Howea flower: home care
Howea is popular among most professional and amateur gardeners. She can often be found not only at home, but also in the office. Often the plant does not receive the necessary care, which often leads to its death. The article will outline the main subtleties of caring for the Howe palm, and reveal the main secrets of its safe maintenance.
Botanical description of the plant
Howea is one of the most popular indoor plants in the world. This species is an evergreen tree plant belonging to the Palm family (Arecaceae). Its homeland is the humid subtropical zone of the Australian coast, near which wild plant hybrids are still found near the Lord Howe Island.
The species is most often distributed in culture (as a greenhouse or indoor flower), but in the tropics it is often grown in open soil.
|Root system||Fibrous, branched, main root not distinguished|
|Stem||Arboreal, smooth, in room conditions it is long (up to 2 m), in natural conditions - up to 15 m|
|Leaf shape||Lance leaves narrow, elongated, pointed at the end, sitting on elongated petioles|
|Leaf color||Bright green with a glossy sheen|
|Flower shape||Rounded flowers gather in small racemose inflorescences|
|Flower color||Yellow or pale yellow|
|Fruit shape||Rounded, slightly elongated|
|Fruit color||Dark red (brown red) color|
Howea flowering is considered quite rare. In indoor conditions, this process occurs only in greenhouses, under ideal conditions. Small racemose flowers on a palm tree can be observed from early November to late December.
Under natural conditions, flowering also falls on this period, after which the pollinated flowers give fruit. They are small date-shaped, stone-shaped berries no more than 4 cm long.
Did you know? Hovea in the interior, in addition to decorative purposes, plays the role of a natural regulator of humidity. Thanks to the voluminous foliage, the plant saturates the air with moisture, which improves the susceptibility of clean air to the human body.
The main types
Today, florists cultivate only two varieties of this plant:
- Howea Forster (Forsterian) - different palm tree with wide leaves, slightly curved down. The leaf length can reach about 2.5 m, while the petiole is extended to 1.5 m. This palm is considered the most resistant to coolness, it is able to tolerate seasonal temperature drops to +10 ° C;
- Howe Belmore is a lower-growing species of palm tree. In the wild, it grows up to 10 m, and at home - up to 1–1.5 m, but individual specimens can reach 3 m. A characteristic feature of the plant is a thickening of the lower part of the stem; curved thin leaves are located on shortened petioles with a length of not more than 40 cm (the leaf can be up to 4 m long).
What conditions do you need to create at home
Often decorative palm trees optimized for cold temperatures are quite unpretentious to the conditions of detention and microclimate. But all the same, the necessary microclimate and the optimal temperature regime for such plants is a prerequisite.
Otherwise, the home flower will hurt, and in advanced cases it will undergo bacterial or fungal infections.
Belmore and Forster are unpretentious in lighting, so you can grow them in almost any corner of the house. But it is best to choose a slightly shaded corner for this, as direct sunlight causes burns. Palma feels good on the southern windowsills, but the northern part of the house is also suitable.
In the summer, the hove is always shaded, for this you will need a transparent tulle (or other light light fabric), which is removed in the winter (at this time of the year the palm tree does not need shading). During periods of shortened days, the hovea is sure to be highlighted; daylight hours should be at least 10-12 hours.
In the room where the hove grows, natural or forced ventilation should be provided. Representatives of this species are quite whimsical to clean air, so dirty air can inhibit their growth. Drafts for palm trees are prohibited, as they can cause colds and leaf fall.
Important! Howea does not tolerate tobacco smoke. Even a short stay under the influence of its substances causes depression of the palm.
The optimum temperature for keeping this variety of indoor palms is +18 ... + 23 ° С. In winter, this figure can drop to +16 ° C. A temperature below +15 ° C is undesirable for the Howia, as this causes inhibition of metabolism, and hence its growth.
This plant is most demanding on humidity in the spring. During this period, there is an active growth and development of foliage and stem, so the air in the room with a palm tree needs to be moistened regularly. Howea needs additional air humidification when the daily temperature is exceeded above +24 ° C (then the air is humidified at least once every 1-2 days).
