Vriesia splenriet: description, cultivation and care at home

An unusual flower called vriesia compares favorably with the rest by its unique feather-shaped inflorescence, from which it is hard to look away. However, the incredible beauty of the plant is supported by its exactingness to the conditions of detention and considerable troubles in the care. In this article, we consider the types of this plant, the necessary conditions for growing a flower, the secrets of home care, as well as the possible difficulties that can be encountered when keeping vriesia.

Short description

Botanists attribute vriesia to the Bromeliad family, and this unusual perennial from South America came to us, where most often it can be found in forests and trees. Today, there are about 270 species of this plant that are very popular with flower growers around the world because of the bright spectacular color and original appearance, so they are grown both in open ground and indoors. Moreover, the flowers themselves are of little interest, because they quickly fade, the whole matter is in the bracts, which are able to hold for several months and give vriesia even more decorative and exotic.

The flowering period, for the most part, depends on when the vriesia was planted, however, as a rule, it blooms in the summer. This plant is epiphytic and its roots perform, rather, a fastening function to the soil, since it does not serve as a source of nutrition for the flower. In height, vriesia usually does not exceed 80 cm. Some species differ in their scaly or multi-colored striped coating of leaves.

The leaves themselves are voluminous, powerful, funnel-shaped, their length can vary from 20 to 70 cm, and the leaf plate has a pointed end. The flower stalk, reaching a height of more than a meter, forms an inflorescence with bracts of various colors - most often green, orange, scarlet and yellow, which are able to keep their appearance attractive for a very long time. . Vriesia gives the fruits in the form of a miniature box filled with shriveled seeds.

Did you know? The name of the flower was given in 1844, in honor of the famous Dutch florist Willem de Vries.

Immediately after flowering, most plant species die, which is accompanied by the drying of the peduncle and leaves. But this is an absolutely normal process, because after some time new shoots begin to appear from the earth. Blooming vriesia is a very fascinating and eye-pleasing sight, but the plant is very capricious, so before you plant a flower at home, think about whether you can provide all the conditions necessary for it and maintain it properly all year round.

Plant species

A variety of plant species is present not only in the conditions of its natural habitat, but also in culture - more than 170 varieties of vriesia are suitable for cultivation at home. In the rainforests, where the flower comes from, you can find the most incredible colors of the plant, which in general are divided into two types - with plain and striped leaves. Let's consider each of them in more detail.

With plain leaves

Vriesia with monophonic leaves looks no less decorative and attractive, therefore it is also in great demand among lovers of exotic flowers. The main types of plants with monophonic foliage are represented by the following:

  1. Vriesia astrid is a very popular indoor variety, which differs from the rest in compactness and long plentiful flowering. An unusual type of inflorescence, which resembles a large bouquet of flowers, creates a very high level of decorative plants. The leaves of the flower are lanceolate, bright light green in color, very fragile and pleasant to the touch. Under proper conditions of detention, as a rule, from 3 to 6 scarlet peduncles are formed. Like all other species, astrid vriesia is also susceptible to rapid death after flowering, but it is also able to recover no less quickly. Vriesia astrid blooms all summer, requiring stable, high humidity, so caring for this variety is not easy.

  2. Kilevy Vriesia is a bizarre plant growing up to 40 cm in height, with red, yellow, green or pink bracts. The birthplace of this variety is Brazil, where the flower grew in tropical humidity, which in the room, especially with dry air, will have to be supported in the same way. Flowering of krivate vriesia is observed throughout the summer, beginning in late May. The smooth elongated foliage is painted dark green, and the leaf plates, which are located next to the inflorescence, have a slightly lilac hue. A thin and graceful peduncle adorns a fancy triangular inflorescence, most often red or yellow in color.

  3. Vriesia mix is another decorative room representative that attracts attention with its rich green color of foliage and petals. The bracts themselves, usually yellow or red, are covered with scales. The appearance of the plant resembles a festive bouquet painstakingly created by a florist, so a flower can also serve as a wonderful gift. The flowering period of vreezia mix falls in the winter, closer to the beginning of March. A huge number of hybrids were developed, characterized by spectacular and long flowering.

