Pepper grade Cowskin ear: description, planting and care
In the existing variety of varieties and hybrids of sweet bell pepper, which differ in size, shape and color of the fruits, their ripening dates and other signs, it is easy to get lost. This review will help you get acquainted with an interesting version of large-fruited sweet pepper of bright red color under the self-explanatory name - Cow's ear.
Selection and description of the variety
The cow’s ear is a fairly young variety of pepper bred by Russian breeders on the basis of the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing (now - Agrofirm “Search”). It became available for wide use a little more than 10 years ago, after it passed the official state registration. According to its characteristics, it is suitable for cultivation on almost the entire territory of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and other countries of the former USSR, however, in regions with a particularly harsh climate, it needs a film shelter.
Did you know? The division of sweet pepper into red, yellow, and green is not only decorative. It turns out that these types of vegetables have significant differences in composition: for example, green fruits contain the most substances with anti-cancer activity, red ones are very rich in vitamin C, and yellow ones are rich in potassium, phosphorus and rutin.
Botanical characteristics of the variety:
|Bush||sprawling, well-branched, fairly tall (up to 70 cm), with medium leaf cover|
|Leaves||medium, slightly shriveled, with a pointed tip, deep green|
|Root system||very powerful|
|Fruit arrangement||hanging (downward)|
|Fruit Sizes||10–18 cm in length, average weight 120–150 g|
|Pepper wall thickness||0.6–0.9 cm|
|Number of Fruit Chambers||3-4|
|Fruit coloring||at the time of formation, green, in the stage of ripeness dark red|
|The shape and structure of the fruit||conical with a pointed tip, slightly ribbed, the skin is dense and glossy|
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages distinguishing the Cow's ear among other varieties of sweet pepper include, first of all:
- extensive area of zoning;
- the possibility of growing both in open ground and in greenhouses;
- fast ripening;
- high taste characteristics;
- attractive appearance (bright color, beautiful shape, pronounced gloss);
- good yield indicators, a large number of peppers on one plant;
- universal purpose (pepper can be consumed fresh, put in salads, bake, stew, and also harvest for the winter in the form of spins, by drying or freezing);
- Suitability for transportation over long distances without loss of commercial qualities;
- good keeping performance;
- resistance to many dangerous fungal and viral diseases affecting peppers.
- Speaking about the minuses of the variety, it is usually noted that he:
- characterized by not too high germination of seeds (sometimes less than 50%);
- differs in very low resistance to cold, low temperatures are especially dangerous for a young immature plant in the spring;
- needs a lot of bright sunlight;
- Demanding on the composition of the soil and regular top dressing (otherwise, large fruit sets that do not have the ability to fully ripen);
- unstable to droughts and high temperatures (an increase in air temperature above + 30 ° C during flowering or fruit laying can lead to the fall of flowers and ovaries, this is especially true for growing crops under film cover);
- does not tolerate moisture on the leaves, which often leads to the development of fungal infections in plants grown in greenhouses;
- because of too large fruits, it needs to be tied up a bush;
- for the same reason, it’s not good for stuffing.
How to grow seedlings at home
Theoretically, the seeds of the Cow's Ear can be sown directly on the bed, but in this case the germination is very small, and the plants that appear are lagging behind in development, get sick and rarely bring the expected yield. Therefore, traditionally growing sweet pepper begins with transplanting seedlings.
The period from mid-February to early March is usually called the optimal time for planting seedlings, however, such recommendations cannot be considered absolutely correct.
Important! Under optimal conditions for growing seedlings of medium early varieties of sweet pepper, to which the Calf's ear belongs, reaches the stage of readiness for transplanting to a permanent place within 50-60 days from the moment of sowing seeds.
The moment of planting pepper seeds is determined based on two factors:
- Dates of the proposed movement of future seedlings to a permanent place (for each region it is calculated in its own way).
- The presence or absence of the ability to create optimal conditions for growing seedlings (primarily for temperature and lighting): the further the microclimate created for seedlings from the ideal, the longer the formation of the bush will take.