In winter, the hovea does not need humidification, however, a slight wetting of the leaves a couple of times a month has a positive effect on its growth.
How to care at home
Caring for a palm tree is easy. This indoor view requires standard living conditions, so it can be successfully grown on any windowsill. But special attention should be paid to watering and preventive pruning of the plant, otherwise it will not be easy to grow it.
Palm trees also include rape, Washington, butia, chrysalidocarpus.
The whole year of howia requires a special watering regime. The greatest amount of water is introduced in spring, during the period of active growth. At this time, the palm tree is watered at least 1 time in 2 days. The soil with the plant also requires abundant moisture in the summer: if the daytime temperature exceeds + 25 ° C, the soil needs to be moistened daily, in small portions.
Be sure to ensure that the soil does not dry out completely. As the temperature drops, watering is reduced, in the winter-autumn period the procedure is carried out no more than 1-2 times a week.
For moisturizing, the hovei use only clean, settled water, warmed up to room temperature. Cold water is contraindicated, as sudden changes in temperature will affect growth. Do not use excessively hard water for the procedure, so it is recommended to boil it before watering.
Important! For uniform growth, it is recommended to turn the palm several times a week, otherwise its decorative value will decrease significantly.
Fertilize young palm trees throughout the active vegetative period - from early April to the very end of September. Fertilizers are applied at least 1 time in 2 weeks. Adult specimens fertilize less often - not more than 1 time per month.
In winter, the hovea does not need additional nutrition, since at this time a decrease in the activity of its metabolism is observed. Excessive fertilizing leads to the accumulation of fertilizers in the soil, which can cause intoxication of the plant.
As fertilizing the most appropriate are complex mineral fertilizers for indoor plants. Such mixtures must necessarily be with phosphorus, potassium and magnesium (18:18:18). They are introduced in liquid form instead of the next irrigation procedure.
The most effective are Bona Forte (10 ml / 1.5 l of water), Palm Focus (10 ml / l of water), Green Paradise (2 g / l of water).
The most active growth of howea is noted if mineral fertilizing is alternated with organic fertilizers. In this case, nettle infusion or an aqueous solution of cow manure (1:15) is used as organics.
The hovea does not need to form a crown, so pruning is carried out as necessary, after the leaves have wilted. Quite often, due to adverse conditions on the palm, withering of the ends of the leaves is observed. The dried parts are carefully removed with a clerical knife or small scissors (other tools will cause damage to the sheet tissue).
Young palm trees require annual transplantation; mature ones renew the flowerpot no more than 1 time in 2 years. The procedure is carried out in the spring (at this time the most active metabolism of Howea is observed, which will favorably affect its recovery).
It will be useful for you to find out how to properly plant indoor flowers in a pot, as well as how and when to plant indoor plants.
Any garden containers are used for the procedure, the most popular are special plastic or ceramic pots. The container must have a drainage hole, otherwise the stagnation of moisture in it will cause rotting of the roots of the palm. Prepare the pot size 7-10 cm wider than the palm root system.
For transplantation, a well-fertilized but light substrate is used, consisting of equal parts of sod land, humus and river sand. You can replace it with purchased soil for indoor flowers, but in this case you need to make sure that it does not differ in high moisture capacity.
For transplantation, pre-sterilized soil is used.
The procedure is carried out using such methods:
- roasting the substrate in the oven for 20-25 minutes, at +125 ° C;
- freezing the mixture for several days in the refrigerator, at -20 ...- 25 ° C;
- wetting the soil with 1% potassium permanganate solution.
- Prepare the pot. It must be sterilized with 1% potassium permanganate or 70% alcohol solution.
- Put a drainage layer of fine expanded clay or gravel 2–4 cm thick on the bottom of the tank.
- Pour new soil over the gravel with a layer of 2-3 cm.
- Carefully remove the Howe along with the soil from the old pot and transfer it to a new bowl.
- Fill the gaps between the root system and the flowerpot with soil and compact it.
- Water the flower, and after 14 days feed it with mineral fertilizers.
Did you know? In Israel, a palm tree is growing, which has come down to our days since the time of Jesus Christ. It was grown thanks to seeds found by archaeologists that were stored in an ancient vessel for about 2 thousand years.
