Ways to cover grapes for the winter

Preparing grapes for the winter season is an important element of vine care. The next season will bring a good harvest only if the plant has the right rest and wintering. In the article, we consider the basic rules for sheltering grapes before the cold.

Why cover the grapes for the winter

Grapes are a thermophilic plant. The sun gives strength to the sprouts and fills the clusters of berries with juices, for which grapes are highly valued, which is why it is very important to observe the rules for caring for the plant in the winter.

Important! There are many frost-resistant grape varieties. For example, the popular varieties Muscat, Taiga, Muromets can tolerate temperatures of -20 ° С ...- 30 ° С without damage to the root and leaf system. Winter warming the bush is necessary to avoid freezing of new shoots. The yield of the bush depends on how shoots form on the branches. A sharp freeze can lead to a significant loss of yield and even death of an unprotected plant. This is especially true when growing grapes in the middle lane - the temperature in winter is too low even for frost-resistant varieties.

Optimal timing

The optimal timing for sheltering grapes depends on the age of the plant, as well as on the region in which the vineyard is grown. Many gardeners begin to shelter the vine with the first cold snap when the temperature in the street reaches -6 ...- 7 ° С. This temperature occurs in late autumn, approximately at the beginning of October and until the end of November. In more detail, consider the timing of sheltering the vineyards in the middle lane.

Grapes are prepared for winter, either before the cold, or immediately after the first frost.

There are two periods of grape shelter:

  1. Shelter plants with persistent frost . This method is suitable only for strong grape bushes. Healthy grape stems acclimatize when exposed to low temperature and become more resistant to coolness. That is, sheltering after freezing is hardening of the vine and increases the resistance of berries to freezing.
  2. Shelter before the onset of the first cold weather . So protect young and weaker plants. Be sure to protect the vineyard from freezing if it is less than two years old, or if you see that the buds on the stem are still weak. In the category of increased attention also include bushes that were sick or gave an overly abundant crop. Such plants do not have time to get used to the low temperature and can die due to a weakened state.
Important! Remember that shelter for the winter after a temperature below zero can be carried out only if the vines of the vineyard are completely healthy and have no defects or dryness.

Preparing for Shelter

Shelter of the vine is carried out for a long period, so it is very important to carry out this procedure correctly.

To save the plant for the winter, follow these recommendations:

  1. Trim dry vines of grapes.
  2. Treat the cut points.
  3. Depending on the grade and period of shelter, select the material.
  4. Sanitize it.
We will consider the preparatory moments in more detail below.

Trimming and processing the bush

Trimming the bush is carried out mechanically. Before wintering, carefully inspect the bush: any branch that causes suspicion of weakness, dryness, or disease should be removed. Thus, you remove excess weight from the stem and allow you to spend less juice to maintain weak shoots.

Vine pruning methods:

  • short : cut from 4 to 6 leaves;
  • medium : remove 6-10 leaves;
  • long : pruning more than 20 leaves.

Pruning is carried out before shelter, that is, definitely before a strong cooling. Determine that the right moment has come to remove the excess parts of the plant by the stem of the vineyard - it begins to grow directly.

Did you know? The weight of the largest bunch in the world was almost 9.4 kg. The record was set in Chile in 1984.

In addition, you need to trim and the roots of the plant. Choose only roots close to the stem, cut them with sharp garden shears. Shoots that have previously been left for overwintering more than two times are best removed. As soon as extra branches and fruits are removed from the vine, it abruptly begins to grow, in addition, the taste that improves on berries that remain uncut.

Covering material disinfection

After all unnecessary branches and shoots are removed, it is necessary to carefully treat the plant with fungicides.

Complex fungicides help fight any plant infections, protect grapes for a long time from mold and pests.

  1. Get a 3% or 5% solution of copper or iron sulfate.
  2. Pour the product into the spray bottle.
  3. Spray the medicine into all parts of the vine.
Wooden floorings, straw mats are also treated with a solution of copper sulfate and put in a place protected from moisture and parasites.

If you use spanbond, burlap or mats for shelter, they must also be treated before shelter:

  1. Clean the surface of materials from any dirt.
  2. Dry the flooring in the sun immediately after the end of the winter period and removing them from the vineyard.
  3. Treat with fungicidal agents so that mold does not form in them.
  4. Clean in a dry, protected place until the next fall season.
Learn also how to care for grapes in autumn.

Ways to cover grapes for the winter

Modern gardeners growing grapes have come up with many ways to care for the vine: from classical methods used since ancient times, to methods of high technology. For shelter use shields, mats, strengthen the structure with isolon or sawdust.

Devices for grapes can grow it even in cold regions, achieving a sweet taste and good yield. Below we will familiarize ourselves with each of them in more detail.

Using film

The most reliable way to keep the grapes warm in winter is to cover the branches with a polymer film.

