The technology of growing corn for grain

Corn is popular all over the world, cultivated mainly as a feed crop (animal feed). Only a small percentage goes to food production. To get a good harvest, you need to know the features of agricultural technology. We will talk about them in our article.

The best hybrids of corn for grain

To get a good grain yield, agronomists use high-yielding varieties and hybrids with the shortest possible ripening period.

Among the existing hybrids, the best are considered:

  • Trophy F1;

  • Jubilee F1;

  • Landmark F1;

  • Ladoga 250 MB;

  • Ladoga 191.

These are early hybrids.

To mid-season can include:

  • Collective 181 CB;

  • Bemo 182 NE;

  • Katerina SV;

  • Dokuchaevsky - 250 MB;

  • Sweetstar F;

  • Maxalia;

  • Favorite;

  • Pearls;

  • Spirit F1.

Among the later hybrids, there are:

  • Polaris

  • Bashkirovets.

Corn cultivation technology

Modern agricultural technologies make it possible to simplify the growing process, but as before it consists of: sowing, irrigation, treatment with fungicides.

Sowing corn

Before corn is sown, it needs to be sorted, calibrated, and pickled. Seeds for germination are also selected: it should be at least 95%. In order to sprout grains faster, after selection they are heated in the sun or air for 5-6 days. After etched with fungicides. Did you know? Corn is an annual plant that can grow up to 7 meters in height, which is equal to the height of a two-story house. Sowing time is selected taking into account the weather, the condition of the field, the ripening speed of the variety and other indicators. As a rule, they begin to sow when the soil temperature is held at +10 ... + 12 ° С for a long time. If the variety is cold-resistant, then a temperature lower by two degrees is permissible.

Sowing of corn is carried out in a dotted way (in a row, but with a fixed gap between the seeds). Between the rows, on average, a gap of 0.7 m is left. If the climate is humid - 0.6 m, dry - 0.9–1.4 m.

Video: sowing corn seeds in open ground

Crop rates are adjusted based on growing conditions, cereal height, fertility and soil moisture. So, in the forest-steppe, early hybrids are sown in such a way that there are 45–56 bushes on the 10 m row, provided that there will be 0.7 m between rows. For the steppe, the indicator is different: 42–45 bushes per 10 m, and mid-season hybrids are sown according to the scheme: 32–35 bushes per 10 m.

If sowing is carried out in due time, then the grain is buried by 40-50 mm in the soil. When the topsoil is already dry, it is better to deepen the seed 10-12 cm more than normal to reach the wet layer.

Important! Performing a deeper sowing is impractical, since the yield from this is reduced.


Corn is a moisture-loving crop. Its seed needs to absorb moisture about 44% of its mass in order to have enough strength to break through to the surface of the earth. For a day, cereal is able to absorb 2–4 liters of water, but it does not tolerate when the soil is waterlogged. Therefore, soil moisture control should come first. It is advisable to maintain it at around 70–80%, then the culture will be as prolific as possible.

For watering corn, it is better to use the technology of underground drip irrigation. It is more effective than standard drip irrigation.

Fungicide treatment

Crops planted on the field are often attacked by pests and diseases, so you need to treat the culture with fungicides. You will be interested to know how to quickly and properly peel corn at home. Among pests annoy:

  • stem moth (a sparing method of struggle - scattering of trichograms, parasite insects, at the rate of 100 yew / ha during flowering and again 200 yew / ha, when the grains begin to form; an effective method is Karate 5% ke - 0.2 l / ha or Nurell 20% ke - 0.4 l / ha);

  • wireworm (when sown in the soil, “Diazinon” 5% g - 40-50 kg / ha or “Counter” 10% g - 15 kg / ha are applied);

  • false wire (similar to wire wire).

Common Diseases:

  • root, stem rot;

  • blistering smut;

  • Fusarium

    Also, for a good harvest, weed control is required. Herbicides cope with them. They are introduced before cultivation of the soil for sowing or when harrowing to seedlings. An additional safety process of soil cultivation is carried out with the advent of seedlings.

    Did you know? Archaeologists say that the Indians of America made popcorn 5 thousand years ago, mixing corn grains with sand and making a bonfire near them. After collecting the exploding balls of grain, cleaned of sand and ate.

    There is a scheme by which corn is cultivated.