How to breed at home
This type of palm is propagated by dividing the bush or by seeds (division is more preferable). The seeds of the crop have low germination, therefore, it is possible to obtain full-fledged sprouts from the seed material no earlier than 10-12 months after sowing. Reproduction by division does not require special skills from the gardener (which is especially important for beginning growers).
Dividing the bush
The division of the bush is most often carried out in the spring, during a palm transplant. Only adult plants, several years old, are suitable for this, otherwise the procedure can lead to the death of the mother bush. To root the divide, a special soil mixture is prepared.
It should be not only nutritious, but also as loose as possible, otherwise rooting will take several weeks. Most often, for this purpose, soil from sod land, humus and river sand is used with a ratio of components of 1: 2: 2. Replace it with a mixture of equal parts of the earth for indoor flowers and river sand.
- Sterilize the soil and garden tank (according to the method described above).
- Fill the flowerpot with gravel or expanded clay (2–4 cm), and then with prepared soil.
- Carefully remove the palm from the pot, remove excess soil from the roots.
- Separate the lateral branch of the palm with the roots with a sharp knife. Be sure to treat the cut sites with crushed charcoal.
- Make a small hole in the pot with soil, put a divide into it.
- Fill the roots with soil, water the plant and cover it with a dome made of polyethylene or other transparent material.
- After 1–2 weeks, the plant will take root in a warm, well-lit place, then the dome can be removed.
Seeding is resorted to at the end of February or in the first half of March. Only fresh seeds are suitable for germination, since their germination capacity worsens over time. For the procedure, a special soil mixture is used, consisting of equal parts of peat and river sand.
Reproduction in this way is a rather laborious process that will require at least 5–7 years from the gardener. It takes so much time for the seedlings to turn into a small plant.
Sowing palm seeds in the ground implies the following actions:
- Sterilize germination tanks and soil.
- Soak the seeds in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate for 15 minutes (for disinfection).
- Fill the flowerpots for germination with a substrate.
- Spread the seeds evenly over the surface of the substrate, and then sprinkle with the substrate (1-2 cm thick layer).
- Pour the soil, cover it with a polyethylene dome and place the containers in a warm (+22 ... + 25 ° C) place where there is a lot of light.
- The first seedlings can be observed after 10 months, after which in the phase of 1-2 leaves the dome is removed, and seedlings are transplanted into separate containers.
What difficulties may arise
During the cultivation of palm trees, the grower may encounter many difficulties. The most common ones are: the hovea dries, and its leaves are affected by all kinds of pathologies (due to errors in the content). But many do not imagine what should be done in such a situation.
|Description of the problem||Cause||Remedies|
|Yellowness and wilting of leaves (chlorosis)||Excessive humidity, lack of lighting or low temperature in the environment||Normalization of conditions of detention, increase in the frequency of top dressing|
|Pink putrid spots||Fungal infection caused by contaminated soil or lack of optimal drainage of the substrate||The palm is transplanted into a new sterile soil and treated twice, with an interval of 14 days, with complex fungicides: “Alirin” (1 tablet / l of water), “Albit” (1-2 ml / 10 l of water), “Quadrice” (0, 2% solution), Fitosporin (1g / 2 L of water)|
|Black root or stem rot (late blight)||Plant damage by pathogenic fungi||The plant should be sprayed twice, with an interval of 14 days, with preparations (Alirin (1 tablet / l of water), Albit (1-2 ml / 10 l of water), Quadrice (0.2% solution) are suitable, "Fitosporin" (1g / 2 L of water))|
|White or yellowish spots on leaves that eventually cause palm wilt||Pest damage (scale insects, thrips, spider mites)||The affected plant is treated with preparations of "Aktara" (1g / 1.2 l of water), "Fitoverm" (1-2 ml / l of water)|
Howea is one of the most exotic domestic plants, so this beginner and experienced plant breeders breed this palm enough. To get a healthy, actively developing palm, you should create optimal conditions for detention (despite the fact that this indoor view is considered unpretentious).
This includes timely watering and top dressing, without which the hovea instantly loses its decorative value.