Varieties of grapes Krasokhina: description, agricultural cultivation
People began to grow grapes from ancient times, it is one of the first plants cultivated by man. Nowadays, the most famous grape varieties of domestic selection are associated with the name of Svetlana Ivanovna Krasokhina, who for many years continues the work of her father, introducing new varieties of grapes. Characteristic features of varieties, recommendations for cultivation and care, read below.
Svetlana Ivanovna Krasokhina - Researcher at the Laboratory for Selection and Ampelography of the Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking named after Potapenko. She took part in the creation of more than 150 varieties of grapes. The breeder is studying the features of the use of growth regulators on table varieties of culture related to the female type of flowering. Krasokhina’s research is dedicated to the development of new varieties resistant to diseases and pests.
Did you know? In Slovenia, in the city of Maribor, a vine grows over 400 years old. It still bears fruit and gives annually from 35 to 55 kg of red Ametovka grapes. Part of it is used as food, and 25 liters of wine are made from the rest of the berries.
The article will consider 8 grape varieties bred by Svetlana Krasokhina.
Descriptions and characteristics of varieties
Depending on the color and scope of the berries, the described grape varieties are divided into several varieties:
- dining rooms;
- Novocherkassk kishmish has an early ripening period of 110 days. The variety was bred by selection of varieties Villard Blanc and Dream. The bush is small in size, leaves are rounded. Fruits are pale pink in color, weighing up to 450 g. The weight of one berry is up to 3 g, the shape is round or oval. It is resistant to powdery mildew. The main advantages are the absence of seeds and the quick survival of seedlings. The disadvantage is a quick spoilage of fruits on the stems.
- Yasya is a new seedless grape variety that has been developed by crossing Rusven and Ogonyok. Shrub vine is vigorous, green leaves. Bunches ripen in 115 days, gain weight up to 1 kg. The weight of one berry is up to 10 g, the skin color is purple, the flesh has a pink tint. The advantages of the variety are in early maturity and partial immunity to fungal infections. The disadvantage is the tendency to crack the skin on the berries.
- Alexa is a variety bred by crossing the varieties Birunitsa and Delight. Shrub shoots are vigorous, leaf blades are large, have a green tint, slightly pubescent below. It is characterized by average ripening from 120 to 135 days. Bunches of cylindrical or conical shape and weighing up to 1 kg. Oval berry weighs 10 g. Advantages - in frost resistance and medium resistance to fungal diseases. Fruits perfectly tolerate transportation over a long distance.
- Zolotinka is an early variety ripening in 100 days. Derived from the varieties Frumoas Albe and Korinka Russian. The bush is very curly, the leaf blades are small, rounded. The clusters are wide, conical in shape, weighing up to 800 g. Berries are greenish in color and weighing up to 10 g. It is resistant to gray rot and mildew. The disadvantage is the lack of immunity to oidium disease.
- Baklanovsky grapes were bred when crossing the varieties of Original and Delight. It differs by early maturity of 110 days. The clusters have a conical shape, reaching a mass of 900 g. Round white berries weigh about 7 g. Resistance to putrefactive diseases is high, indicators of frost resistance are average. Over the years, there has been a decrease in yield, which is a disadvantage of the variety.
- Muskrat Kesha grapes bred from the varieties Delight and Frumoas Albe. It has an average ripening period of up to 130 days. Wide conical clusters weigh up to 1200 g. The berries are white, round, weighing up to 12 g. The variety is frost-resistant and partially resistant to fungal infections. The disadvantage is that abundant productivity leads to breakage of the stems.
- Platonovsky grape variety is bred by crossing varieties Zaladende and Gift of Magarach. Ripening periods - 115 days. The fruit clusters have the shape of a cylinder pointed to the bottom and weigh 300 g. The berries are medium-sized, round, white, weighing about 2 g, and have a pleasant muscat aroma. The taste is sweet. It has a lot of advantages, which are frost resistance (up to –29 ° С), resistance to putrefactive and fungal infections.
- Muscat Pridonsky is another representative of technical varieties, bred by crossing the varieties Friendship and Oreon. Ripening periods are average - up to 130 days. Bushes are developed, characterized by strong ripening of the vine. The clusters are cylindrical in shape, weighing up to 350 g. Berries are spherical or oval in shape, weighing up to 3 g, white or pink. Thin-skinned berries have a juicy flesh and a nutmeg aroma. The advantages of the variety are frost resistance, as well as average resistance to gray rot and phylloxera.
Basic rules for planting and further care
So that the grapes are well rooted and developed, it is necessary to choose the right place for planting. It is necessary to plant the plant in a place with a low occurrence of water, the permissible norm is 1.5 m, otherwise the rhizome will rot and interfere with the development of the culture.
