Strawberry yield from one hundredth and one hectare
Quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the harvest of garden strawberries depend not only on the characteristics of the variety, but also on the conditions for its growth. With proper care from a hectare of plantation, you can collect up to 50 tons of large juicy berries. How to increase the fruitful qualities of the crop and achieve high productivity, read on in the article.
What determines strawberry yield
Among the global suppliers of strawberries, the United States of America leads, with up to 48 tons of harvest per hectare. In Europe, Spain is close to this indicator (44 t / ha). The lowest productivity of strawberry plantations is observed in regions with unstable temperature conditions and cold climates - winter begins there much earlier, because of which about 30% of the ovary does not have time to ripen.
Did you know? From the point of view of botany, strawberries are not berries, but multi-nibs. The fact is that the true fruits of this plant are tiny yellowish nuts located on the surface of a huge red receptacle.
The main factors affecting productivity indicators, agronomists believe:
- soil features (pH, nutrition, composition);
- climatic and weather conditions;
- breeding characteristics (remontance, early maturity, winter hardiness, abundance of fruiting);
- landing density;
- growing method (open, closed);
- the age of the seedlings (every 3-4 years it is necessary to update the planting material due to the rapid decrease in the gross harvest of its one-time fruiting);
- grade potential (number of sockets and peduncles);
- planting dates (for example, bushes planted in September will yield a lower yield than August ones);
- the level of agricultural technology (frequency and methods of irrigation, top dressing, preventive treatment against pests and common diseases, soil hygiene, preparation for wintering);
- timeliness of harvesting;
- qualification of the collector (relevant for industrial scale production).
How many strawberry bushes can be planted per 1 hundredth
The organization of planting is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of fruiting of a crop. In this aspect, one should take into account not only the quality of the seedling, but also the timing, technology of its rooting.
Excessively dense strawberry plantings are ineffective, since the plant cannot fully develop and, therefore, ceases fruiting. Leaving a wide space between rows and bushes is also unprofitable due to the unproductive use of the land.
Important! Promising seedlings have at least 2-3 full-fledged leaves, as well as a well-developed core and a healthy root system.
Experts advise to solve the problem of the location of seedlings, retreating 20–25 cm between the bushes and 70–75 cm - between the rows. In general, with such a landing scheme per 1 sq. Km. m need 4-5 seedlings, and for 1 hundred parts - 450.
The best harvest is given by large-fruited repairing varieties with high resistance to frost and pathogenic microflora. It is preferable to choose zoned options. In a favorable environment, such strawberries are not only highly fruitful, but also have good quality berries. However, experts regard the concept of “productivity” as a relative criterion. Indeed, in different regions, a bush of one selection can produce very different yield indicators.
Did you know? In New Orleans' Arnaud's, the main component of the most expensive exclusive dish, worth several million dollars, is strawberries . It consists of fresh berries, cream, mint and a 5-carat pink diamond ring.
From 1 hundredth
There is no definite benchmark for strawberry productivity. According to experienced gardeners who provided proper care for their plantation, about 30 berries can be removed from 1 bush in a favorable season.
To calculate the yield from 1 m², 1 hundredths or 1 ha, you need to take into account:
- ratio of area and density of landing;
- varietal characteristics;
- age of seedlings;
- daylight hours
- soil composition;
- growing method.
For example, from bushes of early ripening varieties (Alba, Kama, Divnaya, Honey, Fleur, Olbia, Zephyr, Darenka, Cleri, Octave, Kent, Asia, Elsanty) in the conditions of short daylight hours, even with proper care, you can collect no more than 250-300 g, i.e., 3.5–4 kg per hundred square meters. If these crops are grown under a film, their productivity will automatically double.
From 1 ha
Industrial cultivation of strawberries is very different from amateur. For example, if most owners of private farms carefully break the first ovary on seedlings planted in the spring to strengthen the root system, then this method did not take root on production fields because of its laboriousness. Consequently, the specimens that were not processed in this way will not be able to lay many fruit buds for the future harvest.
Important! In the spring, it is recommended to fertilize strawberries and strawberries with nitrogen-containing substances. And during flowering and the formation of the ovary, the plant needs potassium, magnesium, phosphorus and iron.
Therefore, for large producers, unpretentious large-fruited varieties with special taste characteristics of the fruits are preferable. Given the characteristics of the repair varieties, which can produce up to 6 fruiting waves per season, their gross yield is much higher. Harvesting on such specimens begins from the beginning of summer and lasts until late autumn.
But in some varieties, the average weight of the berries corresponds to 60 g, and in others - 100 g. On average, in the temperate climate zone, the popular varieties Honey, Marmalade, Elsanta, Alba, Vima Xima, Zeng Zengan can yield up to 30–38 kg / ha . And at Clery, this figure reaches 40 kg / ha.
Basic rules for planting and growing strawberries
Strawberries do not like dryness, dampness, acidic and infertile soil, cold, heat, drafts. Therefore, its cultivation requires a lot of effort and knowledge.
Read also our e-magazine on strawberry cultivation.
