Saperavi grape variety (northern)
It is believed that grapes can be grown successfully only in the southern regions, with enough clear days. But today, breeders managed to breed varieties adapted for cultivation in areas with a cold climate. One of these species is the Saperavi grape, which will be described later.
History of the origin of grapes
All of us are probably aware of the wonderful Georgian wine Saperavi. This wine is made from grapes of the same variety. Ripe berries are characterized by dark skin and dark red flesh. Due to this, the wine leaves a rich ruby color.
Did you know? If you plant parsley near the grapes, the bush will be healthier and give a generous harvest. The secret is simple: parsley protects grapes from pests.
On the basis of the Georgian species Saperavi in the postwar years, a new species was obtained - the northern Saperavi. In fact, the hybrid was born in 1947, but it was officially recognized only in 1958. The fruits of the hybrid were inherited from the parents a dark blue, waxy-skinned skin.
The second variety taken to work was the Northern grape. From this parent, the new variety adopted stamina.
Since 1965, the northern Saperavi has been included in the state register with a proposal for cultivation in the North Caucasus and the Lower Volga.
Description of Saperavi variety
The variety is ranked as medium-late, as the berries ripen on 141-145 days after buds are opened.
Saperavi has moderate vigor and good vine ripening. Young sprouts in a mature state are painted brown.
The bush is strewn with small three-lobed green leaves, the lower side of which is covered with pubescence. The tops of the sprouts are pubescent, light green. In autumn, the leaves acquire a wine-red hue.
The shape and color of berries
Saperavi gives small or medium elliptical fruits weighing 1.5 g. Ripe berries turn dark blue.
Pulp - of mediocre taste, covered with strong skin. From ripe berries get a rich, dark pink juice with a sugar content of 20.7-25%. Acidity ranges from 6.2–11.3 g / l.
Important! Sugar content of berries depends on the region. In the southern regions, it can reach 23 - 28% with an acid level of 8.6 g / l.
The grape brushes are cone-shaped, medium in size, most often loose. When cultivated at home, the average weight of the bunch is 90–150 g. The peduncle is grassy, does not stiffen over time and stretches up to 4.5 cm. For full ripening, 5–7 brushes can be left on one stalk.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
The main value of Saperavi northern is considered to be an original bouquet, determined by the difficult chemical composition of berries.
- In addition, the advantages of the variety include:
- continuous high performance;
- bacillus inflorescences;
- excellent frost resistance;
- good transportability.
- Among the shortcomings are noted:
- susceptibility to oidium;
- late ripening time;
- crumbling inflorescences.
Use in winemaking
According to some reports, it is Saperavi, because of its amazing taste and aroma, which takes first place in the number of aromatizing substances, which makes it possible to produce amazing wines from it. From Saperavi you can get 40 varieties of wines. By the way, the older the bush, the more refined the drink.
Learn more about how to make wine at home from black grapes, in particular grape varieties such as Isabella and Moldova.
Saperavi North - distinctive features
Inexperienced gardeners do not know how to distinguish Saperavi northern from other varieties.
Therefore, winegrowers distinguish such distinctive features of the variety:
- Resistance to disease. At the same time, prevention should not be neglected.
- Frost resistance. The vine survives without insulation at –20 ° C, but when cultivated in the middle zone of the European part, it is recommended to cover the bush before the first frost.
- Bright foliage. The sheet plate has saturation color.
- A characteristic wine shade of berries. In September, when ripe, the grapes turn dark red.
- Resistance to drought. Although this feature can be called mediocre, but it is an order of magnitude higher than other grape varieties.
- Multiplicity Grapes give many bunches on one vine, therefore it is considered high-yielding (72–115 c / ha).
Features of planting and growing grapes
To get a good harvest, you should adhere to agricultural cultivation. And, first of all, do not violate the landing technology.
Site selection and suitable soil
The grape harvest will depend on where it grows. Therefore, it is important to choose the right site. After all, bushes have been growing in one place for more than one year.
The first condition is an abundance of light. Without good lighting, the grapes will survive, but its fruits will be sour. In addition, without the sun, the berries will ripen worse. The second condition is wind protection. If there is no such place on the site, you will have to build it yourself.
An ideal area is the south side of the building, without the neighborhood of tall trees.
Important! Too close to the wall to plant grapes is not worth it, because of the frequent watering, there is a chance to destroy the foundation of the structure.
As for the soil, Saperavi loves well-moistened, but not marshy soil with proper drainage properties and a minimum content of salt and lime. The optimum acidity is 6.5-7.
Landing pit preparation
There are no special requirements for tillage before planting, but preliminary preparation of the hole has a beneficial effect on the rooting and subsequent development of seedlings.
From autumn until the moment of planting, the soil is maintained in good condition: it must be loose and cleaned of weeds.
Before making a hole, make the soil:
- rotted manure;
The interval between holes should be at least 2.5 m, between beds - at least 1.5 m.
Did you know? The oldest fruiting vineyard is considered a 400-year-old bush growing in Maribor, Slovenia. Every year, grapes for 100 bottles of wine are removed from this bush.
Prepare the pit 10-14 days before the planned landing. Part of the upper earth is mixed with rotted manure (1-2 buckets), potash and phosphorus fertilizers are added (2-3 tbsp. L.). If the soil is sandy, clay (0.5 buckets) is added to the soil mixture.
The resulting substrate is poured onto the bottom of the well and gently pressed so that the remaining space is sufficient to accommodate the roots. About 1/3 of the obtained soil mixture should be stored to cover the roots from above.
The time for planting cuttings depends on the cultivation area. For example, in the southern regions, the soil does not freeze in winter. Therefore, seedlings can be planted here in the fall, October 13–16.
