What to do if the leaves on the eggplant in the greenhouse turn yellow
Eggplant for our latitudes - the culture has long been familiar and often grown both in open ground and in the greenhouse. This article discusses the causes of yellowing of eggplant foliage in a greenhouse, as well as methods for solving the problem.
Why eggplants turn yellow in the greenhouse
One of the reasons for the color change of the leaves may be a painful adaptation of the seedlings to new conditions. This is possible if the composition of the soil is improperly selected in the greenhouse. The soil for successful growing vegetables should be loose, with good indicators of moisture and air permeability. Also, the cause may be a lack of hardening before landing or improper care.
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Incorrect seedling care
The thermophilic culture needs a special microclimate.
For active growth and development of seedlings provide the following conditions:
- temperature - the plant is grown at a temperature not lower than + 18 ° C, drafts are contraindicated;
- humidity - 60–70%, a culture in dry air needs to be sprayed around it;
- lighting - 12-14 hours, if necessary, artificial;
- watering - with warm water + 20 ° С, in the first week every 3 days, the second week - every 5 days;
- top dressing - fertilize with an interval of once every 2 weeks, mineral balanced formulations according to the instructions.
10 days before transplanting seedlings from room conditions into greenhouse plants, it is necessary to harden. To do this, the pots with bushes are carried out for 1-2 hours in the fresh air, gradually increasing the stay in coolness up to a day.
Deviations from the norm cause a foliage reaction: it turns yellow completely or becomes stained, the plates twist.
Diseases and pests
Plant development can be affected by diseases that develop due to improper care.
The main signs of disease damage:
- mosaic spotting - yellow spots appear on the foliage, the surface of the leaf plate is deformed, the flowers fall;
- black spotting - a black dot with a yellow border is formed on the sheet, spots quickly increase in size, filling the entire sheet;
- Fusarium wilting - the greens become pale, then turns yellow and fades;
- verticillosis - the lower leaves wither and turn yellow.
Important! With verticillosis, the affected bushes must be removed and destroyed, there is no cure for the disease.
Pests can enter the greenhouse that eat the green parts of the plants or eat their juice, which leads to yellowing and wilting of the foliage. Pests are mainly attracted by increased humidity in the greenhouse, with the exception of the spider mite.
Signs of the appearance of insects and mollusks:
- aphid - a microscopic insect, settles in the axils of leaves, on the inner side of the plate, forms entire colonies;
- whitefly - a fly with a whitish color hides in the lower parts of the plant;
- spider mite - black small dots on the foliage, a whitish, thin cobweb tell about its presence;
- Colorado potato beetle - an insect with a bright orange or yellow color is easy to see on the green parts of the culture, eating the juicy parts of the eggplant leaves impressive holes in them;
- slugs - the mollusk leaves a wet and slippery mark as it moves, eats greens and stems.
What to do and how to process eggplant
From diseases fungicides are used. There are a wide range of drugs that are effective against a wide range of diseases. There are funds aimed at combating several diseases that have a specific nature of origin, for example, fungal or viral.
Pests must be controlled with insecticides or acaricides. These funds have a systemic or contact-intestinal effect, the drugs of the latest generation cope not only with adult insects, but also with their larvae and eggs.
Depending on the complexity of the problem and the growing season, plants use chemical or more gentle folk remedies. Find out why eggplants turn green and can they be eaten.
Chemicals are used during the growing season for both treatment and prevention.
- "Fundazole" is an effective drug with a wide spectrum of action, it is recommended for spotting. To obtain a solution of 10 g of the product, 10 liters of water are diluted; to treat a plot of 10 m², 1.5 liters of solution is necessary. In total, 2–4 procedures are performed with an interval of 2 weeks;
- “Gamair” - the drug is used for spraying with Fusarium, the solution is prepared at the rate of 2 tablets per 1 liter of water, applied three times every 7 days;
- "Alirin-B" - from mosaic rust, spraying is used with a solution of 2 tablets per 1 liter of water. Repeated procedure - after 7 days, in total 3 sprayings if necessary;
- "Arrivo" - aphids, whiteflies. Spray the area in a proportion of 1.5 ml / 10 l of water. If necessary, repeat after 14 days. You can protect yourself from whiteflies by hanging sticky traps;
- "Akarin" is a spider mite. Spray with the drug 2 ml / 1 l of water;
- Apache is a Colorado potato beetle. An effective preparation is 0.5 g / 1 l of water by spraying.
