Pinot grapes: variety varieties and description
Grapes of the Pinot varietal group are known throughout the world primarily as the main ingredient in popular and expensive wines. You can grow it at home, but before that you need to understand all the intricacies of planting and care.
The Pinot grape variety is of French origin. Its homeland is Burgundy. The oldest records mentioning this name date back to the 14th century and are territorially related to eastern France and southern Germany. Even then, this grape was important as a product used in winemaking for representatives of the nobility and the church.
Did you know? The name Pinot grapes has a French etymology. “Pinot” comes from “pin”, which translates as “pine”. It is believed that the variety received this name because of the shape of the bunch, similar to a pine cone.
Description of Pinot grape variety
The Pinot varietal group has common characteristics inherent in all its varieties.
Description of external features
The bushes are medium-sized. Shoots after annual growth acquire a light brown color. The nodes are slightly darker, the internodes are shortened. The size of the leaves is about 14-15 cm in length and about the same in width.
Each leaf plate has 3 or 5 blades, the dissection is easy or medium. The shape of the foliage is round. In autumn, in most cases it acquires a red color with brown tint. Sometimes there are specimens with golden foliage in the autumn.
Grapes have a cylindrical shape, close to conical. Berries are located rather densely. The bunch rests on a small stalk and has a weight in the range of 80–150 g. The berries of most varieties are dark blue, but there are species with a red color of berries. The shape of the fruit is rounded and slightly elongated.
Ripening period and yield
The main varieties of Pinot grapes are mid-season. Harvesting is possible after 140–150 days from the moment the buds opened. The yield of the main variety of grapes is low, however, depending on the type, conditions and related factors, the amount of harvested may be above average.
Characteristic Varietal Features
The main features of the varietal group are:
- the presence on the berries of a bluish wax coating;
- low productivity;
- red with brown tint color of leaves during the autumn period;
- cylindrical-conical shape of clusters.
Depending on the particular species, specifications may vary.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Among the advantages of the varietal group are:
- frost resistance up to -30 ° С;
- the possibility of producing high-quality wine products;
- the possibility of growing grapes in the middle band;
- due to the medium height of the bushes, grapes can be grown even in a small area.
Pinot grapes also have some disadvantages.
- Among its minuses can be identified:
- lack of resistance to most pests and diseases;
- low productivity and its dependence on weather and climatic conditions.
Pinot is a varietal group represented by several varieties. Among them are: Noir, Grigio, Meunier, Blanc, Tignes and early (Michurinsky). In fact, they are one and the same species, however they are different clones and express different mutations.
Pinot Noir (Nero)
Pinot Noir, or Pinot Black - one of the most famous varieties of its varietal group, which has been used in the field of winemaking for several centuries. Distributed by Pinot Noir in different parts of the world in temperate countries.
Did you know? Pinot Noir belongs to the great wines of Burgundy. A significant part of its plantations is located on the Golden Slope of this historical region - a specially equipped area for growing elite grapes.
Pinot Grigio (Gris)
The view of Grigio, or Gris, is common in France, Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Australia, New Zealand and other countries. Most of the wine from this variety is produced in Italy. Technically, it belongs to the white varieties, but the color of the berries is slightly pink due to the reddish hue of the skin.
The species with black berries, like other varieties, comes from France, where it is currently grown on a larger scale, compared to other countries. Vineyards with Pinot Meunier can also be found in Germany, Switzerland, Austria, USA, Australia, Slovenia and Croatia.
A white grape variety considered to be a Pinot Gris mutation. Commercially grown in France, Italy and Australia. Most often, this variety gives an early and large crop, however, fertility depends more on growing conditions.
Pinot Franc grapes are varieties that have early ripening. Grapes grow medium-sized and have a dark purple or blue color with a thin spring (raid). It is grown mainly on slopes with increased dryness, since this species is distinguished by drought tolerance.
Pinot Fran is sometimes called the Crimean variety, since it can be found in the western part of the Crimean peninsula.
Black wine variety bred by French breeders. Grown in temperate climates. The color of the berries is close to purple, the taste is slightly acidic, but generally soft and somewhat reminiscent of cherries.
Pinot early (Michurinsky)
Pinot early, or Michurinsky, is a product of Russian breeders who have attempted to develop a domestic variety from Pinot Noir. Its originators are scientists from the Shnit family, who live in Michurinsk and conduct selection tests in the Central Genetic Laboratory of this city.
Features of planting and growing
In order to plant and successfully root grapes, you first need to choose a place to plant. For the Pinot varietal group, a plot in an open space, well lit by the sun, is best suited. If a slope is chosen for landing, it is better to choose the south or west-south side of the hill.
An important factor is the quality of the soil. The fertile layer should be as thick as possible, since the rate of growth of the rhizome and ripening of the berries depends on this. It is best to choose a place with soil that contains lime in large quantities. Humus-carbonate soil is also suitable.
