Muscat white grape variety: photo and description, agricultural cultivation
When choosing a grape variety to plant on their site, gardeners need to consider many different parameters, including the ripening dates of the fruits, as well as the directions for using the future crop. For gourmets who dream of preparing their own homemade wine, nutmeg varieties are the best suited. Among them, in turn, it is worth paying attention to Muscat white superearly, the features of which will be discussed in this review.
White nutmeg is a very ancient grape variety, the history of selection of which dates back to ancient times, so today it is difficult to say how and when this variety appeared. It is believed that this type of vine began to be cultivated in the East, since it was in this part of the world that scientists discovered the earliest remains and descriptions of the muscat group grapes. Did you know? The largest bunch of grapes was grown in Chile. The record at 9389 g was recorded in 1984 and is still considered unsurpassed (in Crimea, however, we managed to get a bunch weighing 8600 g). The possibility of growing heat-loving vines in a harsher climate due to the accelerated ripening of berries for winegrowers was provided by Fedor Ilyich Shatilov, a famous Russian scientist who is considered the founder of northern viticulture due to the realization of the idea of cultivating this crop in his native Orenburg region. White nutmeg was adapted for these purposes by the method of intraspecific selection, that is, without supplementing the plant's genetic formula with other, earlier and frost-resistant grape varieties, but only due to the natural selection of the samples most suitable for the task and their cross-pollination.
White superearly muscat has the following technical characteristics:
- growing regions: areas with warm and temperate climates - ideal for the Mediterranean, also cultivated in the Middle East (Egypt, Syria), Romania, Ukraine, USA. Due to early ripening, it sometimes lands in the Urals and Siberia, although the cultivation of frost-resistant vines in these regions is associated with great difficulties;
- ripening period: from 90 to 100 days (ultra-early);
- productivity: 10 kg from a bush;
- ripening temperature requirements (total number of active temperatures): 1900 degrees;
- frost resistance: low (needs good shelter);
- taste characteristics: very sweet, there is a nutmeg taste, a smack of citrus and a light aroma of a rose;
- tasting score: 8.5 points.
The botanical features of the plant are as follows:
|Vine growth per year||75–90%|
|The percentage of fruiting kidneys||40% (shoots growing from young buds are not fruitful)|
|Leaves||Large, whole or lobed, consisting of 3-5 deeply dissected funnel-shaped segments with characteristic notches along the edges and a light border. The reverse side of the leaf plate is covered with light green filamentous veins.|
|Shoots||Young stems have a vertical orientation, bending to the ground only at the end.|
|Flowers||Bisexual, although it requires additional pollination to increase productivity|
|Bunches||Small, usually not more than 300 g, cylindrical with or without a wing. The density of the bunch is average.|
|Berries||Small (3-4 g), round, yellow-green at the ripening stage and golden amber at the time of harvest. A mandatory feature is the presence of a shiny wax coating. The skin is medium density. The number of seeds in the berry is 2-3.|
White muscat, like other muscat grape varieties, are considered table-technical, that is, they have a universal direction of use. Due to its unique aroma and rich taste, this variety can be consumed fresh, as well as for the manufacture of exquisite and very valuable dessert wine.
Did you know? The most expensive wine in the world from Cabernet Sauvignon grapes is a drink produced at the Inglenook winery (USA, California, Napa Valley) vintage 1941. One bottle of this wine today is estimated at approximately $ 20, 000.
The variety is also suitable for the preparation of fruit salads, desserts, jams, jams, compotes and juices, however, such treatment with noble nutmeg, in general, is a real waste.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The unconditional advantages of the variety include:
- early maturity;
- lack of tendency to peeling and shedding berries (subject to proper agricultural practices);
- high taste characteristics of berries.