Since, depending on the specific climatic conditions and the chosen method of growing the crop (in open ground or in a greenhouse), the period of planting pepper seedlings for a permanent place may vary from early May to mid-June, it is necessary to plant seedlings in some cases already at the end of winter, in others this procedure can be safely transferred to the second half of March.
Soil and capacity for growing
There are two approaches to choosing the soil for growing seedlings: some prefer to use the substrate purchased in the store, others take the land in their own garden. Each of these options has its pros and cons. So, store mixes for seedlings usually undergo all the necessary enrichment and disinfection measures, but in the second case the process of plant adaptation to the new soil composition after transplantation is minimized. The two main characteristics that the soil for growing pepper seedlings must meet are looseness and lightness.
Important! Sweet pepper does not tolerate transplanting, so it is better to choose cassettes in such a way as to minimize the risk of root damage. The root system of pepper goes vertically down in the form of a single rod, which means that the capacity should be high and have a cone-shaped narrowing in the lower part.
To ensure compliance with these requirements, for example, by mixing:
- peat and humus in equal parts;
- humus and sod land in a ratio of 2: 1 or 3: 2;
- humus, sod land, peat and sawdust in a ratio of 1: 2: 4: 1.
Before use, such a soil mixture must be decontaminated, abundantly pour the substrate with a saturated solution of potassium permanganate. In addition to the soil mixture, for the cultivation of pepper seedlings, it is necessary to choose a suitable container. Previously, boxes or boxes were used for these purposes, but today it is much more convenient to purchase special cassettes for seedlings. The advantages of such a container are obvious: they can be used repeatedly, easily installed, moved and transported, which is very convenient both for hardening seedlings and for transporting them to the site.
Seed selection and preparation
The growth and fruiting of the Cow's Ear is largely dependent on the initial quality of the seeds. When purchasing planting material, you must first make sure that it is not expired. Different dates may be indicated on the packaging with seeds - collection, packaging, sale or final suitability. The suitability of the material for use can be determined only by the first or last of these dates (the moment when the product was packaged in bags or delivered for sale does not carry a fundamental information load). Sweet pepper seeds sprout a very long time, in order to accelerate this process, they must first be sprouted.
Important! The germination of sweet pepper lasts about three years, but this period may vary depending on storage conditions, so you need to buy goods only from a trusted distributor.
However, before this, a preliminary inspection of the seeds should be carried out. To do this, the contents of the package are poured into a small container with salted water and left for 30 minutes. After a while, all the seeds that remained to float on the surface are removed. Then, the sunken seeds must be moved to another container filled with a weak solution of potassium permanganate (for disinfection, you can also use aloe juice diluted with water in equal parts) and leave for another 30 minutes. In the future, “pickled” seeds should be placed in a growth stimulator.
You will be interested to learn how to grow indoor pepper.
The process of the appearance of the first root can drag on for 10-12 days, so from time to time you need to unfold the film and re-wet the fabric or paper. Professional preparation of seeds for sowing may also involve some additional manipulations, in particular, hardening (alternating low and high temperatures at which germinated seeds are kept) and sparging (oxygen saturation of seeds, for example, using an aquarium compressor). Each of these procedures significantly improves seed germination and increases the resistance of the future plant.
For sowing the Cow's Ear, prepared containers should be filled with about 2/3 of the soil mixture, water the soil abundantly and allow the water to completely absorb. Then, sprouted seeds are laid directly on the surface and carefully sprinkled on top with a layer of earth no more than 1-2 cm. Water should not be watered after that, otherwise the seed will go deeper than it should be, and this will greatly complicate the process of germination. As for the landing scheme, it depends on whether a subsequent dive is planned.
When sowing the Cow's Ear, it must be borne in mind that even after all the preparatory work is done, about half of the seeds still will not sprout. That is why most often sowing is carried out with a margin, that is, not one, but 2-3 seeds are placed in each cassette. At the same time, it is necessary to try to place them as far apart as possible so that in case of emergence of friendly shoots in one of the cells, the plants can be planted without damaging the root system of the “neighbor”.
