Miracle Pear Variety - Botanical Description and Characterization
When choosing a variety of a fruit tree for planting on its own site, it is necessary to take into account not only the taste characteristics of the fruit, yield and other commercial qualities, but also such a thing as regionalization, that is, climatic conditions suitable for growing this species.
Residents of the middle strip of the European part of Russia are always easier to choose the appropriate option than gardeners in colder regions, but they should also give preference to varieties with good winter hardiness.
Pear Miracle, which will be discussed in this review, satisfies this requirement and has many other advantages that deserve attention.
Breeding History and Variety Breeding Region
Miracle - a very young variety. It was bred in the Tambov region on the basis of the State Scientific Institution “All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants named after I. V. Michurina ”, which, as you know, is the oldest selection-genetic fruit school in the Russian Federation.
Did you know? The amazing abilities of I.V. Michurin are legendary. They say that a great breeder could revive a dying plant by simply talking to him; guard dogs never barked at a scientist, and birds easily landed in his palm.
The hybrid obtained as a result of such an experiment acquired from the first of its “parents” fertility, as well as the aroma and fine-grained structure of pear pulp; from the second, in addition to winter hardiness, - a characteristic elongated shape and amber color of the fruit.
In the State Register of Plants of the Russian Federation, Wonderland was included in 2004 (the application was filed three years earlier) and recommended for cultivation in the Central Black Earth region as a winter variety of pear.
In addition to Russia, where this variety is distributed primarily in the Moscow, Leningrad, Voronezh and Yaroslavl regions, Miracle Maker has also taken root well in neighboring countries, in particular in Moldova, Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Description and characteristic
Traditionally, the description of any variety of fruit tree includes the botanical characteristics of the tree, as well as the commercial quality of the fruit, because both play a role in deciding whether to plant a plant in their area.
The Miracle Tree is distinguished by the following features:
|Height||2.5–3 m (middle layer)|
|Crown||Pyramidal, compact, medium thickening|
|Bark||Brown with a brown tint, tubercles (lentils) small|
|Branches||Straight, thick, smooth|
|Kidney||Small, compact, symmetrical, at the base have the shape of a cylinder, taper towards the end in the form of a cone|
|Leaves||Saturated green, matte. The form is ovoid with a pointed end and small denticles along the edges. The plate is flat and smooth, bent up at the apex. Veins are not clearly visible|
|Stipules||In the form of an awl|
|Flowers||Small, white, five-petalled|
Did you know? Springerle (Springerle) - the famous German cookie with a relief image - is prepared using special molding boards, which are traditionally made only of pear wood.
Among the features of Pearls of the Wonderland variety, the following main points should be highlighted:
|The form||Truncated-conical, elongated in length. The funnel is in the form of a blunt cone, the saucer is medium.|
|Dimensions||Quite large, on average 130-200 g|
|Skin color||Green with a blurry pink barrel, but in the process of ripening changes to amber yellow. The funnel may be slightly rusted.|
|Peel structure||Dense, smooth, slightly tuberous, covered with a brilliant wax coating. The subcutaneous points are clearly visible.|
|Pulp color||Milky white|
|Pulp structure||Tender, very juicy, semi-oily, medium density and grit|
|Seeds||Brown-brown, medium-sized and cylindrical in small enclosed chambers|
|Peduncle||Medium length, curved at an angle of 75 ° to the fetus|
|Taste||Sweet and sour with a pronounced fruity aroma, viscosity and astringency are absent. Sugar content - 9.6%, acid - 7.9%|
|Tasting assessment (on a five-point scale)||4.3|
The timing of flowering and fruiting
Like other pears in the autumn ripening season, the Miracle Mistress begins to bloom around the beginning of May, when the probability of late spring frosts is already low. Harvest reaches technical ripeness at the beginning of September, biological - after about 2 weeks.
A young seedling begins to bear fruit in about the fifth year after planting, which is considered a good indicator for a pear, and, with good care, it can last for 5–7 decades.
Miracle has excellent winter hardiness. During breeding tests, the tree was frozen in laboratory conditions to a temperature of -38 ° C, which is practically unrealistic for the middle band to which the variety is oriented.