- Unfortunately, there are a lot of drawbacks of Muscat white super early. In particular, this variety:
- poor fruiting with a thickened planting;
- Needs additional pollination;
- yields relatively low yields;
- possesses low frost resistance, often freezes in the winter, and also suffers from spring frosts;
- has a weak immunity to fungal infections (often affected by mildew, oidium, anthracnose, sulfur and other rot);
- unstable to pest attacks (grape aphids and spider mites are especially dangerous);
- poorly tolerates transportation (berries are deformed at the slightest squeezing);
- makes high demands on humidity (in the dry period, it may lag behind in growth)
- difficult to care, moody.
Since white superearly muscat cannot be attributed to unpretentious grape varieties, issues related to the acquisition of a quality seedling, the correct choice of a place for the vine, as well as the observance of planting technology, become especially important.
We recommend that you find out what white grapes are good for.
How to choose quality seedlings when buying
Muscat is white superearly - the grade is not very expensive. The cost of one seedling in the countries of the former USSR ranges from 4-6 US dollars in equivalent.
Important! It is possible to determine exactly which variety the acquired vine belongs to after the first harvest, that is, 2-3 years after planting, when the plant has taken root and has taken root.
The correct choice of the seller not only guarantees the purchase of the desired grape variety and protects against fakes, but also makes it unnecessary to independently assess the quality of the selected seedling, since the producer, who values his reputation, does not put up non-viable plants for sale.
- it is better to purchase a vine immediately before planting, otherwise, due to improper storage, the seedling can significantly lose its viability;
- the optimal age of the seedling is 1 year. A two-year-old vine takes root worse, and you should refuse to buy older bushes altogether;
- the approximate sizes of the annual vine are as follows: height - 40–55 cm, thickness - 0.5 cm (if the seedling has 2 shoots, they should be no thinner than 0.4 cm);
- the color of the vine should be monophonic and only brown (not green, not yellow and not black);
- the bark should not have spots, cracks or other damage;
- the number of healthy kidneys on the vine is not less than 4, and it is necessary to make sure that they are not frozen and not dried up (a healthy kidney does not fall off if it is touched);
- the roots must be well developed, consist of at least 3 processes looking at different sides with a minimum thickness of 15 mm;
- cracks, swelling and damage are not allowed on the roots, in addition, the roots should not be transparent;
- if there are leaves on the seedling, they should be green, not damaged, not dry and not twisted (excessive leafy vines are more likely a drawback, since such a seedling loses too much moisture through the foliage);
- scraping off a small area of the bark or cutting off the top of the seedling, the buyer should see live, juicy and moist pulp.
A bona fide seller should not object to all the described verification activities with a vine or, in any case, should do such procedures independently at the request of the buyer. Otherwise, it is better to refuse the purchase.
Video: How to choose a grape seedling
Where to plant on the site
A place for grapes must be chosen before purchasing a seedling. It must meet the following requirements:
- Illumination: maximum (for quick ripening, grapes need a lot of sunlight, so for the vine you need to choose the most illuminated area);
- ventilation: good, but without drafts (the vine carries the north wind especially hard, so it is advisable that the bush from the north be protected by a wall or other structure);
- proximity of groundwater: not higher than 4-5 m to the surface (it is best to plant a vine on a hill);
- soil composition: chernozem with a neutral or slightly acid reaction (pH level from 5.5 to 7). White nutmeg grows well on loamy and rocky soils; some winegrowers even recommend that fine gravel be added to the soil when planting.
How to plant
Grapes can be planted in spring or autumn, however, for musk poorly tolerating frosts, the latter option is less preferred. This is especially true for regions with cold winters, where a seedling that has not had time to take root can simply be lost.
To plant a seedling in open ground, it is necessary to wait until the spring frosts finally leave, and the daytime temperature is set at a level not lower than + 10 ° С.
When planting several bushes, the distance between them should be at least 2 m, since in the cramped Muscat white superearly yields very low yields.
Important! The main rule when planting the vine is a deep hole: you need to dig it at least 80 cm, and preferably 1 m, the diameter should be about the same. In the northern regions, this is necessary to protect the seedling from freezing, in the southern regions from summer drought.
