Melon Kolkhoznitsa: useful properties, characteristics, agricultural cultivation
Melon varieties Kolkhoznitsa is very popular among gardeners. Observance of all phases of the biological cycle of development of this gourd has an effect on the future harvest, therefore it is necessary to adhere to the technology of growing melons, taking into account factors that affect this process. To do this, you should familiarize yourself with the rules of its landing and the nuances of further care.
History and characteristics of melon
This variety belongs to melons and gourds of the Pumpkin family. From the point of view of botany, this is a false berry, but since it belongs to the same genus as the cucumber, it should be called a vegetable correctly. Let us describe in more detail how it looks. So, the bushes of the collective farmer are not too sprawling, the stems of the plant are thin, a little rough to the touch. The leaves resemble the shape of a heart, medium-sized, edges with slight recesses.
This variety appeared at the selection station Novocherkassk of the Rostov region in 1939. In 1943, the variety was included in the State Register of Achievements of Selection of the USSR and since then it has been invariably popular among gardeners. This variety is perfectly grown in greenhouse conditions in countries such as Italy, the Netherlands, France, Japan.
The collective farmer is a mid-season variety with a growing season of 90–95 days. The fruit has a spherical shape with a diameter of 20 cm, weighing up to 1.5 kg. Color - yellowish orange or bright orange. The flesh tastes sweet, crunchy, with a yellowish tint.
The surface is smooth, in some places covered with a wire mesh. The skin is hard, medium thickness. Melon contains a huge range of vitamins (A, C, E, Group B, PP). Its composition includes minerals such as potassium, iron, calcium, magnesium, as well as mono- and disaccharides.
Advantages and disadvantages
- The advantages of the Kolkhoznitsa variety are:
- Resistance to low temperature environment.
- Excellent taste.
- It tolerates transportation, does not crack.
- A small growing season.
- The disadvantages of the variety include:
- Low resistance to diseases (powdery mildew) and insect pests (spider mites and melons aphids).
- Not too long shelf life.
- When grown in greenhouse conditions, artificial pollination is necessary.
Calorie, benefit and harm
You should be more thoroughly familiar with the benefits and harms that melon can bring to your health. She is mistakenly considered a high-calorie product. Answering the question, how many calories are in a melon, we can say that 100 grams of this product contains only 31 to 35 kcal.
Since ancient times, melon has been used as a remedy. It perfectly quenches thirst, while washing the kidneys and urinary tract. It contains fiber, which helps to lose weight, because it affects the digestive processes.
It must be remembered that the degree of maturation affects the calorie content of the product. The collective farmer differs from other varieties not only in her taste, but also in the composition of nutrients. It brings special benefits during pregnancy, namely: it provides the mother's body with folic acid (vitamin B9), and carries out the prevention of colds.
However, melon is not recommended for use in such cases:
- Taste with milk, honey, and also alcohol.
- In the presence of stone disease of the gallbladder and kidneys.
- Patients with diabetes.
Read what you can eat melon with.
How to choose a ripe and sweet melon when buying
Let’s describe several ways of choosing the right melon during visual inspection:
- You can’t buy melon along the highways, as its rough peel is able to absorb carcinogens;
- you need to buy only the whole fruit, and not cut or damaged: due to a violation of the integrity of the cover, the flesh will accumulate pathogenic bacteria;
- when patting a melon, a dull sound should come out, not a sonorous one;
- a pleasant aroma should come from the vegetable, but if there is no smell, then the plant is likely to have been overfed with nitrogen or it has not ripened;
- when pressed, the crust of a ripe melon will spring;
- if grooves remain when you drag your finger through the melon, then it is ripe; if not, it is ripe, and the pressure points will be bitter.
How to plant
The success of the cultivation of this gourd depends on the conditions created corresponding to biological requirements. So, to get a good harvest, the sowing technology should be followed. But before that, you should choose the right place on the site and landing time.
The optimal sowing time for preheated seeds is that at which the air temperature is set at +12 ... + 14 ° С, and by the time of germination the soil should warm up to +14 ... + 16 ° С.
A very important period in the development of melon is the emergence of seedlings and the formation of 2-3 leaves when plants especially need heat. When seeds are found in cold soil, not only the germination period increases, but also the probability of seedling death. Under ideal conditions, melon seeds germinate in 8–9 days.
Important! At air temperatures below + 15 ° C, the stigmas will not mature, fertilization will not occur, the buds will fall off.
The place for growing should be sunny, sheltered from the wind and quite warm. Soil preparation for sowing seeds must be carried out in the autumn. To do this, you need to dig the earth on a bayonet shovel with humus, about 3.5 kg per 1 m². It is important to remember that if the soil is clayey in the area, it is advisable to add sand to it, at the rate of 0.5 buckets per 1 m².
This procedure should be repeated in the spring, while adding to the soil fertilizers based on potassium and phosphorus. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the instructions for the use of potash and phosphorus fertilizers in order to avoid overfeeding the soil. Before applying the seeds directly to the ground, you can add nitrogen fertilizers.
The highest yields can be obtained on the soil, where perennial grasses, winter wheat, and fodder corn grew. Melon can also be planted after cabbage and cucumbers.
