Viking grape variety: characteristics, cultivation secrets
Viking grapes are attractive in appearance and taste, but it is a capricious culture in terms of care. About the features of the variety and the intricacies of its cultivation, read below.
A hybrid table Viking grape variety is the result of crossbreeding of the Kodryanka and ZOS-1 varieties. The author of the hybrid is Ukrainian amateur breeder V.V. Zagorulko, who bred more than 25 grape varieties and focuses on obtaining early, large-fruited varieties that quickly adapt to different climate conditions.
The Viking hybrid not only retained most of the qualitative characteristics of the parent plants, but also acquired its unique properties.
- grapes of early ripening - the fruits ripen in 100–110 days from the moment the buds appear;
- differs in average frost resistance - tolerates a drop in temperature to –21 ° C, therefore, when grown in the northern regions and the central strip of planting, you need to shelter for the winter;
- in the first 2-3 years after planting, the plants branch strongly, often at the expense of yield;
- seedlings quickly take root in a new place, but without proper care they suffer from fungal infections;
- the variety does not tolerate temperature extremes and high humidity;
- average yield - about 10 kg per bush;
- fruits with good presentation and excellent taste characteristics, resistant to mechanical damage, which allows them to be transported over long distances.
Fast-growing bushes form a large number of side shoots covered with large five-blade green leaves. The structure of the leaf is leathery, the central vein is pronounced. Petiole notch open. Bisexual small green flowers form dense inflorescences. They have a pleasant aroma similar to the aroma of Reseda.
The flowers are symmetrical, consist of 5 cyclic circles of organs:
- calyx, including 5 fused sepals;
- a corolla consisting of 5 fused sepals;
- androecium containing from 5 to 8 stamens;
- Gynoecium, consisting of 2 fused carpels;
- two-ovary ovary.
Read about another table grape variety - Baikonur.
- raw use;
- growing for sale;
- in the production of wines, juices.
Advantages and disadvantages
Viking grapes are distinguished by a number of advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when growing.
- Grade Advantages:
- quick survival in a new place;
- fast ripening period;
- self-pollination ability, which allows the variety to be used as a cross-pollinator for other varieties growing nearby;
- resistance of fruits to mechanical damage;
- high taste characteristics.
- The disadvantages of the variety:
- average resistance to frost;
- poor susceptibility to temperature differences;
- low threshold for resistance to fungal diseases;
- average yields.
Rules and secrets of landing
So that later there would be no problems with the care of the Viking grape variety, you must first select and prepare a site where the plants will not suffer from high humidity and lack of lighting. Particular attention should be paid to the choice of seedlings when buying, since productivity will depend on their viability.
Did you know? In Georgia, fragments of a jug created almost 8 millennia ago with the image of grapes were found, which proves the existence of culture in those days.
How to choose healthy seedlings when buying?
It is better to buy Viking grape seedlings in specialized nurseries, and not by hand. For planting, one-year and two-year-old planting material is suitable. Seedlings are sold with an open root system and with a closed one.
- at least 3 calcaneal roots with a diameter of 2-3 mm;
- the height of the handle itself is 40 cm - this parameter consists of the length of the handle and the length of the annual growth formed during the year after rooting;
- the handle can have from 4 to 6 eyes, in which case its length will be 40 cm, then together with the annual growth the total length will be 55-60 cm;
- on a one-year, well-matured growth, there are at least 4 full kidneys;
- the upper part and roots do not have visible mechanical damage, traces of rot or damage by pests.
A healthy seedling with a closed root system looks like this:
- there are 2–5 unfolded leaves on the handle;
- leaves are painted in bright green color, without damage, are not wrapped around the edges;
- the vine trunk is flat, without cracks and depressions;
- light branched roots are visible through the earthen lump, otherwise, ask the seller to slightly move the top layer of the earth and inspect the roots - if this is not possible, it is better to refuse the purchase.
- Do not buy seedlings before the start of their mass sale - the ripening of vines in all varieties occurs at the same time, and ahead of time they begin to sell planting material treated with a ripening accelerator, which negatively affects the survival rate of plants.
- Bought in the autumn, woody seedlings with green leaves during the winter will lose moisture and are unlikely to take root in a new place.
- When buying a seedling, ask the seller to cut 3 mm of the crown - on the cut a healthy vine is painted in a juicy green color.
- Eyes should hold tightly on the handle, do not move when lightly pressed with a finger.
Video: How to choose a grape seedling
Where to plant on the site?
Grapes should be planted on the south or south-west side of the plot, protected from draft and well-lit from any angle. In shading, the hybrid loses varietal characteristics, it becomes tasteless. Plants develop on fertile black earth soils. Also, when planting Viking varieties, the distance to groundwater is taken into account - an optimal indicator of 2 m.
How to plant seedlings?
In the spring, a month before planting, again cultivate the soil to a depth of 30 cm, level the site. Dig up the landing pits 3 weeks before planting.
Their size will vary depending on the quality of the soil:
- for chernozem soil - 60 × 60 × 60 cm;
- for sandy loam - 80 × 80 × 80 cm.
To get a good harvest, the Viking grape variety needs to be provided with care consisting of a number of measures.
The Viking grape variety does not tolerate high humidity. Watering has features and classification:
- Moisturizing for a long period of time - spend in spring and autumn;
- planting - carried out in the first days after a dive into the open ground or immediately when the seedlings are deepened into the hole;
- irrigation of planted material - carried out at all stages of development of a particular plant during the first year from the moment of planting;
- vegetative irrigation.
