Silva pear variety: description and characteristics, features of successful cultivation

There are a great many varieties of pears, however, when choosing them for planting on their plot, the gardener is primarily interested in the optimal combination of such characteristics as taste, yield and unpretentiousness of the tree. In other words, the ideal pear can be called one that does not require a lot of attention and at the same time regularly gives a large number of delicious fruits. In this review, we will talk about a rather new cultivar Silva, which is quite difficult to find by all the criteria mentioned above.

Botanical grade description

Silva was bred in the Republic of Adygea. To breeders of the Maykop Experimental Station of the All-Russian Research Institute of Plant Production named after N.I. Vavilov managed to get an interesting hybrid by crossing between itself two varieties of pears:

  • French Triumph de Vienne (original - Triomphe de Vienne, i.e. Vienna triumph), popular due to the combination of compactness of a tree and large fruits, which is very important from the point of view of increasing the intensity of gardening;

  • Eva Balte, almost unknown in Russia, but also distinguished by its large-fruited.

To date, Silva is not included in the State Register of selection achievements allowed for use, and continues to be tested, so there is no official information on the regions of its zoning.

However, guided by the reviews of gardeners who have practical experience in exploring the new product, it should be noted that Silva's winter hardiness is not high enough for cultivation in regions north of Adygea, including the middle part of the European part of Russia, but the variety is great for Kuban and other regions Southern Federal District of the Russian Federation, the Caucasus, Crimea and the whole territory of Ukraine. Read also articles on this topic:

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Morphology of the tree and root system

A distinctive feature of Silva is the small size of the tree: it does not exceed 3 m in height, and even less on a dwarf stock. The growth rate of the variety is also low.

The shape of the crown is oval, compact (not spreading), thickening and leafyness are quite high. Narrowed leaves, on long stalks. The kidneys are cone-shaped, strongly deflected from the shoot.

Fruit Description

The main advantage of Silva is her fruits. First of all, it is necessary to note their size: these pears are not just large, but literally gigantic.

Did you know? The largest pear in the Guinness Book of Records weighed 1, 405 grams and was grown 40 years ago in South Wales (UK). A fruit that ripened in the garden of a farmer from Ingushetia Abas Matiev in 2013 can be considered a Russian record, the weight of this giant was 1007 grams.

With a minimum weight of 200 g and an average weight of 350-400 g, individual specimens can reach 800 g, which is significantly superior to other varieties considered large-fruited.

As for the other characteristics of the fruits of Silva, they can be described as follows:

The formWide, "bottle", with pronounced tuberosity
ColorGreenish-yellow in the stage of technical ripeness, bronze with weak rustiness - after full maturity. Sometimes there is a blurred pink blush on the side facing the sun
PulpWhite or light pink, dense, very juicy, with medium oiliness, graininess and solid fragments are absent
TasteSweet, with the presence of a musky note, when bitten off, the flesh does not crackle, but melts in the mouth
ScentPronounced fruity
Tasting rating5 (highest score)

Pros and cons of the variety

  • Among the advantages due to which Silva fell in love with both professional farmers and ordinary summer residents are:
  • incredibly high taste characteristics;
  • large-fruited;
  • compactness and weakness of a tree;
  • high stable yield and early fruiting;
  • good fruit transportability;
  • unpretentiousness;
  • winter hardiness (adjusted for growing region);
  • good resistance to various fungal infections, in particular, to scab.

Important! Gardeners note that only Delbarya Rx-12/47, also known as Snezka, can compete with Silva in taste characteristics, but winter hardiness and resistance to diseases of this variety have not yet been studied. As for unpretentiousness and early maturity, in these qualities Silva is second only to the pear variety Striyskaya.

  • The disadvantages of Silva are:
  • not too attractive appearance of the fruit, in particular, their pronounced tuberosity;
  • insufficient winter hardiness for cultivation in the middle lane and in the colder regions of the Russian Federation;
  • short shelf life;
  • poor resistance to brown spotting, which Silva inherited from the parental form - Triumph de Vienne;
  • rarity - finding a seedling can be quite difficult.