The rest of the landing technology is as follows:
- Add a drainage layer in the form of broken brick, gravel or screenings to the bottom of the pit.
- Mix the earth extracted from the pit with humus, pebbles, humus and mineral fertilizers of the nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium group (crushed charcoal or potassium sulfate, urea, superphosphate, etc.).
- Remove the seedling from its packaging.
- Remove damaged roots, cut healthy root processes by 3-4 cm.
- Prepare a porridge-like mixture of clay, humate and water.
- Dip the roots of the seedling in the pulp and allow them to dry.
- Pour a little prepared soil change to the bottom of the pit, pour plenty of water.
- When water is absorbed into the ground, build a small hill of soil mixture at the bottom and set a seedling on it at a slight angle. The root heel should face south.
- Trying not to bend or bend the roots, spread them down towards the bottom of the fossa, directing them in different directions.
- To fill up a hole, gradually tamping the soil.
- Water the soil liberally, avoiding water getting on the trunk and leaves.
- When the water is absorbed, add earth if necessary and mulch the near-stem circle with peat or straw.
- If necessary, drive a peg next to the seedling and tie a vine to it.
Features of seasonal care
White supramarine nutmeg is a very demanding variety for proper care, so it is important for the gardener to know the basic rules for watering and feeding the vines, monitor the condition of the soil within the near-stem circle, conduct timely treatment of the bush against diseases and pests, and also observe the technology of pruning and sheltering the vine in the winter.
Grapes are moisture-loving crops; in the absence of moisture, bushes are more likely to suffer from pest attacks and bear fruit worse. However, excess watering is the biggest mistake that a gardener can make.
Did you know? The root system of grapes goes into the soil at 4-6 m. However, if necessary, the vine is able to produce moisture at a depth of 14 m underground, so the crop may well do without rain and without watering for a long time. Only young bushes need to be watered regularly. So, during the first 2-3 years after planting Muscat, the white superearly one needs weekly watering, and the water consumption for one bush should be from 5 to 20 liters. In the middle of the growing season, the frequency of watering gradually decreases, and by the end of summer, if the days are not too dry, watering can be completely stopped.
Grapes should never be watered “according to the leaf”. It is best to dig in the bushes with a shallow trench and pour water into it, since moistening the leaves, stems and trunk increases the risk of developing fungal infections, against which Muscat white superearly has a rather weak immunity.
Important! From the moment the fruit bunch begins to form until the harvest, the grapes are not watered, otherwise the accumulation of sugar in the berries decreases, and in addition, they may begin to crack.
It is necessary to feed the vine moderately, since the excess of fertilizers transfers grapes much worse than their lack. In caring for an adult bush, only a few top dressings are required per season with alternating organic and mineral components.
The first feeding is carried out in early spring, when the plant began to form the first buds. During this period, it is best to bring a dry mixture of mineral fertilizers under the bush - phosphorus (for example, superphosphate), potash (for example, potassium sulfate) and nitrogen (for example, urea).
In the future, at the stage of laying fruit bunches, with a break of about a month, you can double-feed with mineral fertilizers, eliminating the nitrogen component from them.
In the autumn period, after harvesting, every 2-3 years the earth can be enriched with humus and wood ash, bringing them under the trunk circle and carefully digging. As for the young vine, it does not need top dressing if the recommended amount of nutrients was introduced into the pit during the planting of the bush.
Video: Topping grapes
Prop and garter shoots
Any grape needs a garter, because the vine is essentially a vine. The garter can be of two types: high and constant (“on the gazebo”) or low (on the trellis, “near the ground”). For the White Muscat that is in need of winter shelter, the first option is not suitable, therefore, at the same time as the vine is planted, it is necessary to think over and make a special design consisting of stationary vertical supports, between which 2-3 rows of twine or tape made of strong fabric are stretched. The height of such tiers above ground level should be approximately:
- 1st tier - 50 cm;
- 2nd tier - 120 cm;
- 3rd tier - 200 cm.
