Making black grape wine at home
Not all grape varieties are suitable for the production of homemade wine. In addition to the right variety, the quality of the products will be affected by the time of harvesting and the methods of its preparation for further operation. About the features of choosing a variety, preparing raw materials and the nuances of making wine, read below.
Properties of black grape wine
In the processing of grapes, natural fermentation processes are used. This allows you to enrich the drink with beneficial bacteria and preserve most of the vitamins contained in the feedstock.
- Useful properties of black grape wine for the human body:
- dilates blood vessels, which is useful in the prevention of thrombosis;
- contributes to improving the efficiency of brain centers due to the acceleration of metabolic processes at the cellular level;
- enhances immunity due to the content of flavonoids and antiseptic compounds;
- relieves pain;
- strengthens the walls of blood vessels.
Grape wine benefits only with strict adherence to dosages. The daily intake of an alcoholic drink is 200 ml. The dosage is divided into several doses. It is best to eat it before meals in 10 minutes, as an aperitif. Raising the dose to 600 ml or more can harm the body.
- In addition to the harmful properties, alcohol products have a number of contraindications:
- children under 16 years old;
- pregnancy and lactation;
- violations in the digestive tract, accompanied by increased acidity;
- problems with the functionality of the kidneys and liver;
- intolerance to alcohol;
The best varieties of dark grapes
For the manufacture of wines, table and wine varieties are used, represented by the following varieties:
- Pinot noir and pinot blanc;
Grape harvest and preparation dates
The taste of the drink depends on the timing of the collection. A properly organized process allows you to save the maximum amount of "wild yeast" and give the final product the desired taste. The timing of the grape harvest will depend on the region of cultivation: in the northern regions, fruit harvesting is carried out upon reaching physical maturity, in the southern regions upon reaching technical maturity. Such a gap in the timing of harvesting is due to the sucrose content in berries grown in different climate conditions. In the manufacture of alcohol at industrial enterprises, special instruments are used that measure the level of acidity and sugar content of fruits.
Did you know? In the production of wine "tiger bono " use the bones of tigers grown in captivity.
At home, to determine when it is better to harvest, act according to the following scheme:
- 2 weeks before the expected harvest, start after 1-2 days to pick 2-3 berries, located on different sides of the brushes, hanging at different heights and at different angles, relative to sunlight.
- Taste them by evaluating the intensity of the acid and the sweetness.
The rules for harvesting grapes intended for the preparation of wine:
- The optimum temperature for harvesting is + 20 ° C, so you need to remove the clusters from the vine in the morning or in the evening.
- Collect only those clusters that have reached the necessary stage of maturity.
- Do not pick berries after rain - such products are devoid of "wild yeast", so the wort will not ferment well, which will negatively affect the quality of the drink.
- Separate clusters using sharpened pruning shears or scissors.
- Do not grasp the fruit with your hands, hold the bunch by the petiole.
To transport the crop, you need to use flat containers made of wood or clay. For the production of wines, freshly picked grapes are used without prior preparation; the main thing is that the temperature of the berries is within + 20 ° C. Higher indices contribute to rapid fermentation, while sugar remains undissolved, and at lower indices, fermentation drags too much, which causes mold to form on the raw materials. If the temperature indicators are not normal, the fruits must be kept for several hours in a closed dark room with good air circulation. Once the temperature has reached the norm, you can start processing.
Important! To ensure high-quality fermentation, do not wash the grapes before pressing.
How to make black grape wine at home
The production of grape wine requires compliance with the technological process, the violation of one of the stages of which will significantly reduce the taste of the drink.
Before making wine, you need to decide which drink you can prepare from the available products:
- products with high sugar content are useful for the production of fortified dessert drinks;
- adding spices, you can get mulled wine;
- from berries with low sugar content you can get dry, refreshing drinks.
To prepare, you will need:
- 10 kg of grapes (peeled);
- 250 g of sugar (50 g per 1 liter of juice).
- Separate the fruits from the bunches, simultaneously discarding the rotten ones.
- Squeeze the juice by hand.
- Pour the resulting mass into an enameled container and cover, set aside for 3 days in a dark room where the air temperature is maintained within + 20 ° С.
- During these 3 days, 2 times a day, break the hat formed by the skin with a wooden stick.
- After the set time has passed, transfer the cap from the skins to cheesecloth and squeeze the wine concentrate, also strain the remaining liquid through cheesecloth - exit with 10 kg of grapes about 5 liters.
- Pour the wine concentrate into a glass container, pull the glove over the neck and secure it by tying it with a thread.
- When the glove inflates, pierce one of the “fingers” with a thin needle to give carbon dioxide.
- Take the bottle to a dark room where the temperature regime varies between + 22 ° С ... + 28 ° С for 50-60 days.
- After 2-3 days, start adding sugar. Pour 1 liter of wort from a bottle into a separate container and dissolve sugar in it.
- Drain the wort with sugar back into the container, put the glove on the neck again and send it to ripen in a dark warm room.
- When the glove falls off, the drink must be removed from the precipitate (i.e. strain through cheesecloth) and set to ripen for 3 months.