  4. Royal Vriesia - this giant, whose leaves are more than a meter tall, is completely unsuitable for keeping in a room, but can successfully grow in a garden or greenhouse. The usual conditions for this variety are the tropics, where the plant came from. No less large peduncle forms an inflorescence similar to a panicle, expressive yellow-white color, and it also gives a sweet and very delicate aroma. The leaves are dark green, formed from a kind of funnel, belt-shaped, the leaves are quite durable to the touch. Bracts are usually pinkish, which favorably sets off them from the leaves.

  5. Parrion-like vrienzia - the name of this variety speaks for itself, because the color scheme of the plant really resembles the color of a parrot. The flowers, formed in loose inflorescences, are yellow in color with a greenish corolla, and the peduncle itself is bright red. Linear leaves of a monochromatic dark green color, having a pointed top and significant expansion to the base.

With striped leaves

These bright representatives of the general appearance of the flower catch their eye not only due to colorful inflorescences, but also due to unusual decorative foliage. Very many flower growers choose these varieties of vriesia as indoor plants, and not so much even for their flowering, but rather for their variegated appearance.

Did you know? The leaves of vriesia are always perpendicular to the light incident on them.

The most colorful samples include the following:

  1. Brilliant vriesia - a terrestrial plant with small dark green leaves. As with the other varieties of this variety, the foliage of shiny vreezia is noteworthy - the transverse stripes of purple form an impressive funnel-shaped rosette. The inflorescence is spike-shaped, the scarlet peduncle is thin and oblong, and the glossy bracts are usually yellow in color. This vreezia blooms, as a rule, all summer, if you take care of it properly, and the recovery period after dying off, unlike the others, is rather slow. The flower reaches a height of 70 cm. This is one of the few varieties whose flowers emit any smell - an alluring, sweet aroma.

  2. Hieroglyphic vriesia - highly valued in culture for its beauty and exoticism. The unusual name was given to the variety for a reason - the whole thing is in unusual spots on the plant, which are very similar to various symbols. Flowers look very decorative. The arched foliage, located in a giant rosette, is decorated with light stripes, the inflorescence is similar to a panicle. Bracts are usually bright green, but hybrids with a red or yellow hue are also widespread.

  3. Perforated vriesia - due to excessive decorativeness, this variety of vriesia is usually cultivated in greenhouses. Wide belt-shaped leaves, up to 45 cm long, also form a funnel. The location of the stripes is noteworthy - they can go both along and across. Flowering is short and lasts no more than two months - from the end of November to January. The flower stalk is quite large and durable, most often rises above the outlet. The natural habitat of perforated vriesia is the tropical forests of eastern Brazil. The flower itself is epiphytic, it can also be found growing on stones and rocks.

Growing conditions

Growing vriesia at home is not an easy task, however, this process can be greatly facilitated by creating a flower conditions that are as close as possible to its natural habitat. Vriesia, like all other plants, has its own nuances in care, which require attention and careful implementation, otherwise the flower will quickly die.

Important! In the process of spraying, try to prevent water from entering the bract, as this significantly reduces the flowering time.

Let us consider in more detail the main and most suitable conditions for growing a plant:

  1. Temperature. Vriesia is one of the most thermophilic flowers from the bromeliad family, and therefore, for its stable good condition and cultivation, it is necessary to observe the correct temperature regime: in the warm season, maintain the temperature in the range +20 ... + 27 ° С, and in the cold - + 15 ... + 20 ° С. It is important that the temperature of the substrate always maintains an indicator of at least + 17 ° C.
  2. Lighting. Vriesia does not need too intense lighting - it feels great in diffused light and even in partial shade, so for its permanent place of growth, it is advisable to choose the western or eastern parts of the windowsill. In the summer, the plant should be slightly shaded. With proper care, there is an active growth of vriesia on the northern window, however, some types of flower, namely: with dark green leaves, cannot tolerate direct sunlight, so they need to be removed in a more shaded place. If you overexposure sensitive varieties of vriesia in the sun, they will cause burns, and varieties with denser foliage can quickly fade, so the question of lighting should be approached as responsibly as possible.
  3. Humidity of air and soil. The substrate is best maintained in a moist state throughout the seasons of the year, trying not to allow either drying out or stagnation of water in the sump. As for air humidity, it is also important here not to overdo it, otherwise vriesia will get sick. It is best to regularly spray it with warm water, and fill the pan in the pot with pebbles or pieces of moss. You can also install a special humidifier in a room with a flower, which will automatically regulate this process.

