Richelieu grape variety: characteristics, agricultural cultivation
Richelieu is a promising table form of early-ripening. Grapes are marked by high yields and excellent taste and marketability. Other distinguishing features of this amazing hybrid, as well as the rules for cultivating it, will be discussed in this article.
History and description of the variety
We first get acquainted with the history of grapes, and also consider the characteristic varietal characteristics.
The variety is artificially bred from the NSC them. Tairova, by crossing the Moldavian varieties Codrianka (superearly paternal form) and Straseni (mid early maternal form).
The selection number is 50–21–73, SK – 73.
Richelieu quickly gained distribution in Ukraine, the Russian Federation and the countries of the Caucasus.
The bush is vigorous and powerful. The vine has a light brown color reaches 3 m in height and a thickness of up to 5 cm. Large rounded leaves have an intense green color. The peduncle is red, overdried.
The brushes are quite large, their average weight is 600-800 g. Individual brushes reach a weight of 1 kg. The brush is cone-shaped, medium-loose, often dense. No wetting. The berry is also very large (31 × 26 mm, 10 g), oval. The peel of the ripe grapes has a dark blue color, it is dense, but eatable. The subcutaneous part of the berry is juicy, fleshy.
The taste of the grapes is rich, harmonious - sweet with a sweet and sour finish. Sugar storage is good.
Did you know? The oldest 400-year-old vine on Earth is developing in Slovenia, in the town of Maribor. The vineyard continues to bear fruit - each year 100 bottles of wine are made from its berries.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The main advantages include the following:
- large size of clusters and berries;
- sweet fruits with an unusual aftertaste, you can eat with the peel;
- the versatility of berries;
- high productivity (the number of clusters formed from one shoot - from 0.9% to 1.5%);
- the variety coexists perfectly with almost all stocks, demonstrates a high level of survival of cuttings, active growth and good ripening of shoots;
- good resistance to drought;
- a bunch is not prone to peeling;
- good resistance to diseases characteristic of grape culture.
- Richelieu also has disadvantages:
- yield directly depends on proper care (timely watering and the application of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers);
- grows faster in a warm place, therefore, requires mandatory shelter for the winter period;
- susceptible to attack by insects (especially wasps), which requires the use of drugs in the process of growing, and this often affects the berries.
How to choose quality seedlings when buying
Try to choose a seedling according to the following criteria:
- Place of acquisition . Give preference to special nurseries, where they grow healthy and adapted to different conditions young plants. Sellers on the road are not always bona fide.
- Age . Standards allow the use of one or two year old seedlings. However, it is desirable to give preference to annual copies.
- Appearance Shoots should be smooth, healthy, ripened at the base, and buds - formed. Planting material should not have traces of the presence of pests. The optimum diameter of the seedling is at least 5 mm.
- Pay particular attention to the roots . Rhizome should be well developed. The undergrowth or the rootstock is a sign of poor-quality planting stock, which may cause problems in the future.
Table grape varieties also include Phaeton, Dozen, Parisian, Carmacode, Gordey, Dixon, Gala.
Growing Richelieu grapes requires compliance with a number of rules.
When to plant
Richelieu grapes are recommended to be planted with the advent of autumn (in the first days of September), since this month the weather is warm and there is no risk of frost.
Where to plant on the site
Carefully select a place for planting cuttings: this should be a territory with natural or artificial protection from wind and low temperatures. On the places heated by the sun, on the contrary, culture takes root well.
A young plant should be planted only in warm, light and breathable soil. Its acidity should be low or neutral.
How to plant
At the selected site, prepare in advance a pit approximately 20 cm in depth, width and length.
We stock up on sawdust, sand, water to moisten the landing pit, an empty plastic bottle with a removed bottom.
Important! The optimal planting pattern is up to 9 shoots per 1 m² of area.
Planting technology of one cuttings:
- Using a pruning shear, cut the stalk from two sides to the eyes, and also remove all existing leaves from it.
- Pour 300 g of sand into the bottom of the landing pit. Lay sawdust about 1 cm thick on top (sawdust is needed to maintain moisture in the ground).
- In the prepared recess, plant the stalk, holding it by hand, then lightly fill it with soil. Then water the hole liberally.
- Cover the seedling with a plastic bottle without a bottom, digging it into the ground. Unscrew the cap on the bottle so that air enters the plant.
Agricultural technology must be applied taking into account some features of the Richelieu variety.