In areas with severe winters, planting is carried out after global thawing of the land, but before the sap flow begins. Young, annual plants are planted from late April to May 15–20, vegetative bushes can be replanted in May-June.
Planting material is purchased in special nurseries or from reliable breeders. It is better to choose an annual seedling about 50 cm long, 7–9 cm thick.
Did you know? In 1984, a bunch of grapes was grown in Chile, which was immediately recognized as a champion. Her weight was 9.4 kg. Healthy cuttings have cuts of green color, and roots - white. Each seedling should have matured buds.
Before the planting process, the stalk is placed for several hours in a solution to stimulate root growth.
The landing procedure itself is as follows:
- a seedling is put in a hole (1-2 buds are left above the ground);
- they are covered with earth mixtures from above, they are leveled and compacted;
- bury the hole with earth;
- moisturize the landing (about a bucket of water);
- cover with peat, sawdust, straw or spruce branches.
How to care for Saperavi
This variety is quite unpretentious, but following some rules when leaving is a prerequisite.
Read also about growing such technical grape varieties as Alpha and Bianca.
Watering and feeding
In the first year, as in the future, the plant requires frequent watering (at least 3 buckets for each bush). It is especially important to control soil moisture until mid-summer, during the period of intensive growth of the bush and filling berries. When the grapes begin to ripen, watering stops.
Top dressing is needed in the same quantities as for other grape varieties. At the age of two, in the spring the grapes are fertilized with humus (10 l under the bush) and annually with ash (1-2 l). Before flowering, grapes are fed with nitrophos (15 g per 10 l of water), and in mid-July - with a mixture of phosphate fertilizer and potassium sulfate (10-15 g each) diluted with water (10 l).
Important! Get involved in fertilizers, especially nitrogen-containing, should not be.
Bush shaping and pruning
Saperavi, like the Smolensky variety, is trimmed in the fall, at the end of the growing season. This procedure allows you to rejuvenate the plant, extend its growth period and increase yield.
In the spring, only hygienic pruning is carried out, during which sick and frozen sprouts are removed. On a young bush, 3–8 branches are left; in mature bushes, young branches are shortened to 50 cm. On shoots longer than 80 cm, lateral shoots are removed and the tops are cut by 10%. 30–35 sprouts are left on each vine, and 6–8 eyes should remain on the fruit branches. Important! All pruning operations, including the cutting of bunches, are performed by a ground pruner. In summer, you don’t need to trim the bush, it is enough to remove unnecessary branches and foliage that covers the berries from the sun. Such an event will allow the plant to evenly receive light and nutrition.
Saperavi northern is grown both in non-standard and low-standard forms:
- The non-stamped option provides for the formation of a fan multi-arm. At the same time, each shoot is cut into 6 eyes, providing a full load on the bush in the amount of 35 buds.
- In the low-stamped version, the congestion is about 60 buds, and each shoot is cut into 8-10 eyes. To form such grapes, the most promising shoot is taken from a young plant, removing all the others. The left vine is shortened to the level of growth of the future trunk. At the same time, 2-3 healthy kidneys are left in the upper part. A year later, sprouts will appear from them, which organize perennial branches.
Of considerable importance is the competent formation of the bush and the tying of shoots. At first, any peg is suitable as the basis, later on, a trellis will be needed.
For the northern Saperavi, a backwater of three horizontal lines is equipped, which stretch at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other. Garter is performed both before buds and in summer, in accordance with the growth of the vine.
Shelter for the winter
Despite the fact that the northern Saperavi is resistant to frosts, with a lack of snow he will need additional shelter.
The branches are removed from the garters and covered with needles. From above establish arches on which agrofibre is put on. The edges of the canopy are fixed (with stones or other weight).
Important! The insulation should not be too tight, the plant needs fresh air.
Disease Control and Prevention
Unfortunately, like any culture, Saperavi northern can suffer from various fungal diseases, which is why the taste qualities of fruits are lost and grapes become a victim of pests.
If you do not treat the bushes with special preparations, you can lose not only the fruits, but also the bush completely. Therefore, the disinfection of soil and neighboring shrubs is a must.
Another name is downy mildew. This is a fungal disease that affects young inflorescences and leaves. In order to start fighting the disease in time, you should know how it looks: round oily spots appear on the top of the sheet.
The best way to deal with mildew is prevention. Thin out the vine and leaves in a timely manner, thereby ensuring the airing of the bush and preventing moisture stagnation in the soil.
Did you know? In Portugal and Spain, there is a custom: at the last minute of the year they eat grapes there, while making wishes.
You can process grapes 3-4 times a year with systemic fungicides.
Not a harmless and common fungal disease. Affected areas are covered with a coating that, when touched, looks like dust. Gray rot develops in humid conditions, and on dry, hot days this problem may disappear.
Preventive measures are the same as with other diseases:
- good ventilation of the shoots;
- weed control;
- timely spraying with fungicides.
Read more on how to deal with gray rot on grapes.
Oidium, or powdery mildew
This disease affects inflorescences, leaves and fruits of grapes. It is found in the appearance of dark gray plaques with an unpleasant smell of rot.
To protect the plant from infection, it is necessary to ensure good ventilation of all parts of the bush and systematically treat it with a solution of colloidal sulfur. Processing is carried out 4-5 times a year.
If you neglect preventive procedures, you can lose not only the fruits, but the entire vineyard.
The most insidious disease against which there are no effective methods. Therefore, at the first signs (damage to the root zone and leaves with small swelling), the shoots should be immediately removed and burned.
Important! The place where the affected grapes grew is cultivated and not used for the next planting for 3 years.
Saperavi northern is not too picky and easy to care for. In addition, he is rarely affected by diseases. With a little effort, you can get great wine and delicious, ruby juice.