Landing is made on crushed stone or stony soils. The soil should be slightly acidic. Seedlings are planted only in warm soil when the air temperature is stably high - + 20 ° С. Landing is usually carried out in late May.
Important! When buying a seedling, you must carefully examine the plant for diaper rash, rot and damage to the root system. To be sure of the authenticity of the planted variety, it is better to buy a seedling in a specialized store.
Preparation of the landing pit and soil:
- Dig a hole measuring 70 × 70 wide and 80 cm deep.
- Pour crushed stone at the bottom of the hole with a layer of 10 cm for drainage.
- Prepare a substrate from the upper fertile soil layer mixed with 20 kg of humus and 10 kg of sand.
Immediately before planting, the seedling is placed in a solution for the rapid growth of rhizomes. You can use the drug "Kornevin" at the rate of 30 g per 1 liter of water. The seedling must remain in solution for at least 3 hours.
Planting a seedling:
- Pour the soil substrate into the prepared pit until the middle, forming a small hill.
- Carefully place the seedling in the hole and level the root system along the embankment.
- Add to the top of the pit with a substrate so that the seedling peeks 3-4 cm above the ground.
- Tamp the soil with light pats.
- Pour a seedling of 5 liters of warm water with a temperature of + 20 ° C.
- After that, cover the soil with a layer of sand of 10 cm.
Care for grapes begins in March, when it is necessary to carry out the pruning procedure. It must be performed before the swelling of the kidneys, otherwise the juice will leak from the slices and there will be a risk of infection with fungi. In the spring, the first preventive irrigation against infections and pests is carried out. The procedure is carried out at a temperature of + 4 ° С to + 6 ° С, for it a 3% solution of copper sulfate is prepared - 300 g per 10 l of water.
Did you know? To make 1 bottle of wine, 6 kg of grapes are required.
The second prophylactic procedure is carried out in the middle of summer, the plant is treated with the “Quadris” preparation (60 ml per 10 liters of water), and top dressing in the form of the “Aquarin” preparation (25 g per 10 liters of water) is added. At the end of August, phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is carried out at the rate of 15 g per 10 l of water. Starting in April, it is necessary to tie overgrown vines. In parallel, stepsons and weakened shoots should be removed. Watering is carried out 2 times a month as needed. It is necessary to make up to 20 liters of water under each bush.
Diseases and pests of varieties
Most often, vineyards infect fungal infections, such as:
Oidium is a fungal infection that affects leaf plates, leading to the formation of gray plaque on them and to twisting. The stems slow down their growth. In a neglected state, the oidium spreads to clusters and flowers.
The fight against the disease:
- loosening the soil between the rows - this will saturate the root system with oxygen and dry the earth;
- pruning and burning of damaged shoots;
- irrigation with the drug "Quadris" in a proportion of 60 ml per 10 liters of water, 1 liter of solution is used per 1 m² of area.
Learn more about effective remedies and measures to combat oidium on grapes.
Mildew is a fungal infection that manifests itself in the form of yellow, oily to the touch spots. With high humidity, the spots fester, and with low humidity they dry out, which leads to the death of the damaged sheet.
The fight against the disease:
- digging the soil;
- timely pruning of shoots;
- planting disease-resistant varieties;
- treatment with a solution of copper sulfate (300 g per 10 l of water), which is repeated 3 times with a frequency of 2 weeks.
Very often, vineyards attack wasps that fly in to enjoy the sweet berry juice.
Important! It is worth fighting with wasps only during the ripening period of the clusters, since in general these insects are beneficial by eating the larvae of pests.
- place clusters in gauze bags so that the insect cannot reach the berries;
- avoid injury to berries, so as not to attract insects;
- cut the hornet’s nest carefully and burn it;
- use the Quadris insecticide, which must be mixed with jam or honey in the amount of 10 drops and put near vineyards.
Preventive measures to combat diseases and pests:
- selection of varieties that are immune to diseases;
- loosening the soil after every rain and watering in order to air the soil;
- timely trimming;
- removal of damaged stems;
- treatment with a 3% solution of copper sulfate.
Features of the application of grapes
Grapes are widely used in the food industry.
In particular, it is made of:
- essential oil.
Due to the high content of ascorbic acid, riboflavin and carotene, these berries are useful for anemia, colds, as well as impaired functioning of the heart muscle.
You will be interested to read about the beneficial and harmful properties of black and white grapes.
With the daily use of grapes, a general strengthening effect on all body systems occurs, namely:
- heart rate normalizes;
- shortness of breath passes;
- blood pressure decreases;
- insomnia passes;
- the emotional state is getting better.
So, Krasokhina grape varieties are unique plant specimens that are distinguished by high yields and immunity to many diseases. Berries have a wide range of uses and are an important component of the human diet.