As the vine is formed, its woody parts are attached to the trellis, and young shoots are sent along the horizontally stretched “crossbars”. This allows the plant to easily withstand the weight of the ripening bunches, as well as provide their most uniform lighting.
To protect the vine from diseases and pests, weeds must be regularly removed in a radius of at least 1 m from the base of the trunk. In addition, soil care inside the near-stem circle involves deep loosening after each watering or rain. If the earth around the bush is mulled, there is no need to carry out such procedures, it is only important to ensure that the mulch layer remains sufficiently thick (at least 5 cm) and periodically update it.
Pruning is one of the most difficult elements in grape care. It is from her that the future fruiting ultimately depends. Trimming White Muscat early is necessary in early spring, after removing the shelter. You need to have time to complete the procedure before the moment when the active movement of the juice begins in the trunk and stems.
Important! При наличии нескольких сортов винограда на участке первыми всегда обрезаются самые морозостойкие, поэтому Мускат белый в таком списке лучше отодвинуть на последнее место.
Правила обрезки мускатного сорта таковы:
- Сначала следует острым и продезинфицированным секатором обрезать все однолетние побеги, кроме 1-2 наиболее здоровых, толщиной 0, 6–1, 2 см. На них необходимо оставить от 2 до 4 почек.
- Старые и начинающие подсыхать многолетние лозы также нужно удалить у основания, используя при этом пилу.
- При обрезке винограда необходимо всегда оставлять от побега небольшие «пеньки», примерно на высоте 1/3 до первой почки. Это необходимо потому, что у лозы, в отличие от дерева, обрезанная часть не затягивается, а отмирает.
- После правильной обрезки на лозе должны оставаться плодоносящие побеги, укороченные до 5–8 глазков, и сучки замещения — однолетние побеги, которые будут плодоносить в последующие годы.
Неустойчивый к холодам Мускат белый сверхранний на зиму рекомендуется не просто укрывать, но и прикапывать. Делать это нужно как можно позже, поскольку небольшие заморозки для лозы являются отличной закалкой перед последующим периодом покоя. Однако до наступления настоящих морозов (–10°С и ниже) виноград оставлять на шпалере не стоит.
Узнайте, как приготовить вино из белого винограда.
The procedure is as follows:
- Рядом с кустом в земле выкапывают траншею глубиной примерно 20–30 см («на штык лопаты»). Форма траншеи может быть произвольной, в зависимости от конфигурации участка, а длина должна соответствовать высоте виноградных побегов.
- Лозу снимают со шпалеры.
- Если осенняя обрезка не проводится, побеги осторожно собирают в один пучок и укладывают в вырытую траншею.
- Чтобы лоза лежала на дне, её необходимо прикрепить к земле в нескольких местах при помощи шпилек, их можно изготовить из обычных электродов или любой жёсткой проволоки.
- Чтобы не повредить побеги при весеннем выкапывании, их следует сначала накрыть мешковиной или агроволокном.
- Поверх укрытия засыпают землю, извлечённую при выкапывании траншеи.
- Для южных регионов такой защиты вполне достаточно. В областях с более холодным климатом засыпанную траншею дополнительно можно засыпать толстым слоем палой листвы, торфа, древесных опилок или хвойных веток.
- После выпадения первого обильного снега закопанный и укрытый виноград рекомендуется дополнительно защитить, соорудив по длине траншеи высокий сугроб.
Important! Не следует укутывать или укрывать виноград, используя полиэтиленовую плёнку. Из-за перепадов ночных и дневных температур, которые часто случаются зимой, особенно в период оттепели, лишённое вентиляции растение перепревает и весной может уже не «проснуться».
В течение зимы необходимо следить, чтобы снег над траншеей не покрывался ледяной коркой. Если это случилось, наст нужно разбить, обеспечив доступ кислорода к закопанной лозе.