Variety immunity to diseases

Silva's resistance to the main diseases of pears is not absolute, but is characterized as very good, above average. The tree rarely affects the scab, but the variety is much more susceptible to brown spotting.


Silva is a variety characterized by cross-pollination. This means that to set the fruit, it is necessary that not far from the tree (within a radius of no more than 50 m) grow other pears that bloom and bear fruit at the same time - the so-called pollinating varieties.

For Silva this role can play such varieties as:

  • Sonata;
  • In memory of Yakovlev;
  • Autumn Yakovleva;
  • Bere Bosk.

Important! The ability of trees to pollinate each other is not always mutual, that is, if one variety is a good pollinator for another, this does not mean that this rule works in the opposite direction.

Silva is an excellent pollinator for pears such as the Favorite of Klappa, Williams and Sonata, i.e. only the last variety can be considered as inter-pollinated with Silva.

Silva bloom is usually observed in early May. The fruits ripen in the second half of September, which allows us to classify the variety as mid-autumn.

The seedling enters the fruiting phase very quickly, however, the specific timing depends on the stock. So, Silva, grafted on quince, gives the first crop already 2 years after planting, but even when using another tree as a stock, Silva begins to bear fruit no later than the third year of life.

Landing rules

Despite the fact that the pear is a very popular fruit tree in the Northern Hemisphere, its cultivation has some features, ignorance of which may cost the inexperienced gardener the loss of yield, and sometimes the tree itself. This science begins, of course, with planting.

How to choose and prepare a seedling for planting

Gardeners argue that Silva seedlings have such pronounced signs of varietal affiliation that they can even be distinguished by appearance: in spring, the angle of deviation of the buds from the branch (it should be significant, almost straight) can serve as a hint, in autumn - the characteristic shape of the leaves, narrowed, on a very long petiole.

However, in reality, one should not be guided by such criteria as the only proof that the seedling is Silva, nevertheless, perhaps.

Important! To buy seedlings is necessary only in specialized nurseries, and you need to look for the right product in advance and immediately agree on a future purchase, since the amount of quality planting material is still very limited.

Since this is a pear with very high taste characteristics, while not yet very common, it is very easy to make a mistake or become a victim of scammers.

Another important rule regarding the purchase is that you should avoid buying trees in places that are geographically remote from the place of future planting.

Changing climatic conditions, even if both zones are within the same latitude, greatly reduces the survival rate of a seedling, and a pear already takes root much worse than many other fruit trees.

Silva needs to be planted at the age of 1-2 years. Such a tree has a height of 100 to 120 cm, the thickness in the grafting area is approximately 12 mm. An annual seedling has no lateral branches; a two-year-old seedling should have no more than 2, with an average length of 30 cm.

When choosing a tree, it is important to ensure that it does not have damage, the bark must be absolutely monophonic, the branches remain elastic, and the roots bright and fresh. The number of main root processes is at least three, their direction is versatile, the structure is uniform (thickenings are a sign of the disease).

Another point associated with the selection of a quality seedling is leaves.

Their very presence, and even more so in large quantities, is undesirable, since a leaf plate evaporates most of the moisture than weakens the viability of a tree extracted from the ground, therefore, conscientious producers remove leaves from their seedlings before selling, leaving only 1-2 pieces that can be identified tree species.

Did you know? Folk healers and herbalists of Plovdiv (the oldest European city located on the territory of modern Bulgaria) believed that a pear could scare away a snake, so when they went to collect medicinal plants, they always took a pear branch with them or previously rubbed pear leaf juice into their skin.

Since the pears are difficult to perceive the transplant, you need to plant the purchased seedling as quickly as possible. Pre-planting preparation includes soaking the roots in a talker prepared from a mixture of 1 part of manure and 2 parts of clay, this will improve root survival.

In addition, just before landing, the main boles and side branches should be shortened by 1/3.

