Varieties and types of syngonium and proper care for them
Syngonium is an evergreen creeper that flower growers fell in love with for their beneficial properties and exotic appearance. In addition, caring for this plant will not cause much trouble. The plant easily adapts to the conditions of the apartment, but requires compliance with special maintenance rules.
Features and origin of the plant
At the moment, there are about 30 species of syngonium. It is quite common in the tropics of Central and South America. The greens are similar in shape to arrowheads, and their color is quite soft and pleasant. As the syngonium grows, its leaves tend to change.
The young plant is brighter, and with age, the green, from the whole, becomes divided into parts. Initially, the plant looks like a bush, but over time it grows into a lush vine, which clings to the support with its roots, and you can regulate its growth in any direction.
The shoots of this houseplant can reach sizes from 1.5 to 2 m, although plants are found in nature and 20 m in length. The stem of a cultivated plant is usually no more than 2 cm. Over a year, the plant grows about 30 cm in length and gives 6-7 new leaves.
Along the entire length, the plant releases aerial roots, which are necessary for the liana to be fixed on the surface, and only one root from each supplies the flower with nutrients. The leaves of syngonium have a bright green color and can be either smooth or velvety in structure. Veins are located along its entire surface, including along the edge, and give it relief.
Did you know? After pollination, small fruits appear on the site of the flowers, which attract animals. Thus, in the wild, the plant propagates by seed. And the inhabitants of Latin America use these berries in local dishes.
In addition to decorative properties, a whole series of useful qualities are attributed to the syngonium. This plant regulates the humidity level in the apartment, forming drops of water on the greenery, and saturates the air with oxygen.
It is believed that the enzymes that the flower secrets help calm the nerves and relieve stress. One thing is certain for sure - with the juice of this plant you need to be very careful. Due to its toxicity, it can cause an allergic reaction. But subject to safety precautions, this vine is not dangerous.
Types and varieties of syngonium
This plant has only 2 species suitable for growing at home - this is a leg-leaved and ear-shaped syngonium.
They differ in the following parameters:
- Legion-leaved syngonium or podophyllum (S. podophyllum). This is a liana, which differs in many branches from the main stem. She comes from Central America. The average size of the leaves is 13 cm, and the petioles are 60 cm long. On each of them shoots are densely located. Young syngoniums of this species have spear-shaped leaves, while more mature specimens produce palmate leaves, on which no more than 11 lobes are located.
- Eared Syngonium (S. auritum). Shoots of this species are quite thin and do not exceed 2.5 cm in diameter. One stem can grow up to almost 2 m. Aerial roots and leaves are formed on the internodes, which are scattered quite closely along the stem. The name of this species came from the unusual arrangement of leaves, which in their basis have 2 shoots, and are similar to ears. The peel on the sheets is very smooth, and its size varies from 6 to 20 cm.
Both species of syngonium are divided into varieties that have received well-deserved recognition of admirers of the tropical flora:
- Wendlandii is a large representative of the syngonium, which has dark green greens with velvety skin; they came to our apartments from sunny Costa Rica. The greenery on the shoots appears from the petioles, whose length is 30 cm. The central vein of the leaf has a silver tint.
- Pink - different pinkish color of leaves that are edged with a green rim. Young leaves are completely painted in bright pink, but with age they fade, leaving an unusual color only on the veins. It is also called Syngonium Neon.
- White Butterfly (White Butterfly - White Butterfly) - the most common syngonium, which has spear-shaped sheets and a light web of veins. It is unpretentious, can be propagated at any time of the year, and its growth is quite rapid. The maximum height of the plant is 1.5 m.
- Pixie is a small perennial with smooth leaves with an elongated heart shape with a glossy skin. On green light green streaks are pronounced.
- Arrow is a fairly common variety, which is unpretentious in care. It has bright large shoots.
- Panda is a bushy variety that grows quickly enough, but is not yet very popular in our apartments. It is distinguished by an unusual color of leaves that have a dark green color and yellow blotches.
