How to water grapes in the summer and how often
Despite the fact that grapes belong to drought-resistant crops and are able to bear fruit even in hot climates, to obtain a high yield of large, juicy grapes, experts advise organizing the plant with additional moisture in the summer. How to properly irrigate grapes in the summer and at what frequency, let's figure it out.
Features of watering grapes in summer
Water is one of the main elements contributing to the normal development and growth of grapes. Through moist soil, nutrients dissolved in water are absorbed by the root system of the plant and nourish it. With a moisture deficit, the roots are not able to absorb these valuable components.
Important! It has been noticed that vineyards growing in the south or middle strip of Russia, which regularly succumbed to moisture during the summer, yield 2–3 times more crop than those that were not watered.
The need for summer watering will depend on several other factors:
- the region where it is grown;
- variety varieties;
- the state of the grape itself;
- landing method;
- irrigation systems.
Overmoistening of the soil is also considered undesirable, because due to excess moisture, the roots of the plant begin to decay, and it eventually dies. In addition, useful substances required for the normal functioning of grapes are washed out of the soil with water. That is why it is very important to comply with irrigation standards and basic rules. Unfortunately, there are no universal schemes for watering a plant.
However, if we are talking about late-ripening grapes, watering is carried out at this time, based on the development of the bush and weather conditions. At the onset of the softening phase of the berries and their gradual staining, summer moisturizing should be suspended. Watering during fruit ripening can provoke cracking of the skin of grapes and the appearance of gray rot on the bush.
Did you know? By the presence of nutrients, in addition to fats, grapes are the closest to milk.
Basic water requirements
In the process of moisturizing grapes, an equally important aspect is the condition of irrigation water. It is recommended for summer irrigation to use standing water heated under the sun. You can not use cold water directly from a well or a well, since it inhibits the growth of berries and their ripening for almost a week, and can also damage the root system.
How often and how many times to water grapes in summer
As mentioned above, the timing and frequency of summer watering of grapes will be determined by several important factors, among which are considered the most significant:
- grape sort.
Important! Watering with cold water is recommended to be practiced in the spring, when there is a need to stop the growth of buds and shoots, because of the risk of return frosts.
The frequency of watering will depend on the varieties of crops:
- early varieties require two hydration in the first two months of summer;
- varieties with medium ripening rates need irrigation in early summer, July and late August;
- late varieties must be moistened four times per season, starting in mid-May.
Watering volumes will be determined by the state of the soil. They should be such that the soil gets wet to a depth of 1 m. Approximate standards are equal to: 1 square. m - 60–80 liters of water. In some cases, 100 l of water may be required, depending on weather conditions and the type of soil - sand, clay, chernozem.
To moisturize grapes, several methods are used, the choice of which will be determined by the climatic zone, soil composition, plantation area.
Important! Most moisture culture is required during budding, at the end of flowering and in the ripening phase of the fruit. During these periods, it is very important to pay attention to proper irrigation.
Surface irrigation, which is carried out directly into the pits, ditches or by organizing drip wetting, is considered the simplest but least effective way, since moisture penetrates only into the surface layers of the soil, depriving most of the branched root nutrition system. That is why this technology is used for watering young seedlings, whose roots are not deep.
The most optimal methods of surface irrigation are:
- on both sides of the bush, departing from the center of 70–80 cm, dig grooves with a depth of 25–30 cm;
- through the hose, the ditches are filled with water.
This method makes it possible to soak deeper layers of the soil and deliver water directly under the bush.
- around the plant to the depth of the bayonet of a shovel several holes are pulled out;
- pits fill with water;
- after absorbing moisture, the recesses are covered with soil to prevent evaporation of the liquid from the surface.
- tubes or droppers are installed along the bushes on the ground, which are pulled along the first trellis wire;
- Installed fixtures are filled with settled, warm water.
Underground irrigation, in which irrigation is carried out using well-built trenches and channels, is considered more effective, since it allows you to "carry" moisture into the deeper layers of the soil and thereby completely moisten the root system of the culture.
This method has several advantages:
- saves the amount of water resources;
- reduces the risk of fungal ailments, since the soil on the surface always remains dry;
- increases the plant's resistance to frost, as deep watering promotes the formation of deep roots, which in rare cases are exposed to cold.
