What is a peach and what are its features?
Blooming peach is a real decoration of a summer cottage. The plant pleases with aromatic and sweet fruits with a memorable and refined taste. In our material, we will consider in detail which plant group this crop belongs to, what it is: a tree or a large shrub, how peaches grow, and also for what year after planting it blooms, how many years a peach tree lives and bears fruit.
Is a peach a fruit or a berry?
Surely many wondered: the peach fruit is a fruit or berry, and also with what type of vegetation it can be associated. To correctly answer all these questions, you need to carefully look at the structure of the peach fruit, as well as its general morphological features.
By berry, it is customary to mean a small juicy and fleshy fruit of shrubby or semi-shrubby annuals, as well as perennial plants. During the consumption of berries do not require pre-treatment and elimination of seeds.
The fruit of the plant has thick and moderately juicy tissues, in the center of which a single bone is formed. It is very dense, unsuitable for use in its raw form, while it can easily be separated from the pulp, which in the case of berries does not go well.
All this suggests that peach is one of the varieties of fruit. Additionally confirms this type of culture growth. Peach is a medium or tall species, and according to generally accepted botanical laws, only fruits are formed on such plants.
Did you know? In Europe, peaches were first grown in Greece. In addition, it was this country already in the IV century. BC e. became the center of fruit distribution throughout the mainland.
Description and botanical characteristics of the plant
According to the generally accepted botanical classification, peaches belong to perennials from the subgenus Almonds, family Pink . This is a thermophilic plant that loves a mild climate. That is why the central and northern regions of India and China are considered to be the birthplace of peach.
Many people wonder whether or not this species can be associated with citrus. In fact, in addition to thermophilicity and a similar morphology, these plants do not have common features. In addition to this, citrus fruits are typical representatives of the Rootovye family, to which peach does not belong. What fruit is an analogue of peach? Nectarine, as well as all kinds of hybrids of plum and apricot, are best suited for this role.
The average peach tree is a tree plant with a wide, rounded and spreading crown, medium density. The height of the plant is within 8 m. The crown of the tree is formed by lanceolate leaves up to 15–20 cm long. In some places of the veins, some hybrids may experience slight pubescence. Their surface is bare, shiny, a shade of mainly green and light green tones. Leafs grow on open and branched shoots located to the trunk at an angle of about 45 °.
Read also when and how to plant a peach.
The tree blossoms amicably and abundantly, at this time flowers of a goblet shape are formed, with a diameter of not more than 3 cm. They consist of 5 small petals, pink, red tones and white shades. Flowers bloom simultaneously with the growth of leaves, the duration of flowering does not exceed 12 days, however, in an arid climate, flowering can last no more than 3 days. These plants bloom in single inflorescences, sometimes forming groups of 2 flowers.
After flowering, the fruits of a spherical, semicircular, oval, oval-conical or ovoid form are formed on the tree. The average diameter of the peach is 5–10 cm. The peel of the fruits is moderately dense, covered with light pubescence. The skin color can be greenish-white or yellow-orange hues. The pulp on the cut is red, cream or yellow. It is characterized by moderate juiciness, rich aroma and a characteristic sweet and sour flavor. The bone is about 6-10% of the weight of the fetus. The average weight of the fetus varies from 60–90 to 150–200 g.
Did you know? Peach is one of the three most popular and grown fruits in Europe. In terms of cultivation volumes, only such traditional crops as apple and pear are ahead of it.
The life span of a peach tree is about 30 years. Moreover, the most effective productive period in a plant lasts for 20 years after entering fruiting. For the onset of this period, a young seedling will need at least 3-5 years after planting.
Chemical composition and calorie content
Like any other juicy and aromatic fruit, peach is full of all kinds of valuable and healthy compounds. This makes the product not only tasty, but also healthy. The most valuable component of the pulp and peel is represented by vitamins C, E, K, PP, H, group B, as well as minerals such as magnesium, potassium, zinc, iron, selenium, copper, phosphorus and sodium.
In addition, the fruit contains beta-carotene, pectins, tartaric, malic and citric acids. Fetal bones are also very useful for the body, which, in addition to the above compounds, contains so-called almond oil, as well as a very rare vitamin B17.
Energy value of peach:
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The properties of peach for the body
The fruits of the peach tree are a valuable and indispensable product in the human diet. Due to the increased content of vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and fiber, they improve metabolism, and also activate the work of many organs and systems of the body.
The health benefits of peach are undeniable . This is one of the first products that are included in the diet for babies. Thanks to fiber and dietary fiber, the fruit improves digestion. As a result of this, the problem of constipation and other digestive problems is eliminated in children.
A special vitamin-mineral composition helps to ensure the proper development of the excretory system and liver, cardiovascular, nervous systems, as well as the musculoskeletal system. Thanks to this, the children's body can successfully protect itself from the chronic diseases of these departments in the future.
Important! The daily norm of peach pulp for babies up to one year is not more than 50 g. This portion will be quite enough to saturate the baby's body with all the necessary substances.
For adults, fruit is no less valuable. Daily use of only 1-2 fruits improves the digestive system, and also protects the body from stress. This is achieved not only by a complex of useful substances, but also by a variety of aromatic compounds that have a general relaxing effect.
During the off-season, peaches help activate immunity against respiratory infections and other negative factors. This property is especially important in the rehabilitation and postoperative periods, due to which the recovery period of the body is reduced significantly.
- With moderate consumption, the fruit can maintain and improve health when:
- diseases of the liver, gall bladder and stomach;
- pathologies of the cardiovascular system;
- acute and chronic constipation;
- stomach ailments associated with low acidity.
