When is it best to plant grapes?
Grapes are sold almost everywhere, which eliminates the need for self-cultivation. But some still see a plus in this procedure, primarily because there will be no doubt about the quality of the crop. It is for those who are for independent cultivation of the crop and we want to talk about when it is better to plant it.
When is it best to plant grapes: in autumn or spring?
Most garden crops are planted in spring or early summer, but there are some that can be planted in the fall. These are exactly the grapes. To understand what time of year it is more profitable to plant this plant, you should study the positive and negative sides of both cases.
- Let's start with the advantages of spring planting:
- the seedling heals faster, and also he has time to get stronger before the winter;
- preparation of the planting pit is carried out in the fall and before spring it rests, the soil accumulates fertile properties that will allow the crop to grow more intensively;
- it is easier to guess with the timing of planting (it is easier to determine the soil warming than to guess when there will be frost);
- some varieties of crops with early planting earlier give the first crop (in the second year).
- There are also negative aspects to spring planting:
- with the advent of spring, pests awaken, which will have time to harm the seedling before it takes root and gets stronger;
- you need to carefully monitor the weather, since in some regions, after significant warming, frosts on the surface of the soil may suddenly occur;
- in the spring it is more difficult to acquire high-quality planting material, since most good varieties are sold in the fall. Of course, you can save it, but only with strict observance of all the rules.
- Now let's see what is good in the autumn landing:
- the soil is moistened naturally, so there is no need for regular watering;
- a seedling planted in autumn is more active in spring growth;
- easy to choose high-quality planting material of any variety.
- Negative moments of the autumn landing:
- a sharp cooling, which is difficult to predict, can easily harm seedlings;
- frequent rainfall that some varieties do not like;
- rodents, preparing for winter, may want to stock up on shoots of a young plant.
Did you know? In the USSR, during the anti-alcohol campaign conducted by Gorbachev, a huge number of vineyards were destroyed (in Russia 35 thousand hectares, in Moldova - about 80 thousand hectares, in Ukraine - more than 60 thousand hectares).
Features and subtleties
Note some of the nuances of each landing option.
If you plan to plant annual lignified seedlings, then it is best to carry out the procedure from the second half of April to the first half of May, inclusive. Such a plant needs much more time than those that are already vegetating. Their landing can be carried out from the last days of May to June, inclusive.
In autumn, grapes are planted from October until the start of frost. Planting of vegetative and non-vegetative seedlings is carried out simultaneously. Otherwise, there are no differences from spring planting. Learn also how to grow grapes from cuttings correctly. It should only be borne in mind that a young plant requires special attention in preparation for winter. It must be covered with a plastic bottle with holes for ventilation (three are enough). The earth is irrigated with 3-4 buckets of water and thoroughly fluffed up. Closer to frost, the bush is covered with spruce branches, sawdust or peat. They are poured into the hole, and on top they wind up a hill, about 0.3 m high.
Video: when to plant grapes, in spring or autumn
How to plant grapes?
The selection and preparation of the crop landing site does not depend on the time of year when this procedure will occur. But the season has an effect on planting technology. Read also how to grow grapes from seed.
Site selection and preparation
The culture is photophilous and heat-loving, so it is best to plant it from the south, south-west or west side of any building on the site. During the day, the building will absorb the sun's rays, and at night it will give off heat to the plants growing nearby. As a result, the grapes will not feel strong differences between daytime and nighttime temperatures. In addition, the building will protect it from cold winds.
It is advisable to start preparing the beds for the culture in the fall. A pit of 0.8 × 0.8 × 0.8 m is dug. Its bottom is filled with drainage, a layer of 10 cm. Then it is filled with soil.
It is best to grow a crop on black soil. If there is no such soil, then clay or sand will do. Regardless of the type of soil, the earth dug from the pit (top layer) is mixed with humus, superphosphate, wood ash. Each component should be taken about a kilogram. This mixture pours out into the pit for drainage and is irrigated abundantly so that the soil sags.
Important! If you were not able to carry out the autumn preparation of the seat, you can do everything in the spring, weeks 4-8 before the proposed landing. The main thing is that by this moment snow has melted in your region and the soil has thawed.