Some gardeners prune pear roots before planting, believing that in this way they stimulate the rapid development of the root system. This is actually a mistake. A seedling perceives such a procedure as additional stress preventing its adaptation.

Choosing the best place for landing and preparing holes

The pear makes several fundamental requirements for the place of planting:

  1. Illumination . You need to find a place on the site where the tree will be in direct sunlight for at least 6 hours a day.
  2. Wind protection . For an adult tree, this is not so important, but until the seedling is strengthened, winds, especially northern ones, can damage it.
  3. Low groundwater (minimum depth - 2–2.5 m) and lack of waterlogging of the soil. The root system of the pear lies quite close to the surface of the earth, and if there is a lot of water in the soil, the roots of the tree begin to rot.

Important! Pears grown in the shade give a more acidic crop, in addition, the size and total number of fruits are also reduced.

As for the soil, here the exactingness of the tree is not so high. Pears grow best on sandstone and chernozem; loam is a good option.

The sandstone is admissible, but Silva alumina is not suitable, therefore, if the soil is heavy and clay, the situation will need to be corrected by digging a more voluminous pit with a complete replacement of all the earth extracted from it.

The optimum acidity is in the range of 5.6–6.0 (a neutral reaction is preferred, a slightly acidic one is allowed, an alkaline pear is not suitable).

The preparatory stage of Silva’s landing by digging a hole ends. Its standard dimensions are 70 cm in depth and 70–80 cm in diameter. The only condition is that this should be done in advance, at least 2 weeks in advance, so that soil microflora can accumulate at the bottom.

Landing pattern

Before proceeding directly to planting, it is necessary to make a nutritious soil mixture for the tree. As a basis for this, you can take the land that was excavated by digging a hole, but not all, but only its upper layer, since only it is fertile.

To enrich it and bring the total volume of the substrate to the required amount, you need to add to the ground:

  • manure, compost or humus (ideally horse) - 20-30 liters;
  • humus - 1 l;
  • ammonium nitrate - 80 g;
  • phosphorite flour or superphosphate - 1 kg or 1.5 kg, respectively;
  • wood ash or potassium sulfate - 800 g or 150 g, respectively.

Important! A pear cannot be buried in the ground. The seedling must be installed in such a way that, after digging in the pit, its root neck (not to be confused with the place of grafting) rises above the ground by no less than 5 cm and no more than 7 cm.

After calculating the necessary amount of prepared land that needs to be laid at the bottom of the pit, you can begin to land.

First you need to build a hill from the bottom at the bottom and install a seedling on it, carefully spreading the roots. It is advisable to ensure that the vaccination site "looks" to the south.

The hole should be buried gradually, periodically pulling the tree up and at the same time tamping the ground to prevent the formation of air chambers in the soil.

Learn how to plant pear seedlings in the fall.

After the pit is filled, the seedling must be watered with plenty of warm water and then mulch the surface with peat or sawdust.

In order for the tree to take root better, next year it is necessary to remove the main part of the flowers from it (you can leave no more than 20%, but even with them, if the fruits are set, they should be cut off right away).

In the second year, the tree is allowed to bloom and set fruits, but half of them are removed when they become the size of a cherry.

Such rationing will not only increase the size and sugar content of the remaining fruits, but also make it possible for the seedling to survive the winter, because fruiting takes away the lion's share of energy and nutrients from the tree, about 15 times more than the growth of shoots and leaves. Guided by this consideration, it is necessary to remove part of the pears from the tree in subsequent years, until it grows stronger.

Features of seasonal care

Seasonal pear care includes watering, top dressing, pruning and preventative treatment. Each of these types of work has its own deadlines and rules.


The main rule regarding watering fruit trees is that these procedures should be rare but plentiful.

A clear periodicity cannot be established here, it all depends on climatic and weather conditions.

However, it must be remembered that:

  • the pear does not tolerate an excess of moisture in the soil;
  • with insufficient watering, you can lose a significant part of the crop, and not only in the current, but also in the next year.