Landing Features

The key points that you should pay attention to when planting a plant include the proper selection of the tank in which the brittle matter will grow, as well as the selection and tillage. Since the flower is epiphytic, it can be limited to a small amount of substrate or, in rare cases, can do without it, which is important to consider when planting. Consider the remaining features in more detail.

Important! Make sure that nitrogen is present in a minimal amount in the composition of the fertilizer you have chosen or made, since this component has a detrimental effect on vriesia. For the same reason, calcium is completely excluded, which the flower does not tolerate at all.

Pot selection

Despite the fact that the flower is sold in pots, under normal living conditions it is able to grow without any substrate at all, which greatly distinguishes it from other indoor plants. The root system of vriesia is very poorly developed, therefore, when choosing a container, you should focus on its minimum depth and width, however, its volume should contain literally end-to-end plant roots. A prerequisite is the presence of a drainage hole at the bottom of the pot.

“Block growing” is very popular among gardeners, that is, attaching a flower to the bark or driftwood with a miniature sphagnum plate. Based on the fact that the soil of vriesia is necessary for fixing, and not for nutrition, this method of cultivation is ideal for arboretums and greenhouses and in general will give the flower a very high decorative effect.

Soil selection and processing

Vriesia has special requirements for the substrate - ordinary garden soil will not work for it. The most suitable substrate for the flower is loose and light.

The best way out of this situation is to purchase a ready-made soil mixture labeled “For Bromeliads” in a flower shop, but you can also make it yourself by adding the following components:

  • sheet land - 2 parts;
  • pine bark - 2 parts;
  • peat land - 1 part;
  • moss sphagnum - 1 part.

Soil acidity is suitable low or medium. In any case, both after the purchase of the substrate, and after its independent manufacture, it must be disinfected without fail (spilled with a potassium permanganate solution or calcined in the oven).

Important! To ensure the most suitable temperature conditions for vrieses in indoor conditions, especially in the cold season, pots with plants are specially heated.

Landing technology

The technology of planting vriesia is simple, but it requires care and attention, since the underdeveloped roots of the plant are very sensitive and can easily be injured during this process.

Step-by-step instructions for planting the plant are as follows:

  1. In a pre-selected container, the first thing you need is to fill up the drainage - it can be expanded clay or broken shards to prevent the roots from rotting. It is recommended to add charcoal for greater efficiency, which will protect the substrate from acidification and reduce the risk of various infections.
  2. Next, it is necessary to fill in a layer of sterilized soil in equal proportions to the drainage.
  3. Carefully, trying not to damage the roots, put the flower in a container and sprinkle with soil a little. To distribute it evenly, simply tap the pot on the table surface a little.
  4. The final stage - moving vriesia to a permanent place. It should be warm and with moderate lighting. Immediately after this, the outlet must be filled with water and left alone for a while to allow the flower to adapt. After a couple of days, plant care procedures are restored and carried out as usual.

Growing and caring at home

Caring for such an exotic plant is not an easy task, but during the flowering period, vriesia will thank you with its decorativeness and unusual shades of inflorescences. The most important thing is to create the necessary growing conditions for the flower and provide it with maximum comfort. How to do this best, consider below.

Fertilizing and watering

Vriesia is a very moisture-loving flower, however watering this exotic beauty is a very specific procedure. The fact is that you need to water not only the soil, but also the plant outlet itself, which also needs a certain amount of water. However, during the flowering period, on the contrary, the presence of liquid in the outlet is strictly contraindicated, otherwise the plant will rapidly decay. The most suitable and correct irrigation irrigation regimen is 3-4 times a week.