The presented hybrid does not like excess moisture, so carry out irrigation according to the degree of drying of the soil. Excessive watering, as well as lack of water, is harmful to the vine.
Before flowering and during the blooming period, watering is prohibited, as it can cause shedding of flowers. Do not moisten the soil under the plant and two weeks before harvesting - wet soil can provoke cracking of the fruit and reduce their sugar content.
Important! With a systematic overflow, rhizome rots and the vine is affected by gray rot. In addition to suspension of irrigation, it is necessary to treat the bush with fungicides such as “ Fundazol ” , “ Rovral ” and “ Ronilan ” .
Every 3 years (in the autumn before digging), apply phosphorus and potassium fertilizers (based on 50-60 g per 1 m²). Supplements will contribute to better growth and bush formation.
Fertilize the grapes with nitrogen fertilizing every year in spring (3-4 g per 1 m²).
An excellent option is soil treatment with an aqueous solution of 0.15% TUR.
After each watering, in order to maintain soil moisture and for better penetration of air and nutrients to the roots, loosen the top layer of the earth. The procedure also prevents the growth of new weeds.
Simultaneously with loosening, mulch the soil under the plant. Use a 10 cm thick humus for this. Mulch allows the earth to keep the soil warm and moist, and in winter it reduces temperature differences.
Prior to mulching, the patch should be carefully treated from weed. Get rid of weeds manually after rain or irrigation. If the vegetation is large and has several pairs of leaves, remove them along with the rhizomes.
The early-medium variety Richelieu will ripen earlier, provided the grapes are low on the trellises. Thanks to wooden supports, the shoots will not be damaged.
The support allows you to create the most favorable conditions for the leaves of plants to receive sunlight, ensure the ventilation of the bushes, the convenience of their maintenance and to obtain a high-quality crop. Without support, Richelieu grapes are helpless.
Did you know? The most weighty bunch of grapes in the world was grown in Chile in 1984. Her weight was almost 9.4 kg.
The purpose of the garter is to protect the shoots from damage by winds. In addition, the event helps the shoots to be evenly distributed and fixed in the desired, often vertical, position.
As they grow, the shoots are tied to a vertical trellis. Start tying when the vine reaches a length of 40-50 cm, and the base is slightly lignified. Throughout the growing season, spend 2–4 garters depending on the strength of growth and the height of the trellis.
Try to evenly distribute the vegetative growth of the bush in space, avoiding the shading of inflorescences and brushes.
Being vigorous, the Richelieu variety requires mandatory pruning of vines and rationing of shoots. The maximum load on the bush should be 45 kidneys. Pruning is carried out for 8-10 eyes. Form regularly to ensure thickening of the wood, which, in turn, will positively affect fertility and taste.
Since the variety forms large clusters, the crop must be removed periodically. This will provide nutrition to the remaining fruits, due to which they will be able to fully form. If you neglect this rule of care, the crop will not live up to your expectations. Cut off the second formed brushes on the stems, and leave a quarter of the green branches without brushes.
Despite the set maximum of the lower temperature limit to –27 ° С, the variety gives an acceptable crop, provided that the vines are carefully protected from the cold. Therefore, with the first frost, remove the plant from the trellis, place it on the ground, and then cover it with a thick layer of straw or hay.
Important! It is extremely undesirable to cover the vine with the old parts of the vine bushes, since all the parasites that settled there will be on a living plant. Malicious insects successfully overwinter under cover, and in the spring they will continue to parasitize with renewed vigor.
If the grapes are young, cover them with boxes of plywood or boards with pillows of grass and hay.
Richelieu fruits reach maturity on 115–120 days. Despite the rich taste of grapes, the variety is not very popular among farmers and reviews about it are not the best. This is due to incompetence in some nuances. Accelerated acquisition of bright color with berries creates the illusion of maturity.
However, few people know that grapes become really tasty closer to autumn. The main measure of cluster adulthood is their taste, not color.
The hybrid is universal in application - berries can be consumed fresh, prepared from them winter preparations (juice, marinades, jam, jelly). With a sufficient harvest of sweet fully ripened berries, you can cook upscale home-made wine.
Due to the dense pulp, the fruits perfectly tolerate transportation and are stored for a long time. In a cool ventilated place, the bunches can be stored for 2-3 months.
As you can see, cultivating the Richelieu variety is a difficult and troublesome business. However, the time and effort spent will certainly pay off. If you correctly complete all planting measures and do not neglect the intricacies of care, the vine will become a long-liver on your site.