- Aron Brown - has a triangular-rounded chocolate-colored leaves with green spots on the tips. They are located on a red petiole.
- Confetti - this variety is able to radically change the shape of the sheet as it grows. So the young green has a arrow-shaped shape, and the old leaf already clearly shows the lobes, which makes it look like a star.
- Tiffany - the flower has rather peculiar pigment spots on the leaves.
- Macrophillum - a feature lies in its impressive size and rounded leaves, which are pointed to the apex. The skin is velvety dark green in color.
- Brokant - this representative creeper has a brown color with pronounced red veins.
- Narrowed - a small plant variety with leaves that are divided into 11 segments.
- Pink Flashed - this variety has green leaves with creamy pink spots that are randomly scattered on the surface of the greenery.
- Imperial White - this variety propagates very hard, but it looks quite impressive. The leaves of this syngonium are white. This color is achieved due to the high concentration of nitrogen in the soil.
- Pink Spot - This variety is distinguished by a variety of shapes and colors. Species with a spear-shaped, heart-shaped and arrow-shaped form of the leaf can be found, and its color varies from simple green to white with pink spots.
- Red Spot - This tricolor variety has spear-shaped greens. The skin is colored green, pink and white at the same time.
- Sper Point is an unpretentious variety that can change shape on adult leaves. The arrow-shaped green leaves with time, and segments appear on the leaves.
- Rasami Nag - bush variety that almost does not curl, reaches a height of no more than 40 cm. The leaves are painted in white and pink.
- Three kings (Three kings) - is very unpretentious in leaving, and with age leaves from arrow-shaped become divided into segments. The color is light green with light green spots.
- Jade - has arrow - shaped leaves with emerald-colored tongues in the center and a light green rim along the edges.
- Regina Red is a low plant with stems of a grayish tone. Leaves are densely located on the trunk. The top of the leaf is pink and the bottom is green. If the flower stands in the light, then its color becomes brighter, but with a lack of light, it turns pale.
- Plum Allusion (Plum Allusion) - is distinguished by pronounced light green streaks on dark leaves. Young greens are very different in form from the old.
- Nguengi Laima - characterized by very light, almost white, arrow -shaped leaves. It grows by a bush.
The main advantage of syngonium is its unpretentiousness. He quickly enough adapts to various conditions and has a high survival rate. Another aspect why flower growers are so fond of is the rapid growth of this vine.
The best temperature to maintain the flower in proper form is +22 ... + 25 ° С. In winter, it is perfectly acceptable to warm the air in the room only to + 18 ° C.
You can trim the liana after it releases the first 3 leaves. If necessary, any process is subject to pinching, since the syngonium is absolutely not afraid of this procedure. It is especially useful to do this if the stem has become old or discarded leaves, then this manipulation will contribute to the formation of new shoots.
Important! Lighting for a flower should not be too strong. It is necessary to provide it with diffused light, since direct sunlight can leave burns on delicate leaves.
Watering and feeding
This tropical plant is very demanding on moisture, which must be maintained at a high level. Therefore, it is necessary to water and spray it on time. It is advisable to carry out the irrigation procedure daily with warm water from the filter.
For watering, it is also better to use warm water, and the soil should be constantly moistened and not dry up deeper than 3 cm. If you regularly take care of enough moisture in the soil, this will help the plant cope with dryness in the air.
Propagation of plants in an apartment can be carried out by the method of cuttings and pruning. If you decide to propagate the syngonium with cuttings, then for this you need to cut the stem into pieces so that they have several nodes with roots.
Sections must be treated with ash. After this, the cuttings are immersed in a container with water so that the air roots better germinate. The container is covered with a film to better retain moisture, but it still needs to be ventilated several times a day.
After the plant takes good roots, the vine can be planted in pre-prepared soil.