Preparing planting material
When planting grapes with a seedling, the most healthy and strong ones are selected. They will have a white root system, and the annual shoot is ripe and with a bright green color on the cut. Before planting, its roots are soaked for 24 hours in a growth stimulator, as well as slightly pruned. Those located in the upper nodes are removed completely. The shoot is shortened to 3-4 eyes. If the seedling is grown from an rooted cuttings, then its upper roots are not removed, but only slightly pruned. As a prophylaxis of fungal diseases, the growth is treated without root with the help of Dnoka (5 g / 0.8–1 l).
A growing seedling requires mandatory hardening, as a sharp change in external conditions can be perceived by them as the arrival of autumn, and they slow down growth, starting to prepare for winter. In addition, direct sunlight will quickly leave burns on them. For hardening, the plant should be placed under a canopy or in the shade of trees for 4-6 days. After 8-10 days, leave in direct sunlight.
When planted by cuttings, the material is harvested in the fall. A shoot with a diameter of 0.7–1 cm, bearing fruit in the summer, is suitable. It is cut at least 45 cm long. Leaves, shoots, mustaches break off the cuttings, and then they cut it into pieces, 2–4 buds on each. The slice is performed at an angle. Tilt should be done from the eye. You need to retreat 20 millimeters from the upper eye, and cut from below under the eye. The bark on the bottom of the handle is cut into fibers to accelerate the appearance of the roots. The cutlery is placed in water for a day, and then it is treated with a 5% solution of copper sulfate. It is dried and wrapped with a film. Store in a cool place.
Important! You can take green cuttings obtained from the plant 14 days before flowering or at the very beginning.
As already mentioned, there are differences in the technology of spring and autumn planting. They are insignificant, but still you need to pay attention to them. Let's start with the spring. Usually in the middle lane it is held in March-April.
The procedure is as follows:
- A round or square pit breaks out (dimensions indicated earlier).
- The bottom of the pit is filled with drainage.
- A plastic pipe is dug at the edge of the pit through which the plant will be watered (d = 5 cm, h = 1 m).
- Two buckets of fertile soil spill over the drainage.
- Fertilizers are applied (0.15–0.3 kg of potash and 0.2–0.3 kg of superphosphate).
- Black earth is added. The layer of drainage and fertile soil should be 0.3 m.
- In the northern part of the pit, a hill of nutrient land is formed. The soil is irrigated.
- The seedling is placed on a hill so that its roots face south, and is dug in.
- The rest of the pit is covered with manure or humus and chernozem on top.
- The soil is compacted and watered with 2-3 buckets.
Autumn planting technology:
- A pit breaks out, drainage is poured and a pipe for irrigation is dug.
- A layer of fertile soil, a layer of humus or manure, a layer of potash or superphosphate fertilizers are poured out.
- Fertilizers are sprinkled with a 5-centimeter layer of fertile soil from which the hill is formed. On it is a seedling similar to the previous technology. The roots are covered with earth.
- The seedling is covered with a cropped plastic bottle with 2-3 ventilation holes.
- The bush is irrigated with 3-4 buckets of warm water (+40 ... + 50 ° С).
- Before frost, a young plant is necessarily mulched.
Further grape care
In the first year after planting, the young plant needs careful care:
- With the revitalization of the kidneys, the soil is loosened around the bush.
- With the appearance of the first leaves, the stem is freed from the soil, a hole is formed around it so that the plant is quenched. In August, surface roots are covered with soil.
- Of the young shoots that appeared in early summer, the strongest is chosen, and the rest are cut off.
- Watering is carried out about once a week (if the region is dry, then more often). 10 liters of water are used on the bush.
- Superphosphates and nitrogen-containing additives are added with watering.
- Before the foliage appears, the garter of the plant to the trellis is performed. The bush is tied with a soft cloth or twine.
- Formative pruning of the bush is necessarily carried out as the shoots grow.
- In the spring, before budding, a preventive treatment of the plant with Bordeaux liquid is carried out from all sorts of misfortunes.
- Young bushes by the end of October - in November prepare for winter, take refuge.