Important! Watering should be carried out in the evening, well-warmed up in the sun water.
To equip the underground irrigation system, apply:
- around the stem of the grape, departing 0.5–1 m from the center, make indentations of 50–70 cm, where the pits are placed;
- from the bottom of the pipe, which is deepened into the soil, make holes through which moisture will flow to the root system;
- gravel is poured on the sides of the pipe and in its lower part, which will avoid clogging the device;
- water is poured through the top hole in the pit.
- along the rows with bushes of grapes ditch a ditch to a depth of 50–70 cm;
- at the bottom of the ditch there are pipes with previously made holes for water intake;
- to avoid clogging of the pipe, it is wrapped with fiberglass or mesh;
- tanks with water are connected to the pipes, which include, if necessary.
Features of watering
Irrigation technology, as well as its frequency, will depend on the age of the crop and the phase of its maturation.
Special attention is given to paying special attention to the quality and frequency of irrigation when planting young seedlings. Good hydration will contribute to the development of a powerful and strong root system. Given the aspect that the roots of young plants grow within the limits of a dug hole, it is necessary to make a small hole near it to irrigate. The holes should be about 25-30 cm deep and should be located at least 30 cm from the bush.
Grapes especially need good plentiful watering before the ripening of fruits begins. Moistening should be continued in accordance with the schedule, until the moment the berries begin to soften and acquire the color appropriate for the variety. As soon as the ripe grapes begin to mell, watering must be stopped, otherwise the berries will crack.
Important! When choosing fertilizers, you should pay attention to the fact that chlorine and its impurities are absent in the composition, since grapes do not tolerate them.
The combination of fertilizing and watering
In addition to timely hydration, grapes need high-quality nutrition, which should be produced during spring and summer. Experts recommend combining irrigation with the fertilizer application procedure. The first top dressing should be carried out immediately after planting seedlings. For this fertilizer is added to warm irrigation water and poured under the bush. Adult plants over 3 years old need mandatory nutrition.
In order to ensure proper development of the culture and high fruiting, it needs to organize top dressing using substances such as:
- nitrogen - activates the growth of foliage and young shoots;
- phosphorus - stimulates the formation of inflorescences, ovaries and ripening berries;
- potassium - increases the resistance of the plant to harmful environmental factors;
- copper - improves shoot growth and strengthens the immune system;
- zinc - has a beneficial effect on productivity;
- magnesium - takes part in the process of photosynthesis, improves the taste of grapes;
- Boron - activates the flowering process.
For bait plants use means based on mineral and organic components, which are applied in turn.
Fertilizing is carried out according to the following scheme:
- the first - in the spring, after planting bushes or opening them after winter;
- the second - before the flowering of culture;
- the third - until the formation of ovaries;
- the fourth - in the phase of technical ripeness of berries;
- the fifth - in the fall.
Did you know? Berries of grapes, as well as all its parts have healing properties. In medicine, there is even a special area - ampelotherapy, which is based on the treatment of certain ailments with the help of berries, leaves, wood.
When to stop watering the grapes in summer
Usually, watering of grapes is stopped in mid-August, when the berries begin to acquire color and become soft structure. Irrigation is also temporarily stopped from the moment buds are formed and throughout the flowering period of the crop. The fact is that when watering in the flowering phase, fragile flowers of the plant will crumble strongly, which will lead to a decrease in the number of grapes in clusters.
Common mistakes gardeners
Often, inexperienced gardeners in the process of moisturizing grapes make a number of mistakes that can adversely affect not only the fertility of the plant, but also lead to its death.
To avoid the most common mistakes during watering, you should adhere to several important rules:
- rarely produce irrigation, but in sufficiently large volumes;
- for irrigation use warm, settled water;
- do not moisturize during flowering, at the time of bud formation and in the ripening phase of the berries;
- in too dry seasons, irrigate in the fall and spring;
- when moistened, make sure that moisture does not get on the foliage and trunk of the culture.
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Watering is one of the most important aspects of grape care. Like any other event, it must be carried out according to certain rules, a schedule and taking into account the natural needs of the variety. Timely, well-organized crop irrigation in the summer will allow you to get a rich harvest of tasty, large and juicy fruits in the autumn.