    An approximately routing looks like this:

    OperationRequirementsImplementation timeline
    Soil treatment
    Stubble cultivationTo a depth of 60–80 mmAfter collecting the predecessor
    Mineral FertilizationN10, P80, K90Before chaffinch digging
    Early Autumn DiggingTo a depth of 200–220 mmEnd of August - beginning of September
    Tillage and sowing
    Harrow cultivation in autumn0.1–0.14 m (first)

    0.08–0.12 m (second)

    Seed dressing80% TMTD 3 kg / tUntil 10.04
    Two-track early spring harrowing80 mmMid april
    Two-track spring cultivation with harrowing80–100 mmA day or two before sowing
    Combined soil tillage50-60 mmBefore sowing
    SowingSowing depth 80–100 mm1–15.05 with soil ripeness and warming it up to +10 ... + 12 ° С at a depth of 0.1 m
    Rolling-After sowing
    Harrowing crops10–20 mm less than sowing depthFive days after sowing
    Spraying against weedsAmine salt 2, 4-D, 40% v. - 1.5–2.5 l / haWith the advent of 3-4 true leaves
    Insecticide sprayingKarate 5% ke - 200 ml / haIn case of mass emergence of the pest
    Fungicide sprayBayleton 25% sp - 500 g / haWhen the cobs begin to bloom
    CollectionEars of corn are harvested at their moisture content of 40%, grain at 28%10-12 days in the phase of full maturity

    Harvest dates and storage rules

    A common way is direct combining. During the harvesting process, with the help of a combine harvester, corn grains are separated from the cobs and cleaned of impurities, and then loaded onto a machine to move to the storage location. You can start harvesting when the moisture content of the grain is 30–32%. The lower the humidity, the easier it is to dry, and the fuel consumption is reduced. But delaying the collection of grain is dangerous, since it can accumulate moisture from precipitation, and if freezing starts, the quality of the product and its storage performance will deteriorate.

    If hybrids of different ripening speeds are grown at the same time, then harvesting starts from the earliest so that the rest gives the grain the maximum amount of moisture. The harvesting rate of one ripeness: 5–7 days, different - 15–18 days. Delaying harvesting can adversely affect crop quality.

    Important! When the average daily temperature drops to +5 ... + 6 ° C, and the humidity rises to 80 - 90%, the grain stops losing moisture. Therefore, you need to have time to collect corn before these conditions are established. The collected grain contains a lot of water, impurities that make it unstable in storage. To remedy the situation, it is necessary to carry out cleaning, drying, ventilation and sorting (if necessary) of the product. First, the grain must be sorted by moisture level, so that you can determine what types of processing you need to apply to it. At 14-15% humidity, you can immediately send the crop to storage. Humidity 15.5-17% indicates the need for drying or ventilation, and higher rates - for drying.

    Dry corn in various types of dryers. After processing, the grain is cooled. Then fall asleep in the granaries. You can send the crop to the storage with a temperature not exceeding the environmental indicators by 8-10 degrees. Corn is stored in bulk in granaries, silos, silos, silos.

    Estimated corn yield from 1 ha

    On average, corn yields are approximately 4.5–6.5 t / ha. With the right approach to cultivation technology, you can get 10–12 t / ha in regions with a humid climate and 7–9 t / ha in the steppe zone.

    Did you know? If corn starch is diluted with water, you will get a liquid that you can go over if you pour it into a wide tank and move quickly.

    The crop depends on the quality of radiation reaching the plants and used by them for photosynthesis, moisture supply, the presence of minerals obtained by the plant from the ground.

    There are several formulas for calculating yield:

    1. According to the arrival of PAR (photosynthetic active radiation) : Qphar × Kfar = Y × C × 100, where Qphar (arrival of PAR for the growing season, kJ / ha), Kfar (COP efficiency), U (yield of fully dried biomass, kg / ha), C (caloric content of the dried substance (kJ / kg dry biomass).
    2. Possible yield (WU) : WU = (Qfar × Kfar) / (10² × KB × 10²), where WU (possible yield of dried biomass), Qfar (yield during the growing season, kcal / ha), Kfar (FAR efficiency), KB (calorific value of biomass, kcal / kg), 10² (for conversion in kg / ha and for converting CB to absolute values).
    According to these formulas, it is possible to compile a table for determining the yield of corn from 1 hectare in different areas.

    We have provided general information regarding the cultivation of corn. Each agronomist, based on these data, can develop his own technology for growing corn, taking into account the agro-climatic conditions in his region.

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