When and how to plant tomatoes in open ground
Planting tomatoes on the site is one of the important activities of any summer resident, because along with cucumbers and peppers, these are the most common vegetables in the homestead. Today there are many interesting varieties of tomatoes, but almost all of them fall under the general rules of the planting process, the nuances of which will be discussed later.
How to plant tomatoes for seedlings
In order to grow seedlings that are strong and resistant to adverse conditions, it is very important to take into account the optimal timing of sowing seeds and to properly prepare the substrate. It will also be useful to know the basic rules for caring for emerged plants, of course, in accordance with the requirements of the selected variety.
Early ripe and mid-ripening tomato varieties are usually sown for seedlings in early March, placing boxes of tomatoes in a warm room with temperatures not lower than + 22–23 ° C during the day and + 17–18 ° C at night. In the first week after seeding, it is advisable to organize round-the-clock lighting.
Tomatoes love nutritious soil, therefore, the substrate for sowing seeds should be appropriate. It is best to prepare the soil yourself by sifting humus through a sieve (product cells should not exceed 4-6 mm), turf soil and peat, taken in equal proportions. For preventive purposes, it is advisable to spill the finished mixture with a solution of potassium permanganate or calcine in the oven, which will help eliminate all pathogens and fungal spores.
You will also be interested to learn how to grow tomatoes on the balcony at home.
Capacity for growing
You can sow seeds in any seedlings or individual plastic cups, but it is best to prepare small trays for this purpose, no more than 6-8 cm high. It is good if they have a rectangular shape, because it will be easier to determine at what distance to plant tomatoes . A slightly more expensive, but at the same time quite effective way to germinate tomato seeds is to use peat tablets, with an already existing recess for each seed.
Preparing seed is no less important than processing and disinfecting the soil, especially when it comes to self-collected seeds.
Did you know? A simple test using table salt will help in choosing viable tomato seeds: 1 teaspoon should be diluted in a glass of water. salt, and then, pouring seeds into the container, stir them for 3 minutes. After this, the solution is left to infuse for another 10 minutes and the quality of the material is assessed by the emerged seeds: such seeds are not suitable for sowing.
This pre-landing phase consists of several important steps:
- culling of planting material, with the selection of only large and healthy-looking specimens;
- disinfecting suitable seeds using a weak potassium permanganate solution;
- soaking in a growth stimulator (for example, "Zircon"), which should accelerate the process of seed germination and approximate the time of their planting in an open area (you can just clamp the seeds with cotton swabs moistened with the preparation).
Excessive density of seedlings that appear in the boxes threatens to stretch the seedlings and the possible development of fungal ailments, so the requirements of the planting scheme should be observed in any case. On average, at least 5–10 cm of free space should be left between adjacent seeds, deepening them by 0.5–2 cm deep into the soil. However, a tomato variety plays an important role in the calculations: one is suitable for placement closer to the soil surface, while others need a greater deepening in the soil layer.
Immediately after sowing tomatoes, the boxes with them must be covered with a film cover and taken to a dry and warm place. As soon as the first sprouts appear under the film, containers with plants are moved to the windowsill or artificial lamps are placed above them so that the daylight hours are at least 12-14 hours. It is advisable to remove the film cover or glass at this stage.
Check out the diseases of tomato seedlings.
In the first 5–6 days after sowing, it is desirable to maintain the air temperature in the room within + 22–23 ° C, and then gradually reduce the indicators to + 17–18 ° C. In sunny weather, short-term temperature rises of up to +25 ° C are permissible. Watering at this time should be moderate and better under the root of each young plant. Loosening the substrate for the first time can not be carried out, and after a week of growing seedlings, this procedure is performed once a week, using a toothpick.
Most often, they begin to harden seedlings 2-3 weeks before the intended planting in open ground, so that at this point the plants are already accustomed to outdoor temperatures and the possible effects of wind. For the first time, tomatoes are brought to the balcony for only 2 hours, covering them from direct sunlight. After a week, the time of “walk” can be increased by another 2-3 hours, gradually bringing this value up to 6-8 hours a day. A few days before planting on the site, tomatoes should be outdoors all day.
Important! If after staying in the open air the leaves withered on the plants or you notice other signs of deterioration in their general condition, then it is better to postpone the procedure for a while, at least until the tomatoes are restored.
If it is not possible to take out boxes with seedlings outside, just place them in a cool room, covering with agrofibre for the night. Upon successful completion of the hardening procedure, a high amount of sugar is formed in the stem and leaves of plants, which positively affects the future harvest.
How to transplant tomatoes in open ground
Transplanting tomatoes into open soil, like sowing seeds for seedlings, has its own nuances. This applies not only to the process itself, but also to the selection of the most suitable time, with further observance of the rules for caring for young plants.
