Winter garlic "Lyubasha": description, cultivation agricultural technique
When planting garlic in their beds, very few gardeners think about its variety. Meanwhile, not only taste characteristics, useful properties and crop productivity, but also the technology of its cultivation depend on this. This review contains all the useful information about cultivating a variety of garlic with the delicate name Lyubasha.
Garlic Lyubasha is a large winter variety of Ukrainian selection. It is distinguished by the following characteristics:
- the height of the plant, taking into account the arrow, is on average 100-120 cm, although under favorable conditions it can reach 1.5 m;
- leaf length of about 50 cm, width 1.5–2.5 cm, color - dark green;
- the arrangement of leaves is semi-vertical, the structure is dense, on the surface there is an average thickness of the wax layer, each sheet has a slightly curved shape;
- the heads are large, have a rounded, slightly flattened shape, a minimum weight of 60 g, a maximum weight of 350 g, an average of 100-120 g;
- the number of teeth in the head ranges from 4 to 9, but usually averages 7;
- the average weight of one tooth is 15–20 g;
- the color of the cloves is white with a delicate shade of pink or cream;
- the skin itself is painted with purple stripes on a common white background;
- the taste of the teeth is pleasant, bright, sharp, the aroma is very saturated;
- the purpose of the variety is universal: garlic is equally well suited for making sauces, hot dishes, homemade spins, dressing salads and pickling by any means;
- productivity - according to various sources and depending on growing conditions, can vary from 3.5 to 20 tons per 1 ha.
The chemical composition of Lyubasha is characterized by a high content of vitamin C (up to 34%). As for allicin, a natural antibiotic and the main biologically active substance, which is valued in garlic, in Lyubasha its amount is 0.3%.
Did you know? The etymology of the word “garlic” is interesting. It turns out that it came from the Proto-Slavic česti, meaning “to scratch” or “tear”. Thus, the title focuses on the description of the bulb of a plant, as if torn, split into several parts.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The unconditional pluses of the variety are usually:
- large-fruited and, accordingly, high productivity;
- resistance to frost and spring cooling;
- high genetic strength;
- low requirements for humidity and regular watering;
- high immunity to most fungal infections, especially fusariosis, low susceptibility to pest attacks;
- early maturity (about 95 days from the moment of emergence of shoots, which usually means the beginning of harvesting from the third decade of June);
- high commercial quality (thanks to large heads of the same shape, the variety is often grown for subsequent sale);
- excellent taste and bright aroma, allowing you to use not only the bulbs, but also the leaves of the plant;
- rich vitamin and mineral composition, providing numerous beneficial properties (the variety has no equal in the content of essential oils);
- universal purpose of bulbs;
- long shelf life (in favorable conditions, the crop can maintain external properties, taste and chemical composition for 10-11 months from the date of collection).
- Lyubasha’s shortcomings are rarely talked about. For example, this list sometimes includes:
- relatively low content of allicin (there are varieties of garlic in which the amount of this substance reaches 0.74%, that is, 2 times more than Lyubasha);
- firing arrows and the need for their timely removal;
- the need for mulching the beds for the winter, especially in regions with harsh climates.
However, it should be noted that the last 2 features from the above list are typical for all types of winter garlic, but Lyubasha garlic, even with arrows not removed on time, still forms large heads.
The rules for planting garlic
Winter garlic can be planted in three ways - with cloves, seeds and the so-called single-tooth bulb (obtained from air seeds next year). Usually, summer residents and even professional farmers use the first version of planting material, it is considered the most convenient and familiar.
Since this is a winter variety, it should be planted in the fall. The time period when this is best done depends on many factors, both objective (climatic zone, current weather conditions) and subjective (personal preferences of the gardener).
Important! If you plant too early, the clove can germinate before the onset of cold weather, after which the embryo will inevitably die with the advent of winter. However, an overly late planting is also unacceptable: in frozen ground, garlic will not be able to adapt and will also disappear.
Usually they say that it is best to plant garlic in such a way that before the onset of frost it can spend about 2 weeks in the ground: if it is a middle lane, this moment occurs from about the third decade of September to the first decade of October, in more southern areas, in particular, in Ukraine - it is better to wait until November.
However, in reality, the timing can be adjusted by changing the landing depth. So, the classic landing under the winter in the above terms involves laying a clove to a shallow depth (3-5 cm). However, if you dig a little tooth deeper, onto the bayonet of a shovel (10-15 cm), you can land without fear in early September and until mid-October. Many gardeners also prefer deep planting because this way the garlic takes root better, and the likelihood of it freezing in the event of a particularly harsh winter is much lower. In regions with a traditionally mild climate, deep-planted garlic can not be mulched, which also greatly facilitates the work of the summer resident.