The water in the outlet changes with the same frequency. In winter, the frequency of this procedure must be reduced to once every 7 days, and the substrate should be in a slightly dried state, and the water in the outlet should be kept for no more than three hours. Water the plant with settled water at room temperature so as not to stress it.

Find out how and how to feed indoor plants at home.

The flower loves and responds very well to dressing in an acceptable dose - an excess of fertilizers will lead to the death of vriesia. This procedure also has its own peculiarities - it should be carried out only in the warm season, 3 times a month, preferably before flowering. As fertilizers, a special nutritional mixture with the marking “For bromeliads” is usually used, however, in its absence, fertilizers are also suitable for ordinary indoor plants in a reduced dosage.

The main feature of feeding vriesia is that fertilizers must not be applied to the soil, but to the flower outlet. The fact is that the underdeveloped root system is not involved in the plant’s nutrition in any way, that's why the fertilizers diluted in water are simply sprayed with leaves and a little poured into the outlet.

Plant transplant

Transplantation for vriesia is a rather stressful process, after which it can completely stop development for some time, so this procedure should not be carried out without urgent need. In most cases, adult specimens do not need a transplant, since after a purchase they can quite successfully develop in the storefront transportation soil for a long time, but it is still advisable to change the pot every 3-4 years until the flowering is over.

The transplant itself is necessary in only a few cases:

  • если вазон, в котором растёт вриезия, стал слишком тесным и неспособным выдерживать объёмистую листву растения, делая его крайне неустойчивым;
  • цветок молодой и стремительно развивается и растёт, активно набирая лиственную массу;
  • для размножения растения.

Read also how to properly and when to transplant indoor plants.

Наиболее подходящим временем для данной процедуры считается весенне-летний период, т. е. время активного роста и развития вриезии. Молодые цветки нуждаются в более частой пересадке — несколько раз до появления соцветий.

Грунт для растения обязательно должен состоять из следующих компонентов:

  • листовая земля — 3 части;
  • turf land - 1 part;
  • peat - 1 part;
  • sand - 1 part.
Рекомендуется также перед самим процессом добавлять в субстрат сфагнум, который значительно улучшит его качество.

Видео: посадка вриезии спленриет в горшок

Plant propagation

Размножают вриезию двумя способами — «детками» и семенами, причём последний метод — крайне трудоёмкий и не всегда успешный процесс, поэтому к нему прибегают намного реже. При этом расти цветок, размноженный семенным способом, начнёт в лучшем случае не раньше, чем через 6–11 лет, поэтому это ещё и не практично.

Наиболее приемлемый и простой вариант — размножить растение «детками». Формируются они в основании растения сразу же после окончания цветения. По мере того как материнский цветок начинает отмирать, «детки», напротив, активно развиваются.

Однако наберитесь терпения — следует дождаться образования корней молодых отростков, чтобы они лучше прижились. При данном процессе стоит также обратить внимание и на рост «деток» — они должны быть не ниже половины роста растения. Субстрат для молодых побегов остаётся в таком же составе, что и при пересадке вриезии.

Производится сама процедура так:

  1. Для начала растение вместе с «детками» извлеките из вазона.
  2. Аккуратно промойте корни в воде, очистив их от земли.
  3. Отделите ножом побеги от цветка таким образом, чтобы каждый имел свои корни.
  4. Срезы в обязательном порядке присыпьте углём.
  5. Дайте побегам подсохнуть примерно 20 часов.
  6. В заранее выбранную ёмкость тем временем засыпьте нужный слой дренажа и почвы.
  7. Отростки разместите в центре вазона и досыпьте оставшийся грунт.
  8. Завершающий этап — накройте ёмкость садовой плёнкой, поддерживая температуру на уровне не меньше +27°С, поскольку «детки» сейчас очень нуждаются в тепле.
Дальнейший уход за побегами сводится к поддержанию температурного режима, влажности почвы и нечастых проветриваний на протяжении месяца, после чего их можно будет переставить на подоконник. Цвести размноженные таким образом растения начнут через 4–5 лет, а их пересадка будет допустима только спустя год.

