Tobacco Virginia 202: home growing
Tobacco Virginia 202 - smoking tobacco that can be used both for your own purposes and for sale. This type of tobacco contains a small amount of harmful resins that can harm the body. How to grow a plant at home will be discussed in this article.
Virginia Tobacco Variety History 202
Virginia 202 is the most common smoking tobacco in the world. Tobacco is named after the Virginia colony, which was founded by W. Reilly in 1607. The first tobacco crop was harvested in 1612, and tobacco was soon transported to London.
Did you know? In America, tobacco was used much more often and for different purposes - they drank it as ordinary tea, made jelly, pies from it.
This variety grows very well in the Russian Federation in different climatic zones. A distinctive characteristic of this variety is the content of a minimum amount of harmful resins. Virginia has a sweet taste. Tobacco was introduced into the State Register of Varieties of the Russian Federation for the North Caucasus Region. The color of the seedlings is pale green. Foliage upstairs, oval. The yield is up to 1, 500 kg per 1 ha. From one bush, the harvest will be 20–25 leaves up to 35 cm long.
Tobacco growing at home
Planting plants is recommended in early spring. Seedlings need to be planted no closer than 50 cm to each other. A quality crop can only be achieved with proper care. You will be interested to learn about Virginia tobacco.
To obtain high-quality seedlings for planting, it is necessary to germinate the seeds. The procedure in this case is as follows:
- They need to be placed in a small bowl. Disposable glasses can serve as such dishes. They need to make minimal holes for drainage. Small pebbles or eggshells should be placed on the bottom of the glass.
- After this preparatory stage, you need to prepare the soil. Fertile soil is more suitable for this variety. It is best to purchase it at a specialty store. Normal soil should be mixed with soil in a 1: 1 ratio. The land should be clean, free of pests and parasites, to prevent their appearance with the help of potassium permanganate.
- After preparing the soil, you need to go to the process of planting seed planting. Since the seeds for planting are small in size, they need to be carefully planted, it is recommended to take tweezers.
- Before planting seeds, it is necessary to water the soil with warm water. Next, carefully pour the seeds from the bag into a glass. Pour a small amount of earth on top.
- The container must be tightly closed with plastic wrap and left at room temperature. Seeds begin to emerge in 3-5 days. When the first green stalks appear, the film needs to be removed, and the seedlings should be placed in the light, the windowsill will be the most favorable place.
Next, the tobacco needs to be planted in the soil, best under a plastic film.
Did you know? In the XYII century in Russia, tobacco sellers and smokers were punished by flogging with rods.
There are several rules that will help answer the question of how to grow this culture:
- Choose a landing place. An angled area is best. This will avoid excessive soil moisture. In addition, the place should not be in a draft.
- If the area of the land does not allow you to allocate a large bed under the plant, you can plant tobacco along the fence.
- Before planting tobacco, you do not need to plow the soil, it will be enough to clear the seat of grass.
- Fertilize the soil before planting. For this, a wonderful compost is suitable. For 1 m² of land you need 0.5–1 bucket of fertilizer.
- After performing the previous steps, you can proceed to a direct landing. Seedlings must be planted at a distance of 20–25 cm. A bed should be formed at the planting site. It should be about 20-30 cm deep. You need to put compost on the bottom and moisten it well.
- Carefully remove tobacco from glasses, plant in a bed and pour water.
Features of tobacco care at home
Plant care is divided into 2 stages - before and after the dive:
- Before picking, the plant does not require special care. After the first sprouts appear, it is necessary to remove the plastic film and put the container with seedlings in the light (on the windowsill). If the seedlings lack light, the sprouts will be thin and substandard. The entire germination period must be monitored for soil moisture, watering should only be done with clean water, warm temperature.
- After picking, seedlings need to be irrigated daily . 2 weeks after the picking, the seedlings must be fertilized with organic and mineral substances for nutrition. Such fertilizers include nitrogen, chicken droppings, in proportions of 1:10 with water. If the shoots are thin and weak, it is necessary to add additional fertilizing as chicken droppings.
Before transplanting seedlings into the soil, it must be hardened by placing tobacco in a cool place. A week before planting in the ground, seedlings should not be watered.