Important! A critical need for moisture for Silva occurs in July and August, when intensive fruit formation and budding of buds occur next spring. But from the second half of August and until the harvest is harvested, watering must be stopped, otherwise the pears grow less sweet and are worse stored.

For watering, you always need to use water slightly warmed up in the sun, and the procedure itself should be carried out in the evening or in the morning.

Rules for trimming and forming crowns

Pruning is a very important agricultural technique when gardening. It allows not only to extend the life of the tree, but also significantly increase its yield and even improve the taste of the fruits, their quantity and size. A properly trimmed tree is less sick, in addition, it is much easier to process.

After the first pruning, which is carried out at the time of planting, a crown should be formed over several years. For this, the rarefied-tier method is usually used, assuming the presence on the trunk of “belts” of 2–3 branches directed in opposite directions with a distance between tiers of 50–70 cm.

In parallel, sanitary pruning is carried out, consisting in the removal of duplicate, intersecting, damaged and dried branches, as well as vertically directed knots.

Pears do not tolerate autumn pruning, so it is best to carry out the procedure in spring until the buds open, choosing a dry and sunny day for this.

Learn more about when and how to prune a pear.

When cutting pears, you must be guided by the following rules:

  1. Radical pruning of pears, compared with the apple tree, should be higher.
  2. Removing branches should be done “under the root” without leaving stumps.
  3. The fruit branches of an adult tree, unable to withstand the heaviness of large fruits and because of this fall to the ground during fruiting, it is better to remove, thus giving the stimulus for the formation of young shoots a little higher.
  4. The pear is very sensitive to shading of the crown, so over time it needs to be thinned out. This will not only increase productivity, but also increase the resistance of the tree to diseases and pests.
  5. Even with intensive anti-aging pruning, the total weight of the branches cannot be reduced by more than 25%, otherwise the pear will recover for a very long time after such a procedure.

Fertilizers and their application rates

Topping the pear, as well as watering it, must be done correctly and dosed. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are always applied, in the fall - phosphate and potash. Organics (compost, manure, humus) is brought in at any time of the year, but it is better to do this in spring or autumn, at the same time as digging the earth around the pear.

The frequency of such top dressing can be 2-3 years, depending on the condition of the tree and the initial quality of the soil (on chernozem, the frequency of fertilizing can be reduced, but on sandy soil, on the contrary, increased).

The dosage when applying fertilizers is calculated from the area of ​​the root system, and it, in turn, is determined not only by the age of the pear, but also by the stock on which it is grafted.

Important! Silva's root system, grafted onto a dwarf rootstock (usually quince), grabs 12–15in an adult tree , while a vigorous rootstock can increase this area to 20–25.

Нормы расхода минеральных удобрений на 1 м² площади корневой системы приведены в таблице:

Вид удобренияДозировка, г
Wood ash700
Хлористый калий15–20
Potassium sulfate20–25
Фосфоритная мука30–40
Urea (urea)10–20
Ammonium nitrate15–20

Winter preparations

Зимостойкость Сильвы вполне позволяет дереву без проблем переносить морозы до -30ºC, чего для тёплой Адыгеи и других южных регионов вполне достаточно. Однако речь идёт о взрослой груше. Молодые саженцы в конце осени желательно утеплить.

Для этого приствольный круг следует замульчировать толстым слоем торфа, навоза или опилок, а сам штамб укутать светлым и «дышащим» материалом. Для этой цели можно использовать мешковину, агротехническое волокно и даже капроновые женские колготки.

Когда выпадет снег, можно сформировать вокруг дерева высокий сугроб, но перед началом весны его лучше убрать, поскольку обилие талой воды может оказаться губительным для нежной корневой системы саженца.

Did you know? Для того чтобы победить «чёрную смерть» (так в средневековье называли чуму, вспыхивающую в разных уголках Европы, Азии и Африки каждые 10–15 лет), некоторые народы совершали ритуальные обряды изгнания, принося чуме жертву, которую вешали на самой старой груше.