The defeat of the disease or the attack of the pest can catch the plant at the time of flowering or fruiting. During these periods, it is forbidden to handle plantings with toxic chemicals, therefore, alternative methods of control are used.
The most effective of them:
- nettle infusion (1 kg / 10 l of water), leave for 12 hours, strain. Spraying increases immunity, protects from late blight;
- horsetail infusion field (1 kg / 10 l), insist 12 hours, strain. Effective for protection against fungal diseases;
- a decoction of nettle and horsetail is used for prevention and treatment in the early stages of rust, for this, the infusion is boiled for 20 minutes, cooled and sprayed;
- infusion of garden fern (1 kg / 10 l) effectively repels slugs. Mollusks are picked by hand to protect the greenhouse from penetration, walnut shells are scattered in the aisles;
- planting dusted with wood ash, protecting against aphids and spider mites;
- a decoction of wormwood, marigold, tansy and chamomile (1 kg / 5 l of water) destroys most insects, including the larvae of the Colorado potato beetle;
- garlic broth (1 kg of greens and prongs per 5 l of water). The concentrated broth is diluted 1: 5 with water and the planting is sprayed.
These are the repellents that secrete phytoncides:
Troubleshooting watering errors
For young plants, both a lack of moisture and an excess are equally dangerous.
- The method is drip. The surface root system is not deeper than 20 cm, so drip irrigation is the best solution for eggplant. In addition, it is impossible for water to fall on the green part, otherwise burns will remain. The second option is to water the grooves along the beds.
- Water - settled without main impurities, warm, preferably the soil temperature in the greenhouse (+ 23 ... + 25 ° С).
- Frequency - immediately after transplanting the seedlings into the greenhouse once every 2-3 days, then once every 7 days, in intense heat - once every 5 days. During active fruiting, watering is increased to 2 times a week. The procedure is recommended to be carried out in the morning, in the evening there is a high probability of stagnation of moisture.
- Additional procedures - after watering, the topsoil is fluffed to prevent crusting. Shelter of the soil is practiced with mulch: sawdust, straw. Be sure to plant the eggplants to ventilate; dry or too humid air is contraindicated in plants.
Fertilizers for a plant are not only nutrition, but also an increase in immunity. The lack of certain minerals, as well as their excess, is fraught with a lag in development, susceptibility to disease.
- The first portion of fertilizer is applied in the fall when preparing the soil in the greenhouse. 2/3 buckets of humus are put in the hole. When planting seedlings at a new location in the wells add a handful of wood ash.
- Vegetative top dressing is introduced 3 weeks after planting. Apply a liquid solution of "Azofoski" 45 g / 10 l, bring under a bush of 0.5 l.
- When buds appear, eggplant needs a mixture of ammonium nitrate (20 g), potassium chloride (20 g), superphosphate (50 g) per 10 liters of water. Fertilize under the bush of 0.5 l.
- During the formation of fruits, the best option would be "green manure." The fermented nettle infusion, which has some fungicidal and insecticidal properties, is best suited for these purposes. Contribute to the root of 0.5 l of the solution under the bush, diluted 1:10 with water.
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Preventive measures will help to avoid problems with growing crops.
The main measures:
- Cleaning the soil after harvesting the previous crop.
- Seed treatment before sowing seedlings (dressing in a solution of potassium permanganate).
- The correct mode of growing seedlings and hardening before moving to the greenhouse.
- Compliance with watering standards and the balance of fertilizing in greenhouse conditions.
- Ventilating the greenhouse to eliminate dryness or excessive humidity, to control the temperature in the room.
- Preventive spraying with folk or chemical preparations.
- Planting repellent plants that repel insects and other pests.