Important! It is not recommended to plant melon in the same place for two consecutive years, as this can lead to lower yields and the development of diseases.
As a rule, melons are sown in open ground according to the scheme 100 × 70 cm. 3-5 seeds are placed in each hole to a depth of 4-6 cm. The larger the seeds and the later sowing time, the deeper they need to be deepened into the ground. The distance between the seedlings should be from 70 to 80 cm. After sowing, the hole should be sprinkled with soil.
How to care in the open ground
Although the melon is notable for its unpretentious care , it is necessary to adhere to some rules that will contribute to a good harvest. When caring for a plant in open ground, special attention should be paid to the irrigation regime, fertilizing with nutrients, as well as timely soil care.
It is possible to improve the conditions for growing melons through the use of different shelters. Their use will increase the temperature to +5 ... + 15 ° С in comparison with cultivation on open ground. Fruit ripening will also accelerate for 2-3 weeks. Thin film shelters provide a favorable microclimate.
It is necessary to monitor ventilation so that young seedlings do not overheat. The film should be removed in cloudy weather or in the evening, so that the plant does not burn out from exposure to ultraviolet rays. It is better to do this gradually, because a quick change in the microclimate will lead to weakening of the plant and the development of various infections. Under film cover, the first pollination should be carried out manually. To attract bees, it is necessary to plant honey plants near the shelter. Did you know? One of the most unusual melons is papaya. It grows on a tree, forming a bunch at its top.
To avoid the appearance of fungus on the plant, the melon must be watered with warm water. The procedure should be performed between rows so that moisture does not get on the leaves and lashes. On a sunny day, at least 1.5 liters of water must be applied under each bush. The daily dose for an adult plant is 3.5 liters.
On the plot you can use drip irrigation, due to which the ripening of fruits is accelerated by 5-10 days, in contrast to rain watering. Dates and norms for drip irrigation are established taking into account the state of the soil and plant.
To increase productivity and the growth of a healthy crop, it is necessary to fertilize the soil before planting seeds or making seedlings in the ground. For top dressing use one-component and complex fertilizers.
Throughout the entire growing season, feeding melon must be done 2 times:
- The first feeding is carried out when the plant has 2 leaves. To do this, you need to prepare a solution of chicken droppings or humus in a proportion of 1:10.
- The second feeding is carried out with mineral fertilizers in the phase of 4 leaves. For this, it is necessary to dissolve the following ingredients in 10 l of water: ammonium nitrate (10–15 g), superphosphate (40–50 g), potassium chloride (20–30 g). The resulting solution should be applied 2-3 liters under one bush.
To accelerate the growth of fruits, it is necessary to increase the dose of fertilizers based on phosphorus and potassium. You need to make them 6-8 cm during the first feeding and 10-12 cm during the second. Fertilizer should not be applied directly to the fetus so as not to wonder later why it is so bitter. Did you know? The most expensive Yubari melon in the world is sold in Japan. Its cost reaches 14 thousand dollars for 1 fruit.
So that the melon bushes do not grow and get tangled, they must be pinched.
To form them in the open ground, one of two methods should be used:
- To obtain a trellis (vertical) culture, it is necessary to use a wire frame, which should be pulled to a height of 2 m. The lower end of the rope is thrown onto the plant and tightened. As the bushes grow, they will stretch up the rope. Thanks to the vertical arrangement, the plant is better illuminated and gives a good harvest.
- When growing melons in spreading weaves spread on the ground. No greenhouse is required; just use a film shelter. The main stem is usually pinched over a 3-4 leaf, while leaving the two main, strongest. Thanks to this procedure, all nutritious macro- and microelements will go directly to the fruit, which will lead to early ripening.
Weeding should be carried out as necessary to a shallow depth, since the roots of the melon are located directly below the surface of the soil. Weeds should be destroyed immediately to prevent diseases and pests. Aisle cultivation is carried out 3-4 times per season shallow, about 15 cm. Near the stem itself, it is not recommended to carry out any manipulations.
Melon Kolkhoznitsa belongs to mid-season varieties. The growing season is 77–95 days, which depends on weather conditions.
Important! Melon cut before ripening can ripen at home in a dry place. In this case, it is necessary to leave a small tail at the fruit - 3-5 cm at the base.
Before mortgage storage, the melon must be kept in the sun for 10-15 days, turning from one side to the other every 4-5 days. The most common storage method is suspended state. To do this, it is recommended to use a net or tie the fruit by the tail. You can also store them in drawers on a soft litter.
Let us consider in more detail how much melon is stored. In conditions of high humidity and low temperature, melon is able to maintain its qualities for up to 90 days. At the same time, it must be sent for storage in an unripe form. In the refrigerator, it will lie for up to 5 days, in a cut form - up to 3 days.
Melon is most commonly consumed fresh. It can also be used in home preservation, in the preparation of various desserts. This vegetable is also used in cosmetology. Masks from its pulp help get rid of pigmentation of the skin, freckles, and smooth wrinkles. Water infusion of melon will give hair shine and help get rid of dandruff. Also read about the features of growing Vietnamese melon. Every gardener wants to get a good melon crop. Having studied the rules and planting technology, as well as the growing conditions and harvesting rules of the Kolkhoznitsa variety, you can achieve the desired result.