The result was very impressive: the cortex and the main tissues of Miracles did not suffer from frost at all, and the educational tissue (the so-called cambial layer) was only slightly affected.
Important! The claimed characteristic of the variety as winter-hardy caused the attempts of some gardeners to plant the Miracle Woman in regions with obviously more severe winters than the authors of the variety planned. The experiments were unsuccessful: pear wood was severely damaged by frost.
Good immunity Miracle also has fungal diseases and pests; in particular, scab, rust and pear tinnitus - the worst enemies of the orchard - almost never hit this variety.
The resistance of the tree to adverse weather conditions is another merit of the authors of Wonderland.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
- Among the unconditional advantages of the pear Miracle Maker, gardeners note:
- unpretentiousness to soil composition and weather conditions;
- compact tree;
- high winter hardiness;
- resistance to diseases and pests;
- consistently high productivity without periodicity in bearing;
- early onset of fruiting;
- tree durability while maintaining yield indicators;
- suitability of the crop for long-term storage;
- universal purpose of the fruit.
- The disadvantages of the variety include:
- shredding of fruits in the absence of their rationing;
- a tendency to thickened crowns (rapid regrowth of small shoots);
- relatively low taste characteristics;
- lack of self-fertility (it is necessary to plant together with pollinators).
Features of planting seedlings of pear varieties Wonderland
Planting any fruit tree must be approached with great responsibility, because, in contrast to annual crops, fruiting in this case will have to be expected for a very long time, which means that mistakes made at the very beginning will cost the gardener much more.
Timing and seat selection
Pear should be planted in an open, well-lit and heated place, preferably in the south side of the site. In this case, the tree will be protected as much as possible from the north winds, which are especially dangerous for it in the first years of life.
It should not be allowed that the soil in the place chosen for planting is waterlogged, so groundwater, if it lies too close to the surface of the earth, must first be removed.
The composition of the soil for Miracle does not matter, but on heavy clay soil or alkaline earths, the tree takes root and does not develop well. The best option is chernozem, sandstone or loam with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction.
Miracle - a tree is very compact, so it will be enough to provide a distance between it and other tall plants within 4-5 m.
Did you know? Before tobacco appeared in Europe, smoked pear leaves.
As for the timing of planting, two options are possible here - spring, about mid-April, or autumn, after the leaves fall.
Preparing the site and seedlings for planting
Before you start planting a tree, the selected area must be cleaned of stones, debris, weeds. Then you can begin to prepare the pit. It is always necessary to prepare it in advance, so that the earth at the bottom has time to “grow” with the necessary microorganisms and, thus, become more suitable for the developing root system.
There is no need to dig a hole too large for a pear; approximately 70–80 cm deep and approximately the same size in diameter are sufficient. The only exceptions are cases when the land on the site is swamped: in such a situation, the pit needs to be deepened and a drainage made of broken brick, stones or screenings laid at its bottom.
The land extracted when digging a hole is divided into two parts - the fertile upper and the infertile lower. When planting, only the first part will be used, the second can be immediately removed from the site or used for work not related to agriculture.
- compost or rotted manure - 30–40 l;
- double superphosphate - 500 ml;
- ammonium nitrate - 250 ml;
- potassium salt - 125 ml;
- wood ash - 500-700 ml.
Another point that must be taken into account when preparing the site for planting is the presence of pollinators.
Important! The miracle woman does not belong to self-produced pears, which means that in the absence of neighboring trees blooming in the same period of time, the gardener will not see a good harvest of pears.
The following pear varieties are proven pollinators for Miracle:
- Memory of Yakovlev;
- Daughter of dawn;
- Talgar beauty.
The process of planting young seedlings
When the pit and the soil for the seedling are prepared, the planting process is not particularly difficult and step by step looks like this:
- Form a hill of 2-3 buckets of fertile soil at the bottom of the pit.
- Drive a wooden sapling support into the center of the hill.
- Set the seedling on the north side of the hill, pointing the place of vaccination to the south and carefully spreading the root processes along the slopes.
- Fill the hole with earth to the level when the root neck of the seedling remains 5-6 cm above the ground.
- Tamp the ground around the seedling.
- Snap the tree to the support.
- Pour a 2-3 round buckets of trunks of warmed up and previously defended water, let it soak into the soil.