Important! The earlier picking (thinning) is carried out, the easier it is tolerated.
Seeding of seedlings at the stage of appearance of 2-3 true leaves in plants is considered optimal. Usually this moment occurs approximately 2–2.5 weeks after emergence.
Planting seedlings without picking involves laying a single seed in each cassette. This method is good for the plant itself, since pepper, like eggplant, does not like transplants. However, given the poor germination of the Calf’s ear, the allocation of a personal cell for each seed will inevitably result in a significant part of the cells being empty, which means that efforts to prepare the soil, fill the cassettes and take care of the seedlings during the first weeks will not get adequate recoil.
After sowing the seeds, the cassettes should be covered with film or glass and put in a well-lit warm place (the ideal temperature for germination is + 23 ... + 26 ° С). Before emergence of seedlings it is not necessary to water the planted seeds, it is enough to sometimes remove the film and spray the surface of the earth with a spray gun. After the shoots appear on the surface, the film is removed, and the containers with seedlings are moved to a cooler place (air temperature +13 ... + 16 ° С in the daytime and + 8 ... + 10 ° С in the night). The more light will be provided during this period for seedlings, the faster and better it will develop.
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A week later, the cassette is again placed in a warm place, where seedlings continue to grow until it is planted in open ground. Pepper should be watered as it dries. At the same time, it is better to use more water at one time than to carry out frequent and scarce watering. In addition, it is important to ensure that water does not fall on the trunk and leaves. Before transplanting seedlings into the open field, the Volovy ear can be fed 1-2 times with mineral fertilizers (5 g of urea, 30-50 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium sulfate per 10 l of water).
A couple of weeks before the alleged planting of seedlings in the open ground, young bushes need to be prepared for a future microclimate change. To do this, cassettes with seedlings are taken out to the balcony or left in front of an open window. It is necessary to start such a procedure on a warm and sunny day (direct rays should not burn seedlings), and limit the time of the first airing to about an hour.
How to plant seedlings in a permanent place
Good and healthy seedlings are just one of the stages in growing any crop. To a lesser extent, the final result of the work is affected by how well the time and place for planting the pepper are chosen, as well as how this procedure itself is carried out.
Find out why peppers do not bloom well.
It is very difficult, of course, to determine the exact date of disembarkation of the cow’s ear seedlings in a permanent place, however, the ideal to which you must strive should assume a combination of the following conditions:
|The age of seedlings (in days since the appearance of the first shoots)||50-60|
|Seedling height, cm||18–20|
|Stem thickness, cm||0.4-0.5|
|Number of true leaflets||79|
|Vegetation phase||laying the first buds (flowering should not begin)|
|Daily average air temperature||+ 15 ... + 17 ° С|
|Soil temperature at the depth of the root system (minimum 10 cm)||+ 10 ... + 12 ° С|
A sweet pepper bed is best chosen on the south side. This culture needs a lot of heat and light and does not tolerate strong winds. If groundwater runs very close to the surface of the earth, it is useful for the Cows ear to construct a high bed. This technique will protect the root system of the plant from stagnation of water and provide the aboveground part of the bush with better lighting and heating. Best of all, the Cow's Ear will feel on loam or sandstone, enriched with humus and nutrients.
Read more about how to speed up the ripening process of peppers.
In relation to sweet pepper, you must be guided by the following rules:
For more than one year, plants from the same family are undesirable to be planted in one place: on the one hand, this increases the risk of damage to the culture by pathogenic microorganisms and pests that have successfully wintered in the garden, including plant debris, on the other hand, the soil is very poor, losing those are the substances that are most needed for this particular culture.
Scheme and landing depth
The cow’s ear needs a significant amount of free space, which must be provided for each plant. Based on this, the creators recommend using a 50 × 70 cm pattern when planting this type of pepper. Having marked the future bed, you need to dig holes, the depth of which should ensure the free placement of the whole earthen coma of the seedling bush in it, while it is necessary that the root neck of the plant placed in hole, after its instillation was strictly at ground level.