Видео: размножение вриезии спленриет «детками»

How is the flowering period

Цвести вриезия начинает только спустя 3–4 года, а продолжается данный период обычно не дольше нескольких месяцев, однако значительную роль в этом вопросе играет сорт растения. Если вдруг вриезия не цветёт слишком продолжительное время, не спешите отчаиваться — всегда есть выход. В данном случае всё упирается в зависимость растения от этилена, который стимулирует как начало, так и длительность цветения.

Этого легко добиться, соорудив вокруг вриезии своеобразную тепличку и положить внутрь свежее яблоко или банан, которые являются отличным и легкодоступным источником этилена, что ускорит наступление процесса цветения на несколько месяцев. Плоды периодически нужно будет менять, чтобы не допустить их загнивания и привлечения насекомых.

Отмирание вриезии вы сможете сразу же определить по выцветшим краскам прицветников и видоизменению их чешуек, которые начинают становиться мягкими и стремительно отмирать. Яркие прицветники очень быстро теряют свою привлекательность и засыхают. На завершающем этапе данного процесса, если семена для размножения вам не нужны, цветонос необходимо будет срезать. Это повлечёт за собой постепенное отмирание розетки и, вслед за этим, постепенный срез листвы.

Possible growing problems

Вриезия является очень капризным цветком, поэтому трудности, с которыми неопытные цветоводы сталкиваются при выращивании этого экзотического растения, довольно частое явление. Наиболее частой проблемой являются болезни и вредители цветка, которые способны за считанные дни привести к его гибели.

Рассмотрим подробнее ошибки, совершаемые при уходе за вриезией, а также методы их устранения:

  1. Растение не цветёт. Это может быть связано с недостатком тепла, освещения и влаги, а поскольку вриезия очень требовательна ко всем этим условиям, их некачественное выполнение может затормозить период цветения. Устранить проблему очень легко: переместите вазон с растением в более подходящее место и обеспечьте должный уход соблюдением необходимого температурного режима и правил освещения и полива.
  2. Растение загнивает. Вариантов несколько — либо вы переувлажнили грунт, либо допустили застой воды в розетке или поддоне. Исправить ситуацию можно, придерживаясь следующих несложных рекомендаций: следите за тем, чтобы субстрат успевал подсушиться до каждого полива, меняйте почаще воду в розетке и сократите процедуры полива в зимний период.

  3. На листьях растения появляются пятна в большом количестве. Это явный признак того, что вы передержали вриезию на солнце, и это привело к возникновению ожогов. В таком случае стоит немедленно убрать растение в тень или хотя бы создать рассеянное освещение, а в ближайшее время не допускать попадания на цветок прямых солнечных лучей.

  4. Вредители. Как и все растения, вриезия подвержена различным недугам и нашествиям насекомых, которые портят её декоративность и поражают все части цветка. В число наиболее опасных врагов вриезии входят мучнистый червец, щитовка, корневой червец и паутинный клещ. Борьба и профилактика с вредителями проходит чаще всего химическими средствами — лучше всего подойдут такие препараты, как «Актеллик» и «Актара» в дозировке, указанной производителем. В случае слишком сильного поражения обычно используется эмульсия «Карбофоса».

  5. Болезни. Больше всего страдает вриезия от опасного грибкового заболевания — пятнистости листьев. Проявляется недуг в виде поражения листовой пластины небольшими волдырями, которые впоследствии покрываются чёрными полосами. Наиболее эффективной мерой борьбы в таком случае является регуляция полива и обработка растения фунгицидами. На запущенной стадии болезни цветок чаще всего сложно спасти, поэтому в большинстве случаев его утилизируют.

Уже долгое время вриезия не перестаёт лидировать среди остальных комнатных растений в качестве наиболее декоративного. Но для того чтобы содержать растение в приемлемых для него условиях, нужно приложить немало усилий. Правильно и с любовью выращенная вриезия обязательно порадует вас своим красочным цветением и уютным декоративным видом.

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