Video: secrets of planting tomato seedlings
No matter how you like to plant tomatoes early on your plot, you can plant plants only after stabilization of the surrounding temperature and complete retreat of night frosts. Insufficient heating of the air and the soil itself will adversely affect the growth and development of the crop, as a result of which the volume of the crop will be significantly reduced. The optimal average daily temperature for tomatoes is considered to be in the range + 15–22 ° C, with a possible increase in the daytime to +25 ° C or even slightly higher.
Find out what you need to do to make tomatoes blush faster.
If you are not sure about the irrevocability of night frosts, then for the first time it will be useful to cover the beds with a film. The ideal time for planting tomatoes in the central regions of the middle zone of Russia and Ukraine is considered to be the end of May or the beginning of June, but in the southern regions these dates may shift closer to the beginning of May. In the northern territories, tomatoes are planted in open ground at the beginning or middle of June, when the temperature of the soil rises to about + 13-15 ° C.
The choice of a place for planting a crop plays an important role in the issue of the success of its cultivation. Tomatoes belong to light and heat-loving plants, therefore, the area under them should be appropriate. Wetlands with excessive humidity are best avoided, but the hills should be included in the list of territories under consideration. Having decided on the location of the garden, make sure that last year it did not grow “undesirable” crops for tomatoes: peppers, potatoes, eggplant or other nightshade crops.
Did you know? The composition of tomatoes includes such a component as lycopene, which, together with the available beta-carotene, perfectly protects the human skin from ultraviolet radiation and sunburn.
All of them are characterized by similar ailments, therefore, it is likely that planted tomato bushes will soon get sick with fungal or infectious ailments. Tomatoes can be planted at the same place no earlier than 3-4 years later, and only some varieties can be grown on the same bed with a frequency of once every 2 years. For the spring planting, the selected site is prepared since the fall, digging and applying the appropriate nutrient compositions to the soil, for example, for 1 m² of soil, you can prepare a nutrient mixture of 7 kg of organic fertilizers, 40 g of superphosphates and 0.7 kg of lime.
The distance between adjacent bushes and rows of planted plants directly affects the amount of yield of any crop, so it is useful for every gardener to know about the optimal pattern for planting tomatoes.
There are two possible options for marking beds:
- In the first case, the traditional landing pattern is 40 × 50 cm, i.e., between the holes you need to leave 40 cm of free space, and between the rows - 50 cm.
- On double beds in a strip of 50 cm wide, 2 rows of tomatoes are planted, placing them in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between such rows should be at least 80 cm.
You can also highlight the ribbon-nesting method of planting tomatoes, which is ideal for medium plots and a large number of seedlings. With this scheme, the entire available area is divided into irrigation furrows, with a gap of 100 cm between them. Tomato bushes are planted on both sides of such grooves, at a distance of 70 cm from each other. Between the planted rows of tomatoes in one groove should remain at least 40 cm of free space.
How to care for tomatoes
Caring for tomatoes involves performing all the same actions as caring for other garden crops: watering, fertilizing the soil, weeding and loosening it. True, almost any cultivar of this culture requires even pinching, with further tying up the bushes, which will help to obtain a rich and high-quality crop. How to carry out these activities and what you need to know about the nuances of standard procedures for growing tomatoes - it will be useful to know each gardener.
Tomatoes can be attributed to hygrophilous plants, but this does not mean that they need to be filled with water. A dried up topsoil and slightly sagging leaves are considered a good indicator of moisture demand (this is especially noticeable during a drought).
Important! Once every few weeks you can add a little ash to the water, which will be a good prevention of vertebral rot. To prepare a working solution for 10 l of water, it is enough to take 50 g of sifted wood residues.
As for the requirements for the process of watering tomatoes, there are several:
- soil moistening should be carried out mainly in the evening, it is better several hours before sunset;
- as a suitable liquid, it is desirable to use settled rainwater slightly warmed up by the sun;
- irrigation regularity depends on weather conditions, but on average it is performed at least 1-2 times a week;
- from 3 to 5 liters of liquid can be consumed per bush, which depends on the moisture content of a particular tomato variety;
- plentiful watering is especially important during the formation of ovaries, which without sufficient moisture can crumble, and the crop will not be so plentiful;
- when choosing a method of watering, it is worth paying attention to the drip and underground options, since spraying water on the leaves of tomato bushes can lead to burns or the development of late blight.
The first feeding of planted tomatoes is carried out approximately 10 days after transplanting the plants into the open ground, using nitrate as a fertilizer (20 g per 1 bucket of water is sufficient). The application of this fertilizer is carried out shortly after watering, at the rate of 0.5 l of the finished working mixture per bush. The following dressing can be done 7-10 days after the first, in this case, using organic fertilizers, for example, diluted chicken manure or mullein (0.5 l of fertilizer is diluted in 10 l of water).