Novice gardeners can also succeed in this matter if they are guided by the following recommendations:
- First of all, you need to focus on choosing a site for planting. Preferably sheltered from the north wind, a well-lit area with a drained sandy loam or loamy-alluvial substrate that has moisture-retaining properties. For high yields, it is important that a large supply of humus is concentrated in it. It is extremely undesirable to plant strawberries on heavy clay soils, as well as in lowlands and places of accumulation of rain, melt water - in the absence of drainage, there are great risks of root damage by putrefactive infections. The acidity of the soil should correspond to a pH value of 5.0–5.5.
- Of no small importance is the quality of the seedlings. Promising examples are those in which the diameter of the root neck exceeds 6 mm and the length of the root processes reaches 9 cm. Elite varieties are preferred, as well as the first reproduction. It is advisable to dig out planting material in late autumn and keep it until planting at low temperatures.
- All planting material is subject to preliminary disinfection. It is carried out using a solution of 1.5 tbsp. l table salt, 0.5 tsp. copper sulfate, 5 liters of cold water.
- Planting can only begin after a 10-minute immersion of the sprouts cleared of soil residues in the liquid. Some gardeners in order to stimulate growth for 2 hours dip the root system of seedlings in a honey solution (1 tsp per 1 liter of water).
- Next, take care of the preparation of the seat. They dig it deep and fertilize with organic matter. Professionals do not welcome standard beds with holes and advise to place bushes on the sides. To do this, using a rake and glanders, an embankment with a height of up to 30–40 cm is made. From above, the row is fertilized with ash, humus or compost (the mixture is prepared in a 1: 1 ratio). Then the soil is moistened and covered with black agrofibre. In this case, its function is to resist the growth of weeds and to support the desired microclimate. Now you can proceed directly to the landing by making cross-shaped cuts on the surface of the covering material with scissors every 20–25 cm (approximately 10 × 10 cm). Saplings are placed in neatly made indentations and their root system is sprinkled with soil. It should be straightened and without bends. In case of excessive instillation, the sprout will decay, and if its core is too high above the surface of the soil, it will dry out. An alternative shelter is a black plastic film or any mulch.
- In the future, monitor soil hygiene. Timely cultivate row spacing and weeding.
- Do not allow stagnation of water on the bed, as well as complete drying of the soil. Depending on the temperature and weather conditions, periodically water the plants. It is advisable to do this weekly, in the morning, with water standing and warmed up to room temperature.
- In the spring, with the advent of young herbs, feed the bushes with a solution of chicken droppings. In the future, repeat the procedure every 2 weeks. And during budding and before harvesting, complex fertilizers rich in trace elements are relevant (Yara Mila Complex, Terraflex-Start, Quantum Chelate, Clean Sheet, Planter). In summer, it is nice to spray the area with a solution of phytohormones (Ecosil, Emistim). After harvesting, it is important to water the plantation with a solution of nitrophoska and wood ash (prepared in equal proportions).
- In autumn, you need to prepare the bushes for wintering. To do this, loosen the soil around the bushes, cut the tops and mustaches that the plant gave. The application of humus or compost does not hinder - these substances nourish the roots and protect against cold. However, do not overdo it with their quantities, since excessive doses can stimulate premature vegetative activity and destroy the bushes. Preventive treatment against strawberry mites is also important - it is carried out using fungicides or wood ash, karbofos. In the case of slugs or snails, it is recommended to use metaldehyde. At the final stage of preparation, the plantation is covered with agrofiber, spruce spruce branches or other insulation.
- Every 3-5 years you need to transplant bushes to a new place . Otherwise, the strawberries will be transferred.
How to increase strawberry yield in open ground
Many landowners grow strawberries in a greenhouse or under cover, since this method is characterized by high fruiting and product quality. Bushes growing on open ground can also be stimulated. To do this, experts advise giving preference to high-yielding varieties and strictly abide by the agrotechnical requirements for caring for the berry.
Did you know? Residents of the Italian town of Nemi annually organize a strawberry celebration, the main treat of which is ripe berries drenched in champagne, and they prepare a treat in a tub with a capacity of several thousand kilograms.
Selection of high-yielding varieties
Strawberry selection once again confirms the relativity of the concept of "yield". Indeed, some varieties, even with unfavorable factors for growth, produce abundant fruiting, while others under the same conditions differ in worse performance. For example, because of the many peduncles, the bush of the Elsanta variety resembles a lush bouquet, while that of Clery and Marmalade is much smaller. Cost-effective elite large-fruited varieties with high winter-hardy, as well as immune qualities of the remodeling type.
Today are popular:
- Asia is an early-ripening, winter-hardy variety of Italian breeding. It is characterized by powerful high rosettes with an abundant number of peduncles, large foliage and a small number of mustaches. Berries weigh no more than 30 g; the first crop ripens in the second decade of May. From one bush you can remove up to 1.2 kg of fruit.
- Honey is an early ripe creation of American breeders. It is an unpretentious upright spreading bush, the fruits of which weigh on average about 35 g. The advantages of the variety can be considered adaptability to a short daylight, taste and marketability of berries. The disadvantage is that at the end of fruiting the berries become smaller. From one bush you can remove up to 1.5 kg of the crop.