Обязательной частью предзимних работ в саду также является удаление всех растительных остатков с земли в районе произрастания плодового дерева, поскольку «специализирующиеся» на данной культуре вредители и грибки предпочитают зимовать поблизости, прячась в опавшей листве, засохших сорняках и особенно в оставшихся неубранными плодах.

Diseases and pests of the variety

Сильва проявляет неплохую устойчивость к парше и некоторым другим грибковым инфекциям, однако опытные садоводы хорошо знают, что даже очень сильные деревья могут понести значительные потери от болезней или вредителей, если не провести своевременную профилактическую обработку сада.

В частности, на груше могут паразитировать:

DiseaseВредители (насекомые и клещи)
плодовая гниль (монилиоз)грушевый цветоед
паршагрушевая плодожорка
сажистый грибокгрушевая галлица
гребенщикгрушевая медяница (листоблошка)
powdery mildewкольчатый шелкопряд
ржавчинаяблоневая запятовидная щитовка
инфекционное усыхание коры (цитоспороз)плодовая муха
усыхание ветвей (туберкуляриоз)плодовая букарка
чёрный ракгалловый клещ
европейский раквишнёвый пилильщик
бурая пятнистость (энтомоспориоз)бурый плодовый клещ
пятнистость листьев (филлостиктоз)зелёная яблонная и серая тля

Обрабатывать дерево целесообразнее всего весной, причём делать это нужно очень рано, пока ещё не началось активное сокодвижение, и растягивать на несколько этапов:

  1. Во время первой обработки основной упор делается на защиту от грибковых заболеваний, поскольку насекомые в это время ещё спят, а споры грибков уже разносятся по воздуху. В качестве подходящего препарата на этом этапе можно рассматривать медный купорос или бордоскую смесь.
  2. Вторая обработка проводится в фазе «зелёного конуса», т. е. в момент начала набухания почек. Важно не пропустить момент, поскольку такие насекомые, как яблоневый или грушевый цветоеды, пробуждаются от зимней спячки очень рано и вскорости начинают откладывать яйца. Когда это случится, обработки потеряют свою эффективность: первое поколение вредоносных жуков всё равно вскорости погибнет, а яйца и личинки, которые появятся через некоторое время, прячутся в закрытом цветочном бутоне, поэтому против них любой инсектицид бессилен. До того момента, как имаго выберется наружу, цветок уже будет полностью уничтожен. Хорошим инсектицидным действием обладают мочевина или нитрофен, которые, помимо этого, являются и азотным удобрением, необходимым дереву весной.
  3. Третью обработку проводят непосредственно перед цветением, чтобы уничтожить тех вредителей, которые просыпаются позже. Иногда выполняют ещё одно опрыскивание, сразу после того, как дерево отцвело.

Harvesting and storage of crops

Сильва, как было сказано, относится к среднеосенним сортам, что характеризует не только сроки созревания плодов, но и их лёжкость.

Important! Для длительного хранения пригодны лишь так называемые зимние сорта груш, которые вызревают в середине осени. Практически совсем не хранятся летние сорта, их следует съесть или обработать не позже, чем в течение двух недель после сбора.

Осенняя Сильва находится между двумя указанными разновидностями. Созревающие в конце сентября, её плоды можно сохранить в холодильнике или погребе в течение 1–2 месяцев. Оптимальная температура для хранения — +2…+5ºC.

При этом, если провести сбор немного раньше, когда груши ещё не достигнут полной биологической спелости, указанный выше срок будет приближен к максимальной отметке.

Однако перед тем как отправлять такие плоды в прохладное место, их нужно выдержать несколько дней при комнатной температуре, за это время они дойдут до полной «готовности» и по качеству ничем не будут уступать тем, которые дозревали на дереве.

Сильва — молодой и не очень известный сорт груши, но несмотря на отсутствие официального признания, он уже успел завоевать огромное количество поклонников среди садоводов южных областей России и её ближайших соседей.

По вкусовым качествам плодов Сильве сегодня сложно найти равных, а внушительные показатели урожайности при весьма компактных размерах дерева делают сорт настоящей находкой для владельцев небольших дачных участков.

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