Choosing a place to land
Garlic is not a demanding crop, but it needs a lot of light to get a good harvest. The bed is best placed from north to south, so that the sun's rays equally well illuminate all plants. You can’t place garlic in a lowland; if water stagnates in the soil, the roots of the plant will rot and the crop will hurt, which will negatively affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
The composition of the soil for garlic is not critical, however, it is desirable that the soil is light, fertile and has a normal or slightly acidic reaction. The minimum pH in the soil is 6.5. If this indicator is less, lime must be added to the earth in advance.
Did you know? If you plant garlic in a common bed with strawberries, the berries will not hurt and will be attacked by pests, and the bulbs will form much larger.
Do not neglect such an agricultural technique as crop rotation. The table shows the good and bad predecessors for garlic:
|Good predecessors||Bad predecessors|
When evaluating the precursor, it should be borne in mind that the root system of garlic is close to the surface. Therefore, deep-root crops usually do not deplete the soil for garlic and do not interfere with its normal development.
You will probably be interested to know the difference between spring and winter garlic.
You need to prepare the garlic bed from the end of August. Start by carefully removing weeds. It is advisable to raise the cleaned and leveled bed so that it rises above the general ground level by 20–25 cm.
Then fertilizers are applied. Based on 1 m² of land, it is necessary to lay such a set of organic and mineral additives in it:
- humus - 10 kg;
- chalk - 1 glass;
- wood ash - 2 glasses;
- potassium sulfate - 2 tbsp. l .;
- superphosphate - 1 tbsp. l
All of these components are distributed evenly on the surface of the future bed, after which the ground is carefully dug up at least on the bayonet of the shovel and is abundantly watered with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tbsp. Per bucket of water, enough to process 2 m² of beds). Top soil should be covered with a film.
The last preparation is carried out the day before planting. The garden bed is abundantly watered with a urea solution so that about 10–20 g of the substance falls on 1 m² of soil. You can simply sprinkle urea on the surface of the earth and then pour water.
Selection and preparation of planting material
To plant Lyubasha, you can use the cloves obtained from the last harvest. However, it is important to know one caveat. Garlic propagated by cloves degenerates very quickly, and if the first harvest pleased the summer resident with its abundance and quality, each subsequent crop will gradually become worse - the heads become smaller, the number of cloves in them decreases, the taste of the bulb becomes less and less bright. It is for this reason that progressive agriculture suggests alternative ways of propagating garlic. It’s not necessary to practice them in one’s own country house, however, it’s better to acquire planting material, and use proven sources for these purposes.
Did you know? Chinese scientists conducted an experiment involving 5 thousand patients with an increased risk of developing stomach cancer. For 5 years, half of the participants received a drug made from a mixture of garlic and selenium, the other was given a placebo. The results showed a decrease in the incidence of gastric cancer with garlic by 52%, and all other malignant neoplasms - by a third.
Preparatory work with planting material involves the following actions:
- The head is disassembled into separate teeth.
- Each tooth is carefully examined. The smallest, sick and damaged are discarded (they can be used to prepare various dishes).
- The teeth selected for planting must be decontaminated. To do this, they are placed for a day in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or vitriol (in the first case, 1 g of the substance is taken per 1 liter of water, in the second - 10 g).
The planting process begins with digging holes. For large garlic, the minimum distance between them should be 10 cm with a row spacing of 30-40 cm. The depth of the hole, as was said, depends on the time of planting.
At the bottom of each well, the prepared tooth is placed with the nose up. However, efforts should not be made to push a clove into the ground; this can damage the planting material and impede the formation of roots.
We recommend that you learn about the features of growing Rocambol garlic.
From above, you can simply cover the hole with earth, but it is better to use well-rotted compost for this purpose. Watering the garlic after planting is not necessary, however, it is important that the ground is initially moist (as was said, it must be watered the day before).
Video: Planting winter garlic in the fall
Caring for Lyubasha is not very difficult. There are just a few additional conditions, the observance of which guarantees an even higher yield from this amazing variety.
Mulching for the winter
In regions with harsh winters, winter garlic beds need shelter.
Important! With a deep planting, garlic varieties with less frost resistance than Lyubasha’s resistance can well tolerate a drop in air temperature to –20 ° C, thus sheltering the crop in many cases is a reinsurance measure.
Unlike a conventional shelter, mulching the beds is not only aimed at protecting the planted teeth from freezing. Mulch, if it was used full-fledged organic matter, nourishes the soil, retains moisture in it and, importantly, prevents the active germination of weeds in the spring.