Important! It is better to plant strawberries after root crops, legumes, onions, garlic and leafy vegetables. Solanaceous crops are considered to be bad predecessors.
- Chamorora Turusi is a mid- season strawberry. It is distinguished by large juicy aromatic fruits, the average weight of which reaches 100–110 g. Bushes are tall, with wide foliage and an abundant number of mustaches. The maximum fruiting occurs at 2 and 3 years. The yield of one bush is about 1.5 kg. A disadvantage of the variety can be considered high sensitivity to fungal infections and pests.
- Queen Elizabeth is a repairing variety whose berries weigh on average about 60–70 g. Fruiting begins in the second decade of May and lasts until the first frost. The interval between the ripening waves of the fruits (there are about 4 of them) does not exceed 14 days. In favorable weather, up to 2.2 kg of crop can be removed from one bush. The plant compares favorably with winter-hardy qualities and strong immunity. Every 2 years, planting is recommended to be renewed, as the old bushes do not bear fruit well and the berries are very small.
- Temptation - considered the most productive variety from the class of remontans. Its fruits weigh about 40 g, are characterized by a sweet taste with notes of muscat. Taste qualities are revealed closer to the fall. Excessive extension of the mustache can be considered a disadvantage of the variety, because of which their regular pruning is required. About 20 peduncles are formed on the bush. The yield of one plant reaches 3 kg.
The right care technology
The intensive fruiting of strawberries is a merit not only of breeders, but also of the gardener, because the quantity and quality of berries depends on the potential of seedlings, the organization of planting and further care. What planting material to choose, where, how and when to plant it - all this was said above.
Important! After the first fruiting, fertilizing the bushes with ammonia fertilizers or urea is mandatory. The procedure is contraindicated only in repair grades.
Agrotechnical subtleties and secrets of experienced gardeners you will learn further:
- plantation with neutral daylight plants should be updated annually (keep in mind that specimens of a long photoperiodic type do not reduce yields for 36 months);
- strictly monitor the pH level in the soil (in case of its oxidation, you will need to add calcareous cannon, dolomite flour, cement dust or old plaster at the rate of 150-300 g / m²);
- it is advisable to establish watering using drip plants, since sprinkling is contraindicated in strawberry sockets (to avoid the formation of deep tunnels, young seedlings are not watered under the root);
- timely preventive treatment of the plantation against pests is important (insecticides Aktara and Aktellik are used) and diseases (carried out by fungicides Skor, Almaz 100, Horus, Kamelot);
- it is strictly forbidden to fill the bushes with soil or mulch - excessive shelter threatens with oxygen deficiency and plant death;
- dressing of outlets is also contraindicated from the second decade of August (nitrogen-containing substances that cannot be introduced before spring are required);
- after removing the first crop, be sure to loosen the soil (this manipulation is required even for beds covered with a film, agrofibre or mulch);
- when feeding, avoid chlorine, it can destroy the plantation;
- to alkalize the soil, add dolomite flour only in the fall (when using in the spring, the growth of outlets will slow down significantly);
- pick ripe berries in a timely manner, do not allow them to ripen (you need to tear off along with flower stalks), the same applies to mustaches (in excess they take useful substances from the bush);
- if sick outlets are found, remove them together with the topsoil (up to 3 cm thick);
- in the rainy season, be sure to cover the plantation with a transparent plastic film and completely stop watering (this will protect the berries from excessive water content and improve their taste).
For abundant fruiting of a berry, it is important to devote a lot of time to it. The gardener must daily monitor the condition of the soil and the crop growing on it. С целью стимуляции роста и развития клубничных розеток рекомендовано в междурядьях плантации высаживать лук, чеснок, укроп, бархатцы, календулу.
Такие комбинированные посадки способствуют опылению, а также защищают чувствительную культуру от вредителей. В результате увеличивается урожай. Ведь часто, особенно в дождливое лето, бывает, что из-за дефицита опыления кусты цветут, но ягоды на них не завязываются.
Important! Если грунт рассыпается в ладони и не слипается в комок, плантацию нужно срочно полить.
Также причинами отсутствия ягод могут быть:
- повреждение весенними морозами центральной зоны бутонов;
- прогрессирование сорных сортов клубники (появляются в результате смешивания растущих вблизи разновидностей при неправильном уходе и размножении);
- порча цветоносов жуками-долгоносиками.
Избежать этих неприятных последствий поможет регулярный скрупулёзный уход, соответствующий правилам агротехники.В качестве дополнительных мероприятий для стимуляции плодоносных свойств клубники на открытой плантации можно соорудить плёночный тоннель или же укрыть посадку агроволокном.
Вам будет интересно узнать, как выращивать клубнику в мешках в домашних условиях.
Выращивание клубники — дело хлопотное, поскольку без участия человека никогда не бывает успешным. Но все потраченные усилия окупятся полезными и очень вкусными ягодами. Обильный ранний урожай вполне возможен при условии грамотного ухода и правильного выбора сортов.