Preliminary preparation should be carried out 1-2 months before planting. On the site allocated for the vineyard, you need to dig holes for planting bushes. If you plan a general landing, but you need to dig a trench. When digging holes, remember the distance between them.
The distance between the cuttings should be about 0.8 m. If the landing will occur in several rows, then between them you need to maintain a distance of at least 1 m.
Grapes of this variety are planted either in spring (from mid-March to mid-May), or in autumn (late September or early October).
You will also be interested to know how to make wine from white grapes.
The landing process is as follows:
- Saplings are bought immediately before planting in the ground (for 1-2 days).
- After that, they are placed in water for 24 hours.
- Trim the rhizome and cut the stems into 3-4 buds.
- Immediately before planting, the rhizome is treated with clay mash.
- Before placing the seedling in a pit, drainage is laid at its bottom, and prepared soil is poured on top.
- A fertilizer consisting of 250 g of ash and 250 g of nitroammophoska is added to each well.
- The seedling is carefully placed in the center of the hole, straighten its roots, sprinkle it with earth, compacting it well, and water it abundantly.
How to care for seedlings
The quality of the crop depends on the proper care of the seedlings.
Watering should be plentiful, but infrequent. After winter, the soil should be moistened for the first time in March (if there was little snow) or in April (in the case of heavy snowfalls in winter). Water for irrigation should be warm, within +20 ... + 22 ° С.
You can water the bushes manually by irrigation or use automatic drip irrigation systems. During flowering, grapes of this variety are usually not watered.
As necessary, weeds should be removed and the soil loosened.
Feeding is equally important. During the growing season, fertilizers need to be applied 3-4 times.
Important! The secateurs used to prune grapes must first be treated in a solution of potassium permanganate. This will protect the plants from infections.
Experienced growers suggest using mineral or organic top dressing in the following sequence:
- The first fertilizer is before flowering.
- The second - 14 days before the appearance of the ovaries.
- Third, 14–21 days before harvest.
- Fourth - after removing the grapes from the branches.
Too long stalks of grapes need to be shortened. In addition, it is necessary to remove old, dried and non-fruitful shoots.
Protection against diseases and pests
Representatives of the Pinot varietal group have medium resistance to some common diseases, among which are:
Other diseases can be more likely to affect grapes.
It will also be useful for you to find out why it appears and how to get rid of white plaque on grapes.
Such diseases include fungal diseases:
- gray rot;
- black spotting;
- white mosaic;
- downy mildew.
All these fungal infections are treated with fungicides. Well-proven tools such as Topaz, Antracol, Bordeaux mixture.
Of the pests that can attack the Pinot bush, there are:
- false shields;
- leaf mite;
- spider mite;
- weevil pipe-weaver;
- felt tick;
An important factor in the cultivation of grapes are preventive measures against diseases and pests. In order to prevent the development of diseases, representatives of the Pinot varietal group are grafted onto a grape bush, which has good resistance to various pathologies.
Throughout the entire period of fruit ripening, it is desirable to treat the plants with systemic comprehensive protection preparations (Skor, Khom, Actellik).
Important! 1 month before harvesting, chemical treatment should be stopped to reduce the effects of toxic substances on berries.
Reviews of winegrowers
Vine growers who grow the classic Western European Pinot variety mostly leave positive feedback about grapes and note the following:
- Cuttings are quickly taken and rooted after planting in the ground.
- Varietal group is relatively frost-resistant, especially with snow cover of 15–20 cm.
- At home, you can remove 4-9 kg of crop from one bush.
- The clusters are usually small, weighing 90-100 g, but large specimens weighing up to 200 g are also found.
- The taste and aroma of berries when grown at home is slightly different from the original burgundy grapes, however, these differences for personal use are not critical.
All varieties of Pinot grapes are technical varieties.
For this reason, they are used for processing into wine products when grown both on an industrial scale and for personal purposes:
- A distinctive feature of the varieties Noir and Meunier is their use in the production of champagne. These two species, together with the equally famous Chardonnay grapes, make up the main varietal triad for creating real French champagne. They are used both for the production of a monosorted beverage, and when using the assembly technique, i.e., mixing several varieties.
- One of the most expensive burgundy wines is also produced from Pinot Noir. The price per bottle can reach $ 10 thousand. The reason for the high price of a drink made from grapes of this variety lies in the difficulties of its cultivation. Successful ripening of the crop requires not only proper care, but also favorable weather conditions. In addition, Noir can mutate into other species. The wine of this variety is difficult to blend.
- Pinot Gris is notable for the fact that they make wines with a low level of acidity. The taste of the drink is different apple notes. The color of the wine is golden, close to brown.
- From Pinot Blanc produce light dessert and table wines .
- Pinot Tin is used to create wine products with a high level of acidity. With long-term storage in wooden barrels, the remarkable taste of the drink becomes especially noticeable.
The Pinot variety is suitable for cultivation as an industrial grape. The wine that is obtained by processing any variety of this variety has excellent taste characteristics and will delight lovers of French wine products.