Mulch garlic using:
- fallen leaves (oak is perfect);
- coniferous needles or paws;
Water garlic should be plentiful, but only at the beginning of the growing season. Drying of culture is especially critical at the moment when the first leaves appear and the bulb begins to form. At this time, at least a bucket of water should leave for 1 m² of bed (if the weather is rainy, watering, of course, is reduced).
The sprinkling method for garlic beds is not very suitable, since it increases the risk of developing fungal infections and, in addition, requires much more significant water consumption than is actually needed for the crop. Optimal from all points of view is a drip irrigation system (it needs to be laid on the surface of the mulch layer, and not underneath it).
As the bulbs ripen, watering gradually decreases so that they stop completely before harvesting.
Important! Watering garlic, which is supposed to be left for long-term storage, should be stopped 3 weeks before harvesting. If the heads are planned to be used immediately, for example, for pickling, irrigation is turned off later, about a week before digging the bulbs.
Although Lyubasha belongs to drought-tolerant varieties, ignoring the above irrigation rules leads to the fact that the yield is much less high-quality than one might expect. This applies not only to the size of the heads and the number of cloves in them, but also the amount of nutrients that garlic is valuable.
To increase productivity, farmers recommend feeding Lyubasha 3-4 times per season, using complex mineral compositions for these purposes. Fertilizing is carried out simultaneously with watering (it is best to dilute preparations with water, in dry form they are absorbed worse). The first feeding is carried out immediately after the first seedlings appeared on the surface of the earth. At this stage, you can use regular urea (20 g per bucket of water). If the bed is not mulled, it is useful to add organic matter, such as mullein, to mineral fertilizing.
The second feeding is carried out 2 weeks after the first. The composition of the fertilizer should include potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. A good option is nitrofoska or nitroammofoska. In a bucket of water you need to dilute 2 tbsp. l substances and use it to water approximately 3 m² of beds.
Video: Spring feeding of winter garlic
In early June, Lyubasha should be fed with phosphorus. For example, superphosphate can be used for these purposes (2 tbsp. Per bucket of water, this amount is distributed over 2 m² of soil).
If the ground before planting garlic was well prepared and fertilized, three fertilizers are enough. On depleted soil between the first and last procedure, you can carry out not 2, but 3 top dressing with a complex potassium-nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizer.
Weeding and cultivation
Traditionally, after the snow finally leaves the garden, where garlic was planted in the fall, summer residents remove mulch from it and begin to wait for seedlings. However, as the soil warms up, weeds first appear on it. They must be carefully removed, otherwise they will constantly compete with the young culture, fighting as for nutrients in the soil. Care of the bed also involves loosening the soil, ensuring the preservation of moisture in it and protection from cracking.
Did you know? Garlic has the ability to stop the development of salmonella, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus. Candida mushrooms, pathogens of thrush, are also sensitive to plants. A negative reaction to garlic is manifested by many viruses, in particular, causing some types of herpes, flu and parainfluenza, stomatitis, vaccinia, cytomegalovirus infection.
Modern agricultural techniques suggest a different approach to solving the problem. If you leave the mulch in the garden, Lyubasha's garlic will successfully break through a thick shelter to the surface, but for most weeds such an action will not be possible.
Harvesting and storage of crops
When the leaves of the garlic begin to turn yellow, this indicates that the bulbs are ripe, and you can harvest. In Lyubasha, this moment occurs in late June or early July, depending on the climate.
After digging out the heads from them, you need to carefully shake off the ground and put it in a place protected from sunlight for several days, so that the bulbs completely dry out.
Для того чтобы головки сохранились в течение положенных 10-11 месяцев, существует несколько способов:
- Разложить луковицы в стерилизованные банки с плотно закрывающимися крышками либо в полотняные мешочки, предварительно замоченные в насыщенном растворе поваренной соли и просушенные, и спрятать в холодильник, в контейнер для хранения овощей.
- Уложить в картонные коробки и обильно пересыпать мукой, крупной поваренной солью или луковой шелухой.
- Упаковать в стеклянные или пластиковые контейнеры и залить растительным маслом.
- Окунуть в расплавленный воск или парафин.
- Заплести в косички или уложить в сетки (капроновые чулки) и хранить на закрытом балконе.
Вряд ли можно отыскать много сортов популярных сельскохозяйственных культур, у которых опытные огородники и дачники не отыщут какой-нибудь изъян. Но украинская Любаша является редким исключением из правила. Этот чеснок активно завоёвывает рынок, будучи одинаково популярным как среди фермеров, так и у обычных дачников, при этом все они в один голос говорят о безусловных достоинствах сорта и практически не обнаруживают у него никаких недостатков.