Peach also acts as one of the best means for losing weight . Due to the increased concentration of fiber and dietary fiber, it helps to satisfy hunger, and low calorie content contributes to natural weight loss. At the same time, vitamins and minerals in the pulp contribute to maintaining immunity and protecting the nervous system from the effects of a sharp reduction in diet. This makes it possible to avoid the negative effects of the diet not only on the metabolism and activity of organs, but also on the emotional state.
During pregnancy and lactation, peaches are not only allowed, but also have a direct indication for consumption. They make it possible to eliminate the deficit of most substances valuable for the health of mother and baby and to ensure the optimal metabolic process .
We advise you to read about the features of eating peach during breastfeeding.
Thanks to this, the mother’s body not only recovers as quickly as possible, but also becomes practically invulnerable to any loads. The baby, in turn, receives a whole complex of compounds that are important for the effective and successful development of the nervous, circulatory, cardiovascular systems, musculoskeletal system.
Harm and contraindications
In addition to benefits, in some cases peaches can be harmful. Most often this is observed with uncontrolled use of the product, but can also be the result of individual intolerance to the fruit or its individual components. In this case, it provokes itching, redness, rash, shortness of breath and other symptoms of a sharp allergic reaction . A consequence of this can also be a general deterioration in health status, weakness, as well as an exacerbation of chronic ailments.
- It is not recommended to eat fruit when:
- sharp allergic reactions to the fruits of plants of the genus Plum and products based on them;
- excessive excitability of the nervous system;
- diabetes of any type.
Important! Persons with all kinds of digestive disorders are prohibited from eating peach or products based on it on an empty stomach. This can provoke irritation of the walls of the digestive tract and a deterioration in overall health.
How to choose quality peaches when buying
Peaches are almost always fragrant and attractive in appearance. However, this is the main disadvantage of the fruit, because the rich aroma and bright peel often hide unripe pulp with low taste. That is why the choice of quality fruits for many becomes a real challenge. A thorough examination of the fetus will help to solve it and protect itself. It is a waste of money.
A quality peach is always soft, but at the same time elastic to the touch, without green spots on the surface . The hue of the peel of a good fruit should be uniform, with a uniform blush on the entire surface or a separate part. The quality of peaches can also be determined by the state of the seed. After separation from the pulp, it must maintain its integrity, be wrinkled. Otherwise, we can say that when growing the crop, a lot of chemical protective equipment and other drugs were used.
It is worth abandoning fruits that have:
- damage (such peaches are stored for no more than 2 days);
- spots or putrid foci;
- sharp chemical or other unpleasant odor.
Rules for growing on the site
Summing up all the useful properties of peaches, many owners of summer cottages allocate a significant part of the space in the garden for these trees. However, not every gardener manages to create a fruiting peach garden. The culture is considered quite whimsical, so growing a productive tree is not always easy.
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To grow a decent crop of aromatic fruits, when growing a crop, you should adhere to the following recommendations:
- peach seedlings do not tolerate drafts, therefore, they are planted only in a place protected from through winds;
- best of all, plants develop in open and well-lit areas, at a distance of not less than 5 m from any fruit trees or garden buildings;
- planted culture on a hill, in well-drained substrates;
- peach trees are demanding for irrigation, but the soil on the site should not be oversaturated with moisture;
- the root system of trees is rather vulnerable, therefore the trunk circle necessarily needs to be mulched;
- increased plant productivity depends on the feeding regimen, so peach must be fertilized throughout the growing season (feeding is done every 2 weeks, a mullein solution in a ratio of 1:10 is best for this);
- Aphids and powdery mildew are considered the main threats to the life of the culture, therefore, preventive treatment of trees from these pests and diseases should be carried out throughout the season.
Features and rules of use
Today without a peach it is almost impossible to imagine a food basket of a modern person. The fruits of this plant are used fresh both independently and in the form of one of the ingredients of fruit salads. Often, fruit compotes are prepared, as well as fresh juices, including in the form of winter preparations. The latter also include jams, preserves, marmalades and marmalades.
We advise you to find out if canned peaches are healthy.
In cooking, fruit is popular as a fragrant filling. It is used to improve the taste of pies, cookies and other confectionery products. Dried fruits and candied peach possess versatility in cooking. They are used as a separate dish, as well as the main ingredient in the preparation of a variety of sweet dishes.
As for medicine, the so-called peach oil is highly appreciated. It is obtained as a result of squeezing the oily fraction of the seeds of the fetal bones and is used as the main component of various external and internal agents for the treatment of metabolic pathologies, as well as diseases of organs and systems of the body.
In cosmetology, not only pulp is considered valuable, but also fruit seed oil. With their help, ointments, masks and other products are prepared that eliminate skin rashes, pathologies of the scalp, as well as pigmentation of the skin. In addition, such products make the skin supple, supple, smooth wrinkles and remove age-related pigmentation.
Important! Before use, external products should be applied to an open area of the skin (for example, on the wrist) for 30 minutes. If itching, rash, redness of the skin, and other evidence of allergic intolerance occur, it is strongly recommended that they not be used.
Ways to store peaches
And collected on their own site, and purchased peaches deteriorate very quickly. At room temperature, the fruits retain their freshness for only a few days. To extend their shelf life, the storage temperature should be lowered to 0 ... + 2 ° C, and put the fruit in a dense plastic bag. Under such conditions, the fruit lasts up to 10 days.
For longer storage, the fruit is subjected to deep freezing (-20 ...- 25 ° C). They are stored in the freezer whole or in a purified form, without stones, including in the form of mashed potatoes. This will help preserve the fruit throughout the year. In addition, the fruits can also be subjected to high-temperature preservation, preparing from them jams, compotes, preserves, etc.
Fragrant and juicy peach fruits are widely used in medicine, cosmetology and cooking. And this is not surprising, because they contain a lot of useful substances, and also have a pleasant and rich taste.