After planting in the ground, the culture must be watered with plenty of warm water. A few weeks after planting should be watered 1 time per week. At the age of 1 month, seedlings need more water. At this time, the emergence of organic tissue seedlings occurs, so it is recommended to moisten the soil every 3-4 days with a volume of 10 liters per 1 m².
Two months after planting, the moisture level should be reduced. Water becomes a secondary component to the life of the culture. Humidification is necessary only in case of significant drying of the earth.
Important! It is very important to pay attention to the weather and climate in which tobacco is grown. The frequency of watering primarily depends on these factors.
Fertilizers containing nitrogen must be applied after planting in the soil. After planting seedlings, you need more nitrogen in order to accumulate a significant amount of green mass necessary for a quality crop. In bait, this stage is the most important. Virginia needs to be fertilized 7 days after planting in the soil. Urea is excellent for fertilizer. For fertilizer, you need 1 tbsp. l mix minerals with 10 l of water and fertilize under the root of the plant.
If you use folk remedies as fertilizer, it is best to use chicken droppings. To do this, mix 0.5 l of litter in 10 l of water and fertilize the plants.
The ripening period of tobacco is also an important stage in the life of the plant, so it must be fertilized with a complex of minerals - phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium. During this period, fertilize 2-3 times.
Weed control should be done before tobacco is planted in the soil, and this should be continued throughout the growing period, because weeds cause many diseases that contribute to the appearance of parasites.
Diseases and Pests
There are a huge number of diseases and pests of this type of plant, the main ones will be presented below :
- Peronosporosis is one of the common diseases of tobacco plants. It spreads rapidly in the warm season. Foliage is covered with yellow-green spots, begins to wrap. In the event that the disease spreads to young seedlings, it immediately dies. Due to peronosporosis, the yield is reduced by 30%. After planting, young seedlings must be fertilized with a Tsineb suspension (0.4%) to prevent the disease. If there are signs on the foliage that characterize this disease, it is necessary to promptly start etching against parasites. In the case of the appearance of a fungus, more than 75% of the area of the plant must be torn out and burned.
- Powdery mildew is a fungal disease, the hallmark of which is the appearance of white plaque on the foliage, first on parts of the foliage, and later on the entire surface. Against this disease, the drug "Tsineb" (0.3%) is also suitable. It is necessary to reduce soil moisture a week before harvesting.
- Tobacco thrips is a type of orange insect with wings. This insect sucks the juice from the leaves of tobacco, so the yield is significantly reduced, the fruits become poor quality. Under the influence of this pest, the foliage breaks. Such insects carry various diseases. In order to prevent the occurrence of parasites, it is often necessary to weed the grass and treat the soil with insecticides. Dust of hexachloran must be added to the soil before planting seedlings with a concentration of 12%.
- Wireworm - dense beetle larvae, reaching 2 cm. Unlike other parasites, the worm destroys the root system. Lives about three years. It is quite difficult to remove parasites. For prevention, it is necessary to conduct soil treatment with hexachloran dust (12%). In case of a worm, you need to spray it with metaphos dust in the evening.
Collection and processing of tobacco
When the leaves of tobacco turn yellow, it is necessary to start harvesting. Important! Harvest is necessary only from the lower tier, otherwise the foliage plate will be damaged. In order to effectively dry the tobacco, it is necessary to decompose it on the surface, the layer should not exceed 30 cm, it is necessary to dry it for about 12 hours. After this time, the foliage must be placed on a rope and dried already in a hanging position.
If drying occurs on the street, it is necessary to ensure that natural rainfall does not fall on the foliage. If the weather is warm and dry, the process will take about two weeks. Leaves that have passed the drying period must be stored in a pile.
In order to reduce the volume of negative resins and nicotine, it is necessary to carry out the fermentation process (this is a procedure for increasing temperature and changing humidity, for the formation of different compounds). During fermentation with the help of sunlight, disinfection is carried out, mold is destroyed. Dried and very brittle foliage must be laid out in jars and covered with lids. The jar needs to be placed in a place where there are no direct rays of the sun, and put in a horizontal position. After 10 days, dry leaves must be removed and completely dried. This stage is final, after it you can use tobacco.
This type of tobacco is quite unpretentious, does not require special care. The Virginia variety is great for home growing.