- Add the required amount of earth until the root neck is flush with the surface.
The rules for the care of pear variety Miracle
Caring for an unpretentious Miracle Maker is not particularly difficult, but this does not mean that the planted tree will grow and bear fruit without the participation of a gardener.
Cropping and shaping the crown
The botanical feature of the Wonderland variety is the very intense growth power of young shoots, which is why they begin to interfere with each other, and the pear does not tolerate shading of the crown.
Therefore, timely and regular pruning must be carried out, especially since a running pear can always be very difficult to put in order: on the one hand, cardinal pruning can adversely affect the crop this year (the pear is going through such a procedure quite hard), and on the other - after of such an event, a tree literally before our eyes is overgrown with numerous tops (shoots that do not give fruit), which have to be constantly removed.
Important! Tree pruning is best done at the end of winter or early spring (before the start of active sap flow), choosing a dry and sunny day for this. Experts also recommend that this event be carried out in the phase of the waning moon, since at this time the aerial part of the plants practically does not develop.
The formation of the Miracle is best done in a tiered way. For this, starting from the third year of life, the seedling begins to create the correct skeleton according to the following scheme: approximately at the same level from the ground, 2-3 strongest side branches are distinguished, directed in different directions at an obtuse angle, and the remaining processes are removed.
In addition to forming, for pears it is also necessary to carry out sanitary and anti-aging pruning. The first involves the removal of all spinning tops, as well as frozen, dried, damaged and interfering branches. It is necessary to cut off those branches that grow at an acute angle to the trunk - they, as a rule, do not bear fruit well.
Rejuvenating pruning is carried out in adult trees, the crown of which grows so much that it is already impossible to reach its upper branches. In this case, all branches are simply shortened to the required length.
Learn about the features of drying pears at home.
Adult fruit trees do not need frequent watering.
Critical moisture requirement for a pear only three times during the season:
- In the spring, when the vegetation processes start after hibernation (however, at this time the soil is usually sufficiently moistened after snowmelt and spring rains, therefore the tree needs to be watered only after a snowless winter and an arid spring).
- After flowering, during the formation of the ovaries and laying the future harvest.
- In late autumn, when strong soil moisture is intended to protect the root system from hypothermia in dry frozen ground.
The amount of water is calculated as follows:
|Watering period||The volume of water per tree|
|Spring and summer||10 l for each full meter of tree growth|
|Autumn (winter watering)||15 l for each full meter of tree growth|
The indicated parameters are conditional and calculated without taking into account the initial soil moisture, therefore, in practice, they can be adjusted downward.
As for young seedlings, for them the summer drought can be a difficult test; on the other hand, they do not need special watering at the stage of fruit ripening.
So before the tree enters the fruiting phase, it needs to be watered as the soil dries up, bearing in mind that poor, shallow watering of trees does not reach its goal, since water does not penetrate deep enough into the soil, but stagnation of moisture in the earth is detrimental to the root system young tree.
Fertilizers under a pear can begin to be applied no earlier than a year after planting. Traditionally, spring enrichment with nitrogen should be planned, and in the fall fertilizer should be potassium and phosphorus. Organics can be introduced both in spring and autumn, under deep digging.
Important! The tree needs nitrogen during the first 3 years after planting, then the amount of this element in top dressing should be drastically reduced.
The amount of mineral fertilizers per 1 m² of area (the root system of an adult pear covers an area of about 8 m², in a four-year-old tree this figure is half as much) is determined by the following standards:
|The name of the drug||Recommended Dose, g|
In general, it is believed that the ratio of the main nutrients for a pear should be determined by the formula:
- nitrogen - 3 parts;
- potassium - 4;
- phosphorus - 1.
Prevention and protection against pests and diseases
Even those varieties of trees that have the highest immunity can be affected by various diseases and pests, especially if you do not care for the garden.
|Disease||Pests attacking a pear|
|powdery mildew||frosty leaflet|
|moniliosis (fruit rot)||hawthorn|
|soot fungus||ticks (gall, brown fruit)|
|cytosporosis (stem rot)||mole|
|septoria (white spotting)||fruit beech|
|gray rot||Cherry sawfly (pale-legged, slimy)|
|phylostictosis (brown spotting)||silkworm ringed|
|furrow||gall midge (pear, leaf)|
|bacteriosis||moth (autumn, gray pocket)|
|bacterial burn||scoops (dark gray early, pyramidal)|
|proliferation (growth)||shooter psi|
There are two traditional ways to deal with diseases and pests of the orchard - treatment of an already arisen problem and preventing its occurrence.