How to care in the open ground
Cowhide - a fairly demanding and capricious variety of sweet pepper. It is not suitable for those who are ready to get out to the summer cottage no more than once a week. Однако такая особенность сорта объясняется не слабым иммунитетом растения, а большим количеством крупных плодов, которые оно должно сформировать.
Рекомендуем вам узнать как бороться с гусеницами на перце.
Для того чтобы весь этот объём урожая мог вызреть, куст объективно нуждается в большем, по сравнению с другими сортами, количеством:
- питательных веществ в почве.
Поливать Воловье ухо необходимо по следующей схеме:
- в период вегетации — часто, но понемногу;
- в период закладки и формирования плодов — реже, но очень обильно.
Did you know? Аборигены из Латинской Америки использовали сладкий перец в качестве своеобразного «химического оружия». Индейцы считали, что едкий дым, который начинал обильно выделяться при помещении семян растения на тлеющие угли, отпугивает не только злых духов, но также более реальных врагов — диких зверей и воинов из соседних племён.
Как и другие представители семейства паслёновые, сладкий перед не любит полива по листу. Воду необходимо лить только в нижнюю часть куста, в идеале предусмотреть для этой цели систему капельного орошения. Помимо отсутствия рисков ожога листьев и значительной экономии расхода воды, такой способ полива обеспечивает предварительный прогрев воды в ленте, что очень важно, поскольку поливать овощные грядки всегда нужно только тёплой водой.
Для хорошего плодоношения Воловьему уху необходима рыхлая почва, полностью свободная от сорняков. Рыхление, проводимое после каждого полива, обеспечивает сохранение в земле максимального количества влаги, а сорняки не просто конкурируют с перцем за питательные вещества и освещение, но и являются «резерваторами» многих опасных инфекций и дополнительной приманкой для вредителей. Чтобы решить проблему постоянного рыхления и прополок опытные огородники используют технологию мульчирования грядок, укрывая землю вокруг куста толстым слоем органики — сена, соломы, торфа, древесных опилок или измельчённой коры.
Did you know? История любви человека к сладкому перцу, по добытым археологами сведениям, длится от 6 до 9 тысяч лет!
Такое укрытие не только задерживает влагу и препятствует прорастанию сорной травы, но и является отличным органическим удобрением на будущий год, постепенно перегнивая и разлагаясь под воздействием червей и других микроорганизмов, обитающих в почве.
Даже очень плодородная почва, выделенная под размещение грядки с Воловьим ухом, не может обеспечить высокоурожайный и крупноплодный сорт всеми необходимыми ему питательными веществами. Поэтому в течение сезона перец необходимо несколько раз дополнительно подкормить.
|Спустя 2 недели после высадки рассады в открытый грунт|
|В активной фазе цветения|
|В стадии начала созревания плодов|
Если плодоношение происходит активно, а погодные условия позволяют рассчитывать на созревание новой волны плодов, количество подкормок в течение лета можно увеличить.
Ознакомьтесь с особенностями обработки перцев борной кислотой.
Для того чтобы куст мог выдержать большое количество крупных плодов и не сломаться, Воловье ухо необходимо подвязать к опоре. В качестве таковой проще всего использовать индивидуальный колышек (обрезок арматуры, металлический прут и т. п.), однако в некоторых случаях лучше предусмотреть несколько подобных опор, вкопав их с разных сторон куста и подвязав к каждой из них ближайший ствол.
Узнайте как в домашних условиях хранить перцы чтобы они покраснели.
Воловье ухо — довольно интересный сорт сладкого перца, привлекающий многих огородников высокой урожайностью, а также очень крупными и красивыми плодами, в равной степени пригодными как для употребления в свежем виде, так и для осуществления заготовок на зиму. Однако, принимая решение высадить у себя на участке этот сорт, нужно иметь в виду, что он требует к себе достаточно большого внимания и очень болезненно реагирует как на неблагоприятные погодные условия, так и на ошибки в агротехнике.