Step-by-step procedure description:

  1. Trimming the bush.
  2. Further, the branches are tied up in bundles for a more convenient shelter.
  3. Pin the vine to the ground with wooden or metal fixatives.
  4. Cover the building with film, attaching it to the ground.
  5. Sprinkle the ends of the film with earth, sometimes for better preservation they attach it with metal staples.
You can draw a drawing of the shelter in advance. Note that the vineyard, covered with a film, should look like a tunnel. This form retains heat better. Important! Make sure that there is room for air exchange between the grape branches and the film.

Okoltambambovy digging

This type of shelter applies only to very young plants and is not suitable for vines older than a year. Before this fall, such bushes are not cut.

Step-by-step procedure description:

  1. The branches of the vine are held together.
  2. Bend the bundle to the ground.
  3. The stamp is covered with earth with a layer of 20-25 cm.

Half shelter

The half-shelter method is used on sufficiently frost-resistant varieties at very low temperatures. Despite the resistance to cold, such grapes still can not withstand the cold winters of the Volga region or northwestern Russia. Good to know: how to properly care for grapes in the summer, so that there is a good harvest. Step-by-step procedure description:

  1. Grapes are removed from the support.
  2. The vine is laid on the ground.
  3. They cover the plant with agrofiber.

Dry shelter

The dry method of sheltering guarantees complete thermal safety of the vineyard. It is widely used in both northern and southern regions. Preparation for shelter in this way begins with the planting of the vine, since around the row with grapes, boards made of slate and foam are formed. Thus, the grape buds will not be affected by moisture throughout the winter period.

Did you know? In the Slovenian town of Maribor is the oldest fruiting vineyard. Bushes grow here, about 400 years old.

Step-by-step procedure description:

  1. A bush of grapes must be pruned.
  2. They are laid on the ground, pinning branches to it.
  3. Top grapes are covered with slate or polystyrene. Additionally, you can insulate the shield with sawdust, husk or straw.

Full shelter

Full shelter is carried out when growing young vines, as well as in winters, when the temperature drops to 20 degrees below zero. For warming use the earth around the vine and snow that has fallen. Thus, the plant will be warm until spring.

In the snow

Snow is a natural insulation that will help keep the vine from freezing. In addition, the bush is additionally protected from aging, as it is stored at the optimum temperature.

Step-by-step procedure description:

  1. The land around the grapes is cleaned of weeds and leaves.
  2. The vine is removed from the support and laid out on the ground. Previously, the earth is insulated with plywood or other covering material.
  3. Staples grape pinned to the ground. Stones, boards, and heavy sticks can serve as material for holding branches.
  4. The holes around the plant are covered with soil 15-30 cm.
  5. After falling snow, grapes are covered with snow.

The earth

Shelter almost repeats the previous process. It also serves to protect grapes from freezing in the natural environment and protects against the appearance of rodents. Read also about grape care in the middle lane. Step-by-step procedure description:

  1. Grapes are removed from the support.
  2. Bind the branches into a bundle. It is necessary to carry out the binding carefully so as not to damage the bush.
  3. The vine is laid on the litter so that it does not freeze in the winter. As a litter, boards or plywood sheets are used.
  4. The branches are pinned to the ground, laying them out in an arched shape.
  5. Cover the vine with burlap or mat. Blankets are also suitable. Only products made from natural materials are used.
  6. The structure is insulated, covered with a film on top, leaving slots in it for oxygen to enter.
  7. The ends of the film are covered with earth.

How to open grapes in spring

The first stage of the opening in the spring is carried out when a stable warm weather is established, that is, in April or early May. Remove the film from the vine so that condensation does not collect on it. Hot weather contributes to moisture, and young kidneys are harmful.

Next, remove the main shelter from the plant. It is better to burn the packing, since it will no longer be useful. The plant is additionally protected by mulch. Around the grapes they rake the ground, raise the branches of the vine on a support. Weed the ground near the vine so that oxygen enters it.

Important! It is better to carry out this procedure in the evening or in cloudy weather, as there is a chance that an untrained vine can get a burn.

Useful gardening tips

Shelter for the winter grape bush will provide you with a good harvest afterwards.

Below is a list of the main recommendations, following which you will grow a healthy vine:

  1. Keep your vines healthy . Sick plants will not tolerate wintering, they will have to be removed.
  2. Trim the excess branches and leaves of the vine in time . Old leaves take away the vitality of the plant and prevent new shoots from forming.
  3. Cover even hardy varieties . In cold winters, even strong bushes can become covered with a crust of ice, which prevents the release of oxygen. This is detrimental to the plant and will lead to drying out.
  4. Temper the vine before wintering so that it is used to being in low temperatures. So it will be easier for her to move the real winter.
  5. When choosing branches that are suitable for wintering, focus on the thickness of the stem . If it is thinner than 10-15 mm, do not leave it.
  6. 3-4 months before the cold, stop feeding the plant . Nitrogen fertilizers have a bad effect on the thickening of the stem. And this will eventually make the bush not ready for the cold.
  7. Do not keep the grapes under the film for longer than the prescribed time . For high-quality kidney formation, the branches of the plant should be in the fresh air.

    Video: Shelter of grapes for the winter

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