- Usually involves the use of potent drugs (fungicides, insecticides, acaricides), while preventive measures can be provided with the use of less toxic agents, including biological ones, that do not harm any living creature except the pathogen against which they are directed.
- Развитие основных грибковых болезней и атаки наиболее опасных вредителей происходят в определённые сроки, определяющиеся биологическим циклом развития соответствующего возбудителя, и, как правило, эти сроки приходятся на середину лета и более поздние периоды. Обработка ядохимикатами груши, на которой уже сформировались завязи, так или иначе ставит под угрозу безопасность употребления в пищу плодов с этого дерева.
- Некоторые заболевания, например, вирусные (мозаика, пролиферация и др.) не поддаются лечению даже сильнодействующими пестицидами, уберечься от них можно только при помощи предупредительных мер.
Профилактика болезней и вредителей груши (как и других плодовых деревьев) включает в себя два комплекса мероприятий: обработка дерева специальными препаратами и выполнение санитарно-технических работ, направленных на ликвидацию условий, благоприятных для размножения вредителей и возбудителей инфекций.
Did you know? Точное количество сортов и гибридов груши, существующих в мире, подсчитать невозможно, однако известно, что это число уже перевалило за три тысячи.
Профилактическое опрыскивание дерева можно проводить весной и осенью, причём весенняя обработка в идеале должна осуществляться в три этапа — в самом начале сокодвижения, непосредственно перед цветением и сразу после его окончания.
- мочевина (карбамид);
- Bordeaux liquid;
- copper sulfate;
- коллоидная сера.
С той же целью можно использовать и другие химические средства, обладающие системным фунгицидным и инсектицидным действием — например, такие, как «Чистый сад», «Скор», «Топаз», «ХОМ» и т. п.
Однако такие вещества имеют достаточно высокую токсичность, поэтому гораздо лучше воспользоваться современными средствами биологической защиты, например:
Что касается санитарно-технических мероприятий, то к ним следует в первую очередь отнести регулярное пропалывание сорняков, являющихся накопителями возбудителей заболеваний и убежищем для личинок вредителей, немедленное удаление с участка опавших на землю плодов, очистка сада от палой листвы, а также контроль за состоянием коры дерева, поскольку именно в её трещинах зимуют, а затем размножаются различные паразиты.
Harvesting and storage of crops
Груши сорта Чудесница начинают вызревать во второй половине сентября, однако опытные фермеры хорошо знают, что для продления срока хранения урожая собирать плоды нужно примерно за 7–10 дней до того, как они достигнут полной спелости.
Learn more about the features of storing pears for the winter at home.
Дозревание плодов можно обеспечить при комнатной температуре, уложив урожай в один слой в затенённое место. В этом случае за 2-3 недели груши полностью «дойдут», и их качество ничем не будет уступать тем экземплярам, которые оставались на дереве до состояния биологической спелости.
Однако если хозяин хочет сохранить урожай до середины зимы и даже дольше, плоды сразу после сбора лучше поместить в погреб или другое место с температурой от нуля до нескольких градусов выше (очень важно, чтобы температура при этом была относительно постоянной, без резких колебаний, а также было обеспечена хорошая циркуляция воздуха и защита от яркого освещения).
Груши следует укладывать плодоножками вверх, по возможности, обеспечивая их минимальный контакт друг с другом.
Important! Твёрдые груши хранятся намного дольше, чем мягкие. Плод, упавший с дерева, быстро портится даже в том случае, если видимых повреждений на нём не наблюдается.
Груша Чудесница — неплохой выбор для выращивания в зоне умеренного климата. Вкусовые качества плодов этого сорта не являются выдающимися, зато такие груши имеют универсальное назначение и могут храниться в свежем виде достаточно долго.
Кроме того, само дерево отличается компактностью, крепким иммунитетом и очень хорошей зимостойкостью, что делает уход за ним простым и необременительным.