh grass, which they independently produce in the pasture. They do not need complementary foods at this time. Yakutia can digest almost all roughage without problems: tree branches, bark, old hay. And all this is because the digestive tract has a special anatomical structure, where the intestines are much longer than other breeds of cattle.
If grazing passes near power lines, it is advisable to find out if they are active or not. And to prevent electric shocks, the space is examined for broken wires.
Important! If the grazing is cultivated and rape, legumes, colza grow on it, then a long stay of cows on it can lead to overeating, bloating and disturbance of the oxygen-alkaline balance. It is not advisable to graze boobies in the fields with corn, potatoes or cabbage. Such pastures can be removed no earlier than 14–20 days after the first mowing.
Differences in winter feeding
In winter, Yakuts cost a little dry grass. About 2 tons per head per season, or 6 kg per day.
Additionally, root crops (for example, carrots, at the rate of 1–2 kg per day) and compound feed (200–300 g per day) can be given to cows. But thanks to the subcutaneous fat that has been wound up over the summer, cows can be satisfied with poor food without losing weight.
Important! Water Yakut cows, unlike other breeds, need to be constantly fed.
Yakut people drink water from natural reservoirs, even from a swamp. Moreover, the temperature of the liquid does not matter - the natives of the north can drink water from the ice-hole even in the most severe frosts. Thanks to this, cows have developed natural immunity to most serious cattle diseases, including leukemia, tuberculosis, and brucellosis.