- Drain the precipitate periodically, and when the wine becomes transparent and stops fermenting, pour it into clean glass bottles.
Video: how to make black grape wine
For the production of an alcoholic drink without adding sugar, it is better to take sweeter grape varieties, for example, “Isabella” or “Pinot Noir”. The preparation of the drink is carried out according to the above recipe, bypassing the step of adding sugar.
Important! In the process of fermentation, grapes emit carbon dioxide, which increases the pressure inside the container, so you need to fill it more than a third.
To prepare a honey drink for 10 l of grape concentrate you will need:
- 10 l of water;
- 3 l of honey;
As yeast, you can use wine yeast (bought in a specialized store and consumed according to the instructions on the package), or make it yourself. To do this, 0.5 kg of high-quality sweet raisins are washed, then pour 800 ml of boiling water and insist 3 days in a dark place.
Did you know? From 1 ton of grapes you can make 60 boxes of wine, which is 720 bottles.
Having prepared all the ingredients, follow the instructions:
- Squeeze out the juice and leave it with the pulp for 3 days in a warm room, periodically breaking the cap, as in the above recipe.
- After 3 days, filter the wort, add 10 liters of boiled water, cooled to + 23 ° C, and ferment.
- Then follow all the steps in accordance with the classic recipe.
- After filtration, add 2 l of honey to the liquid.
- Insist another 3-4 months, periodically filtering.
- Pour the liquid into the bottles and place them in the cellar.
Video: how to make wine from black grapes with honey
To make a drink with spices, grind 2 sticks of cinnamon and 3-4 grains of cloves. Pour the mixture into linen bags. When the wine is fully ripened, after bottling in separate bottles, place bags in them. One such bag is designed for a bottle with a capacity of 1-1.5 liters. Cork containers and leave for 2-3 weeks in the basement at a temperature of + 6 ° C ... + 12 ° C. At the end of the period, remove the bags and strain the wine.
Did you know? Initially, the original Coca-Cola recipe included coca (the plant from which cocaine is made) and red wine, and was sold as a drink from potency problems. But soon these ingredients had to be excluded from the composition, since their combination was prohibited by the legislature.
Fortified drinks have a longer shelf life and a rich tart taste. The process of their manufacture involves the addition of alcohol. To do this, you can use high-quality vodka, ethyl or grape spirit.
In the manufacture of a fortified drink you will need:
- 5 kg of grapes;
- 600 g of sugar;
- 18–20% alcohol, taking into account the yield of the finished product.
Step-by-step cooking process:
- Squeeze the juice and send with the pulp to infuse for 3 days, stirring occasionally, as in previous recipes.
- Squeeze the pulp, add sugar to the resulting wort and send to insist in a glass bottle covered with a glove for 60 days.
- Filter the resulting wine concentrate and, adding alcohol, leave to infuse for another 2 days.
- Re-filter, bottle and send to infuse in a cool basement for 3 months.
Video: how to make fortified wine
To prepare dry red wine, prepare 10 kg of grapes.
Then proceed according to the instructions:
- Squeeze the juice and send to infuse with skins and seeds for 7 days, periodically breaking the cap from the pulp.
- Keep the room temperature within + 25 ° C.
- Once the fermentation process is over, the juice will acquire an intense shade. If this did not happen in 7 days, the drink is left to infuse for a few more days.
- Squeeze the pulp, drain the juice into a container and put it under the glove for 90 days.
- Drain the wort from the sediment and set for 3 months to ripen.
- Express the precipitate as it appears, and when the wine has a lighter color, pour it into separate bottles and send it to the cellar for 2 months.
Video: how to make dry wine
Is it possible to make white wine from black grapes
Most white types of wines are made from red and black grape varieties. For example, the well-known muscat wines, which differ in a specific aroma, are produced only from black and red varieties of muscat grapes. The red color of the drink causes insistence on the pulp - it is the skins that emit the pigment staining it. To make white wine, the pulp is immediately separated from the pulp and the fermentation process occurs without it.
Learn more about how to make wine from white grapes.
How to use and store
To feel the whole taste and completeness of a bouquet of wine, you need to use it correctly.
Nuances to pay attention to:
- Open the bottle one hour before drinking.
- The optimum temperature for serving red wine in the summer is + 16 ° С ... 18 ° С, in winter - + 20 ° С.
- Hold the glass by the leg, not the cup, so that the heat of your hand does not raise the temperature of the drink.
- Light drinks are served before fortified, dry before sweet, young before old, white before red.
- Before taking the first sip, gently shake the drink in the glass, inhale its aroma.
- After taking a sip, hold a little drink in your mouth (2-3 seconds) - a good wine has a long finish.
- The average daily intake for women is 100-200 ml, for men - 200-300 ml.
- Ripe sweet cheese, boiled pork, bacon, ham, peach, mango, orange are suitable for dry wine.
- For sweet drinks, it is better to serve red meat with spices and desserts with a neutral taste.
- Semisweet wines are suitable for seafood, mild cheeses, vegetable snacks, desserts, poultry and rabbit meat.