Read more about how to properly feed tomatoes during flowering and fruiting.
Organics plants are watered strictly under the root, using no more than 0.5 l of fertilizer per plant. After top dressing, water the seedlings again so that the nutrients sink to the root system.
- The first top dressing - 10-15 days after transplanting, using double superphosphate (25 g), potassium sulfate (20 g) and ammonium nitrate (8 g).
- The second top dressing - during the formation of fruits, using a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 25 g of potassium sulfate.
- The third top dressing is carried out 20-30 days after the previous one and involves the use of the same composition as in the previous case.
Pasynkovka - a mandatory procedure for most tomatoes, providing for the removal of excess shoots from the bush. In fact, stepsons are competitors of the main stem in terms of nutrient intake, and despite the fact that they form the ovaries and even give fruits, it is better to remove them during flowering, otherwise planting thickening and chopping of the crop cannot be avoided. Some varieties of tomatoes without the removal of stepsons are generally not able to develop normally and are often late with fruiting.
Important! It is advisable to check tomatoes for the presence of new shoots at least 1-2 times a week so that the main shoot and the fruits formed on it do not suffer from a lack of nutrients.
The method of removing excess shoots largely depends on the thickness of the stepson. If he appeared recently and has not yet entered active growth, they simply break him out in the direction to the side, in extreme cases, leaving only a small stump. Dense and large shoots are cut with garden shears, previously disinfected with a solution of potassium permanganate (it is advisable to wipe the blades after each plant).
Soil care when growing tomatoes involves loosening, hilling, mulching and removing weeds. Land cultivation should be carried out shortly after rain or watering, with the simultaneous removal of weeds.
Most varietal variations of tomatoes are medium- or tall bushes, with fairly large tomatoes on the hands. Even at the stage of fruit formation, their mass already causes the shoots to lean to the side, and the larger they become, the greater the likelihood of a stem breaking. To prevent this from happening, special supports are installed next to the bushes, to which plants are attached using soft ropes. One of the options for such support is wooden stakes installed at a distance of 5-10 cm from the tomato trunk and recessed into the soil by at least 30 cm.
Learn how to tie tomatoes properly.
When tying to such a support, you can use the usual rope, from which the knot in the form of an eight is made. As the bush grows, the same garter should be performed in the upper part, be sure to control the tension. Over time, the lower fasteners can crash into the trunk of the bush, so you have to periodically weaken them. Alternatively, you can surround the tomato bush with a metal mesh with large cells. It is very convenient to attach ropes to it, and there is still enough space for additional fixation.
What can be planted after tomatoes
Соблюдение правил севооборота на участке — залог хорошего урожая самых разных видов культур, поэтому чтобы каждый год получать вкусные и крупные томаты, придётся постоянно менять место их выращивания, по крайней мере, хотя бы один раз в 2–3 года.
Did you know? Горчичные семена содержат в себе массу полезных веществ, среди которых стоит отметить фитонциды и антибактериальные компоненты, выступающие в роли природного консерванта для лучшей сохранности пищевых продуктов. При тепловой обработке мяса достаточно небольшого количества горчичного порошка, чтобы предупредить вытекание его сока.
Пока томаты растут в другом месте, на прежнем участке можно высадить:
Полезные советы при посадке помидоров
Чтобы высаженные томатные кусты хорошо прижились и вскоре дали обильный урожай, стоит знать о некоторых рекомендациях к их выращиванию:
- В осенний период грунт обязательно подкармливают (можно фосфорными или калийными составами) и перекапывают, насыщая достаточным количеством кислорода.
- Если по каким-либо причинам осенняя подкормка не была выполнена, придётся удобрить почву ранней весной, используя для этого 200 г селитры на 10 м² площади.
- При возможности желательно высаживать растения во второй половине суток, поскольку за ночь помидоры окрепнут и лучше приживутся.
- Чтобы облегчить процесс извлечения кустиков из рассадной ёмкости, почву проливают тёплой водой примерно за час до предполагаемой пересадки.
- Извлекать саженцы лучше вместе с земельным комом из предыдущего места произрастания, что намного меньше травмирует корневую систему растений.
- При использовании органических удобрений, разложенных по лункам, обязательно присыпайте их землёй, чтобы не обжечь нежные корешки саженцев.
- После посадки томатов обязательно полейте их и по возможности замульчируйте почву вокруг кустика.
- При выборе схемы посадки нельзя не учитывать требования выбранного сорта: одним помидорам достаточно свободного пространства в 40 см, другим потребуется расстояние в 60 см или даже больше.