Life expectancy of cows and bulls

The life span of cattle depends on how much milk and offspring its owner will receive. Let us consider in more detail how to determine the age of cows and bulls, as well as how to extend the life of animals.

How many years on average have cattle been living?

On average, the life expectancy of cows is 17–20 years. Bulls live slightly less than females - no more than 15 years. Studies show that with good nutrition, care and timely veterinary examinations you can increase the life of cattle up to 35 years. But, as a rule, livestock does not die of natural death from old age, but during slaughter.

Cattle are taken to slaughter when they stop giving offspring and, accordingly, milk. Bulls on the farm are kept as inseminators. A few years after a productive life, their strength is depleted, and the bulls are also taken to the slaughter. In many ways, the life expectancy of livestock depends on the purpose of their maintenance.

Did you know? The maximum record of longevity belongs to a cow named Big Bert. She died at 49.

At home

Cattle live in households for approximately 15–17 years. The first milk the females begin to give at the age of two years. During their life, they can give offspring 12-14 times. After lactation ends and the milk disappears, the animal is slaughtered, since it is unprofitable to keep a cow that does not give food.

But it is noted that a good attitude, proper care, concern for the health and mental comfort of the animal increases the functional life of cattle.

Did you know? In India, a cow is a sacred animal. She is well fed and protected. The life expectancy of cows in India is about thirty-five to forty years.

On farms

On farms, animals are kept even less time than on households. Females live to a maximum of 12 years. However, as a rule, they are slaughtered at the age of 7–8 years.

Dairy breeds are artificially inseminated, and often fed only in the stall, not letting out for grazing. This leads to a rapid depletion of the animal’s body and the cessation of milk supply, after which a decision is made about slaughtering meat. Males are slaughtered for meat at the age of 2-3 years.

Did you know? Agricultural farms in Israel are known for the fact that cows in the process of feeding include music, daily wash all livestock. Veterinarians also check the blood of livestock for the presence of micro and macro elements, and if necessary, adjust nutrition.

How to determine the age of cattle?

If you buy cattle, not knowing exactly how old he is, try to determine this by appearance. First of all, carefully examine the animal in its natural environment. A young animal should not be tired, lethargic and lethargic. The skin should be clean, not damaged, without bald patches and wounds. A more accurate figure can be found by examining the teeth and horns.

By the horns

The age of the female by the horns can be calculated if you know when she first got hotels. During the birth of offspring, strong changes occur in the cow's body. Due to internal adjustment, rings appear on the horns. Their saturation depends on nutrition during this period. To determine the current age, it is necessary to add to the years at the time of the first calving the number of rings on the horns.

Video: how to determine the age of a cow by the horns

Over the teeth

To find out the age of the female by the teeth, examine her jaw. It is necessary to investigate whether milk teeth have changed to molars. Her milk teeth are narrow and small, molars are wide and large. Therefore, it is quite possible to determine by eye.

Important! After 5 years of age, teeth begin to wear out. At the age of ten, a cow may fall out, especially if the feed is not suitable for her.

Teeth change to molars at the following age:

  1. The first milk teeth that replace the permanent ones are the incisors. At 12–16 months, the animal changes these teeth.
  2. From 12 to 26 months, the middle internal teeth change.
  3. Middle external molars appear at 2 years.
  4. Outskirts change in 2.5–3.5 years.

Factors Affecting Life Span

Good and proper care for cattle allows you to increase the duration and quality of their life. It is necessary to take into account the influence of additional factors:

  • breed;
  • climatic conditions and country of residence;
  • food ration;
  • operating intensity;
  • health care, timely veterinary examination;
  • care and proper maintenance;
  • love and attention of man.

Cow life spans

The life cycle of a cow can be divided into:

  • youth (maturation);
  • middle age (maturity);
  • old age.

During each period, the animal requires special care, nutrition and various degrees of stress.


In the first 12-18 months, the animal only matures. Little chicks already have a hunt, but they are not yet allowed to fertilize. Poorly developed internal organs can not endure pregnancy and can lead to death or short life.

In the first week, calves are fed with rejected milk. Next, the initial feed is introduced into the food so that the cattle get used to a variety of foods. Once the milk is over, the calf can be released to graze in the pasture.


When a female reaches fertile age she is transferred to a dairy farm. Three weeks before calving, she is placed under close observation, since it is very important to correctly carry out the stage of transition of the female to milk production. During calving, she is placed in a special maternity room, clean, covered with hay and straw, without drafts to protect her mother and calf. After calving, the animal gives milk for about 11 months, while it must feed the calf or undergo regular milking.

Two months after calving, the female is seeded again. In the period from 2 to 15 years, the animal is considered mature. It gives milk and offspring. Animals are grazed on pastures or kept in a stall, depending on the farm. The food is more nutritious than in the first 12 months of life, since the quality of milk directly depends on it.

Old age

As soon as fertilization ceases, lactation also disappears. This period can be considered old age in cows. After this, the owner must decide: either send the female for slaughter for meat, or take care of the animal further. Many people treat livestock as pets and take care of them until they die.

Did you know? During the life of a cow produces about 200 thousand glasses of milk.

Cow age for slaughter

When milk production ceases, the female is no longer able to make a profit. In order not to get a loss, many farmers give the cow for slaughter. The age of sending for slaughter varies depending on where the female is kept. In households, a cow is slaughtered when it reaches 15 years of age.

In farms, the age for slaughter is not more than 10 years. Cows are highly valued by farmers because of their high productivity and the abundance of products obtained. Their milk, meat, skin, lard and offspring are used. To extend the life of cattle, you need to care for him and love.

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