How to treat chickens for coccidiosis
Coccidiosis, or scientific eimeriosis, has a wide geographic distribution. Refers to protozoal diseases. It affects chickens 2–8 months old. and adults. Without appropriate treatment, most of the livestock die.
What is coccidiosis?
The disease is caused by unicellular parasites - coccidia, numbering 11 species. Domestic chickens are affected by 9 of them.
The most common three types:
- Eimeria Tenella;
- Eimeria Maxima;
- Eimeria Necatrix.
Important! Coccidia that affect chickens are not able to function in the body of another poultry. The main danger of the disease is that it is not completely cured.
The life cycle of parasites begins in the external environment, where they live in the form of capsules of microscopic sizes - oocysts. At this stage of development, unicellular organisms practically do not succumb to negative environmental influences and are able to remain in the walls, litter, water, feeding, etc. for about 7 days.
Unicellular affect the intestinal epithelium and are actively distributed throughout its departments, disrupting their performance. In the process of reproduction, coccidia destroy the intestinal mucosa, which causes bleeding, tissue deformation, their partial or complete atrophy.
Reasons for the appearance
The main causes of the spread of parasites:
- dense chicken in small cages;
- neglect of hygiene procedures;
- a sharp decrease in immunity in chickens;
- high humidity;
- feed change;
- outbreak of disease in a neighboring household.
Forms and signs
The incubation period takes 4-5 days. The first clinical manifestations coincide with the appearance of second-order parasites.
The course of the disease can manifest itself in 3 forms:
The main symptom of an acute stage is intense thirst. The appetite in sick individuals decreases sharply, then disappears completely. Behavioral reactions change. Chickens try to stay close to each other. Their feathers are tousled, scallops fall to the side, acquire a pale pink tint.
A little later, disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, manifested in changes in stool, are added. In the feces there is a large amount of blood and mucous fluid. In birds, reactions to stimuli disappear.
Important! The acute mortality rate in chickens reaches 100%. The lethal outcome occurs on the 6-7th day after the parasite enters the body.
Symptoms are smoothed out. The disease becomes protracted. With blood sampling, violations in the leukocyte formula are visible. There are frequent cases of the development of paresis and paralysis of the wings. When the bird stretches, tremor in the extremities, involuntary muscle spasms are clearly visible.
Fatal outcome occurs on the 10th day. Mortality reaches 80–90%.
The veterinarian diagnoses coccidiosis in young animals and layers, based on the anamnesis, a symptomatic picture. Microscopic analysis does not always give an accurate result, because eimeria is always present in a small amount in the intestinal biomaterial.
In some cases, the diagnosis is the use of eimeriostatics. If the reaction to them is positive and the manifestations become less intense, coccidiosis is diagnosed.
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How to treat coccidiosis in chickens
In treatment, it is important to choose the right tactics and observe the state of the bird. Aimeria adapt to interact with many eimeriostatics. In addition to medicines and folk remedies, a change in the diet, suggesting the introduction of complete combined feeds, has a positive effect on the condition of pets.
Nutrition is enriched with shellfish and salt, dairy products are introduced.
Healthy individuals are transferred to another room. In chicken coops, thorough processing is carried out. Given that coccidia are susceptible to high temperatures, it is better to treat the room with an eimeriostatic agent, and after a day wash all surfaces with boiling water or burn them with a blowtorch.
Depending on the stage-by-stage spectrum of action, eimeriostatics are divided into obstructing and not obstructing the development of resistance to subsequent infections. The former are often used for prophylactic purposes when the broiler breeds are kept outdoor.
Treatment continues throughout the life cycle of chickens. The drug is stopped adding to the diet of chickens 5 days before slaughter.
This group includes:
- Pharmcoccid and clopidol - dosage of 0.0125% of the mass fraction of feed;
- Khimkoksid - working dose of 0.035%;
- Coiden-25 - dosage of 0.05%.
The second group of drugs contributes to the development of immunity. They are used to treat young animals aged 10 days. The course of treatment is 7-10 days.
This group includes:
- Iramin - a working dose of 0.4% of the mass fraction of feed by a double course of 10 days, with a break of 3 days;
- Sulfadimezin - dosage of 0.1-0.2% in a three-time course of 3 days, with interruptions of 2 days.
Of the anti-inflammatory drugs, Baytril is used. Add it to water at the rate of 1 ml of solution per 1 liter of liquid.
Did you know? 80% of the cells responsible for immunity are located in the intestines.
Probiotics are indicated to restore intestinal microflora. Well-proven OLIN. It is introduced into the diet at 40-100 g / 100 kg of feed.
Iodine and other folk remedies
Treatment at home can be carried out using iodine solution. This approach provides a reduction in oxidative reactions in the body, which does not allow parasites to eat normally, and, accordingly, to synthesize their own kind.
An iodine solution is used in the treatment and prevention of the disease in young animals and adults. The working dosage is the same for everyone. To 1 liter of water add 1 ml of 10% iodine or 2 ml of 5%. The concentrate is added to the drink at the rate of 50 ml per individual for 10 days.
After 5 days, the solution is given in an amount of 200 ml per individual for 15 days.
2% sulfur is added to the diet of chickens. For more than 14 days, treatment with sulfur cannot be carried out, since there is a risk of developing rickets.
Is it dangerous for humans
Aimeria can also affect humans. However, chicken eimeria are not able to function in the human body. For humans, parasites that infect pigs are dangerous.
The meat products of chickens infected with coccidiosis are consumed 8 days after the end of the course of treatment. Oocysts have the peculiarity of being stored in meat and egg products, so pre-treatment is necessary, including deep freezing or heat treatment at a temperature of at least 55 °.
If the slaughter was forced and occurred before the end of the course of treatment or earlier than 8 days after the last dose, the carcasses are used for the production of fertilizers (dolomite flour).
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To develop immunity in birds, 2 types of multidirectional vaccines are used:
The disadvantage of this vaccination is a high risk of outbreaks of coccidiosis and necrotic enteritis among the livestock. In this regard, it is necessary to apply vaccination in parallel with coccidiotics.
Did you know? Chicken is able to distinguish the owner from a distance of 10 m and remember more than 100 faces.
Attenuated vaccines contain up to 8 species of oocysts with artificially reduced virulence. When using vaccines, it is worth considering the peculiarities of climatic conditions and strains of parasites characteristic of this area.
Any live vaccine promotes the development of immunity only to certain types of bacteria, which contributes to the expansion of their species composition.
General preventive measures
The correct organization of bird keeping conditions will help prevent the spread of parasites, including:
- Regular treatment of rooms with a blowtorch.
- Thorough cleaning of feces from the territory for walking once every 7 days.
- Change of litter during dampness.
- The introduction of a sufficient amount of salt and shellfish into the diet.
- Timely vaccination.
- Separate keeping of young animals from adults.