To grow a full-fledged syngonium from the apical shoot, you must first cut it under the knot so that it has several aerial roots. Then the sprout is placed in water, which must be changed daily. When the roots reach 3 cm, syngonium can be planted in the ground for indoor flowers.
Plant pests and diseases
Among the pests, the most dangerous enemies of syngonium are:
- Aphids . The appearance of this insect can immediately be recognized by twisted yellowed leaves on the vine, which fall over time. You can remove the pest with Actellik. Processing is carried out twice.
- Thrips . The reason for their appearance may be low humidity and heat. These insects settle on the back of the leaves, where they form colonies. From this, the leaves turn brown and get an unnatural shine. In order to get rid of these pests, it is necessary to treat the plants with disinfecting drugs.
- Shield . Because of this parasite, the syngonium can lose its leaves and stop growing. The plant can be treated with soapy water, and adults can be removed with a cotton swab. If this does not help, then you can use an insecticide.
- Drying of the tips of the leaves . This can happen due to insufficient humidity. To increase the amount of moisture, you can put a syngonium next to the aquarium or sprinkle vines.
- Yellow leaves and rot at the base of the stem . These symptoms may be consequences of root disease. The reason for this phenomenon may be an overabundance of watering, due to which the roots began to drive out, or vice versa - overdrying of the soil led to the dryness of the root, which caused its death. To prevent the flower from withering completely, it is necessary to move it to another pot, after replacing the soil with a new one. The affected roots are then removed and the rest are processed with potassium permanganate. Dried roots need to be placed in water for a while to saturate with moisture.
- Yellowing of the plant . If this symptom appears, but no rotting of the liana is observed, then this is evidence of a lack of nutrients in the soil. Just apply complex fertilizer for room herbs. This procedure should be carried out 2-3 times with a frequency of 3 weeks.
Important! Rotting on the roots can occur due to heavy and dense soil, which does not allow enough air to pass through.
Useful growing tips
In order for this plant to please you with its growth, you can use additional recommendations:
- Capacity for syngonium, you can choose any. Both pots and a regular pot suspended from a support will be used. Care in both cases remains standard.
- For better rooting, the syngonium cuttings can be treated with a growth stimulator, then the roots will be stronger and the plant will start them faster.
- It is better to plant syngonium in a mixture of leafy earth, peat, sand and humus. All this is mixed in equal parts.
- If you cut off the top of the main stem and lateral shoots, then from the liana you get a pretty fluffy bush.
- During the period of active growth, namely from the beginning of spring to the end of autumn, the plant needs abundant watering. With the advent of winter, the amount of water is reduced. You can also replace spraying with shower watering.
- By the state of the leaves, you can understand what the plant is missing. So, excessive watering will be reflected in the darkening and dullness of the leaves, and a lack of light and nutrients - a decrease in the size of the leaves.
Signs and superstitions associated with the plant
Superstitious people follow various signs that are associated with this flower. It is believed that this liana is able to get rid of complexes, because it causes interest in the knowledge of the world and contributes to the formation of character.
People also believe that syngonium helps its owner to recover from diseases and restore strength. It can also save its owner from bad habits and protect his sleep, saving a person from nightmares.
The people believe that in the house where this plant appeared, positive energy will dominate, and people will grow and change for the better.
There are also signs that indicate the negative impact of syngonium. So, the people consider him a husbandman. Allegedly, the man and the flower cannot get along in the same house, and the fate of the old maiden awaits the mistress. But in practice, many lovers of this flower rejoice in the growth of their pet and are simultaneously happy in marriage.
Do you know l ? Adherents of the Feng Shui teachings will never put a syngonium at home because of the shape of the leaves, which emit “poisonous breath”, like all sharp corners. But if you still decided to do this, then you will have to hang a protective amulet nearby.
Due to its universal properties, this plant will not cause much trouble even to an inexperienced grower. But if you provide him with proper care, then the syngonium will delight the eye with a variety of shapes and colors for many years.