Important! Autumn water-charging irrigation is not carried out if the rainy season passes in October. Vegetative irrigation is carried out in different ways, in accordance with the age of the plants. During the first year of life, plants grow the root system, so it is better to water dosed for each individual instance. To do this, draw a circle 10-15 cm deep at a distance of 25 cm from the main stem. Each young plant has 5 to 25 liters of water, depending on weather conditions.
Watered in accordance with the phases of vegetation 4 times per season:
- In the phase of tying the kidneys.
- Immediately after flowering, when the first ovary appeared.
- During the period of increase and pouring berries.
- Water-loading irrigation in the fall, if necessary in the spring, in trenches.
Fertilizing is combined with irrigation in accordance with the phases of vegetation. Viking grapes for development require the following nutrients:
- nitrogen - helps to build a strong green mass, contribute only in the spring;
- phosphorus - promotes abundant flowering, the formation of full-fledged ovaries, contribute at the beginning of flowering;
- potassium, copper - accelerate the ripening of vines and fruits, increase frost resistance, bring before the abolition of the August irrigation;
- boron, zinc - contribute to increased yield and sugar content of fruits, participate in the formation of pollen, contribute in parallel with phosphorus.
Fertilizer application under the root:
- In the spring, before removing the winter shelter from the bushes and 2 weeks before flowering begins, 10 l of water is added under each plant, in which 20 g of superphosphate, 10 g of ammonium nitrate and 5 g of potassium salt or 1 l of slurry per 1 m² are dissolved.
- After flowering, for each bush 10 l of water with 20 g of superphosphate and 5 g of potassium salt can be replaced with 10 l of water with 400 g of ash from sunflower husk.
- After harvesting - potassium chloride 10 g for each bush in combination with watering.
Video: Topping grapes in summer
In order for plants to develop and be resistant to diseases, root top dressing is combined with leaf dressing.
Scheme of foliar top dressing:
- Before flowering in 3 days - the preparation "Emochka-Fertility" per 1 ha of 1 liter, dissolved in 40 liters of water.
- After flowering and before ripening - the drug "Aminomax" 300 ml, dissolved in 200 ml of water per 1 ha.
- Before harvesting in 2 weeks - 450 g of wood ash is insisted daily in 3 l of water, add 10 l of water in the morning and sprayed.
The Viking grape variety has a high growth rate. If the bushes do not have quality support, the immature vine will begin to break under its own weight. In addition, the support makes harvesting and pruning easier.
During the first 2 years from the moment of planting, stakes driven into the holes serve as a support for the grapes. From the third year you need to equip a vertical trellis. The design consists of several posts 2.5 m high, located at a distance of 3 m from each other, between which 4-5 rows of galvanized wire are stretched. The distance from the ground to the first wire is 30 cm, between the wire is 45 cm.
Tie grape shoots in 2 stages:
- Dry garter - in the spring, after removing the shelters.
- Green garter - in the summer, when young shoots begin to grow.
Did you know? Grape leaves, vine and berries have healing properties. There is a separate area of medicine associated with the use of these properties - ampelotherapy. The tying is carried out by the "eight" method with a cotton cloth. The garter material must first be wrapped around the wire, forming a layer between it and the plant tissue, and then tied up the shoot.
After irrigation or rain in the territory of the vineyard, it is necessary to loosen the soil to a depth of 10 cm. At the same time, weeds are weeded. After loosening, the soil must be mulched with compost to maintain moisture.
In spring and autumn, after harvesting, it is necessary to carry out deep cultivation on the bayonet of a shovel (20–25 cm). This allows you to saturate the soil with oxygen and destroy the spores of the fungus and the larvae of pests wintering in the upper layers of the soil.
In the first year after planting, at the end of October, the matured shoots are shortened to zero. The slice is made with a sharp secateurs at a distance of 3 mm to the connection of the vine with the main stem. The slice is powdered with powdered activated carbon in combination with 3 g of foundationazole. In the future, the young vine is shortened by 5 buds. Shoots growing from the soil are not cut off, but left to form new branches.
To set large fruits on adult bushes, leave long lashes containing 20 buds each. Autumn pruning allows the vine to be formed in such a way that it fully fits under the shelter. After autumn pruning, the bushes are treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate to avoid infection with diseases and pests.
In the summer, you can remove young stepsons who have not reached a length of 5 cm to avoid thickening of the green mass.
Important! Early pruning leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of plants. After fruiting, they need to be given to replenish the supply of nutrients and only 3 weeks before frosts to carry out the pruning procedure.
The first stage of preparation for winter is the autumn pruning of the vine. The next stage is the katarovka (pruning) of dew roots growing under the surface of the soil.
The procedure allows deep roots to strengthen and is performed as follows:
- Remove 20 cm of soil around the main stem.
- Cut the small roots flush with the main one using a sharpened secateurs treated with boric alcohol.
- Slices are treated with 1% solution of copper sulfate.
- Cover the roots with dry sand.
- Spend hilling.
- Water (20 liters of water per bush).
С наступлением устойчивой плюсовой температуры укрытие снимают и подвязывают лозу к шпалерам.
Did you know? Виноград близок по питательному составу, за исключением содержания жира, к молочной продукции. Виноград сорта Викинг отличается хорошими товарными качествами. При его культивации, для получения полноценного урожая, необходим качественный уход. На зиму виноград этого сорта нужно обязательно прикрывать.