How to propagate grapes in summer
For true gardeners, amateurs are always interested in self-propagating grape bushes on their site. This procedure is good to carry out in the summer, when the weather is quite warm and sunny. We will talk about the main methods and rules for the propagation of grapes in the summer later in the article.
Did you know? A delicious Caucasian delicacy, churchkhela, is prepared from grapes. For its preparation, condensed grape juice and nuts are used.
Pros and Cons of Grape Propagation in Summer
The summer period is the most active for all gardeners, it was at this time that the most interesting thing was to improve the vineyard and cultivate the bushes.
- In addition, summer reproduction of grapes has several advantages:
- in a warm climate and long daylight, the formation of the roots of young plants is more active;
- the opportunity to get healthy and strong young plants with a developed root system;
- a high percentage of survival of seedlings when transplanted into open ground;
- when propagating by layering, a crop from young plants can be obtained in the first year after planting;
- the ability to choose strong green stepsons with fully formed leaves for breeding.
- The disadvantages of summer reproduction of grapes include:
- the complexity of the process, especially when propagating by layering;
- when propagated by cuttings, the seedling is usually ready for planting only in the fall and may not survive the wintering in open ground.
How to propagate grapes with cuttings
For green grape propagation in the summer, mainly small stepsons are used, which are cut in August. They must be ripened, have a dense stem that is difficult to bend and grown leaves. For bush propagation to succeed, you need to properly prepare the cuttings and root them. Consider all these processes in more detail.
When propagating grapes by stepsons, it is necessary to carry out the correct harvesting of the green cuttings, since the successful result depends on this. Therefore, when cutting the stepson, you need to adhere to some rules.
Next, consider the step-by-step instruction of actions:
- Using a secateurs, cut off a ripened stepson from a grape bush with a difficult to bend stalk and adult leaves.
- Trim the top, leaving a stalk about 10-15 cm in size, on which there is at least one healthy kidney and 1-2 leaves. If the leaves are large, then they are cut off at the edges so that they do not draw excess moisture from the stem.
- Place the cuttings completely in a container with water so that they do not dry out and put them in a cool room. This should be done immediately after trimming.
Did you know? The total area of all vineyards in the world is about 80, 000 km ² .
Rooting grape cuttings
The rooting of green cuttings must be carried out indoors, away from drafts, which are detrimental to stepsons. It is recommended to perform it immediately after cutting the cuttings or no later than a day later. Various methods are used to root grape cuttings. The most popular methods are those that use water, soil, or sawdust. About how to root grape stalks in each of these ways - later in the article.
A popular way to root grape cuttings is to plant them in a container with sawdust.
A step-by-step instruction for rooting grape cuttings in sawdust is presented below:
- Fill a container with sawdust with hot water. Keep the sawdust in water until it has completely cooled, then squeeze them and transfer to a separate container.
- Add sand to the sawdust and mix.
- Incise the base of the handle in several places and treat with a root growth stimulator.
- Immerse the shank in a mixture of sawdust to a depth of 2-3 cm.
- Cover the container with a film and put it in a well-lit place with an air temperature not lower than + 25 ° С.
- As the substrate dries, it is watered. After 2-3 weeks, check the formation of roots on the handle.
Important! This method allows you to achieve rapid root formation, but after their appearance, the seedling must be transplanted into the soil.
In the ground
When propagating grapes with green cuttings for rooting them, you can use the store light soil for flowers. It is mixed in equal proportions with coconut, which contains the optimum amount of moisture for the normal growth of the cuttings.
The process of rooting grape cuttings in the soil is described in detail below:
- Prepare a small plastic cup and make a small hole at the bottom to drain excess moisture.
- Fill the cup with prepared soil, ramming it with your fingers. This is necessary so that the soil in the cup fits snugly to the entire surface of the handle.
- On the basis of the cut stalk, use a knife to make 2-3 shallow longitudinal furrows 2-3 cm long.
- Treat the furrows with a root growth stimulator so that the cuttings take root better in the soil.
- Using a stick, make a vertical indentation in the soil of the plastic cup and place the base of the stem 3-4 cm into it. Sprinkle it tightly with earth and lightly ram it around the stem of the stem.
- Water the soil abundantly in a cup with a seedling with water to make it moist.
- Place a cup with a seedling under the film and keep at a temperature of +25 ... + 30 ° С. As needed, water the seedlings with water and remove the film briefly every day so that the sprouts are ventilated. After 10-14 days, young roots form at the base of the stem.
Learn more about how to propagate grapes with cuttings at home.
Rooting cuttings in a container with water gives a good result. When immersed in water from the lower cut of the stem, a clear liquid begins to stand out, the consistency of which resembles jelly. So that it does not provoke rotting of the seedling, the cut site is washed daily under running water, and the tank is filled with clean water. This procedure should be repeated for several days until the cut site on the handle becomes light and covered with wound tissue, which prevents the seedling from rotting.
The process of rooting grape cuttings in water is described below:
- On the lower base of the handle, make several longitudinal cuts. Place the seedlings in the solution of the root growth stimulator for 10 hours.
- Prepare a container with clean water and lower the stem into it so that one of its lower eyes is immersed in water.
- In order to prevent stagnation of water, add 2-3 tablets of activated carbon to the container with cuttings or carry out a daily change of water in a jar with seedlings.
- Put the cuttings in a well-lit and warm place with an air temperature of at least + 25 ° С.
- If necessary, add water to a container with seedlings. After 2-3 weeks, young roots will begin to form on the cut.
- When the roots reach a length of 3 mm, the cuttings are transplanted into the ground to provide them with all the nutrients for further growth.
Video: rooting grape cuttings in water
Planting seedlings in the ground
Planting of grape seedlings in open ground can be carried out in autumn in October or next spring in early May. If you transplant cuttings into the soil in the fall, then you need to take care of their careful shelter for the winter, since the young plant tolerates lower temperatures much worse.
You will be interested to know if grapes can be planted in summer.
The process of transplanting rooted grape cuttings into open ground is described below:
- Dig a hole 80 × 80 × 80 cm in size.
- Mix in equal proportions humus with fertile soil and fill this hole with a hole in the fourth part of the depth.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture of 3 liters of ash, 300 g of potassium fertilizer and superphosphate. Mix it with a small amount of soil and also lay it in a hole with a layer whose thickness is 2 times less than the previous one.
- Pour on top a layer of 5 cm of soil, forming a small mound in the center.
- At the top of the knoll place a grape seedling and sprinkle it with soil to the level of growth. From above, the earth around the plant needs to be well tamped.
- Pour the seedling with 2-3 buckets of clean water. Nearby establish a support for further garter of the plant during the growth process.
Grape cultivation by layering
Layers are lateral stems of a grape bush that were buried in the soil next to the plant and subsequently grew their own roots. Upon successful rooting, they are separated from the parent plant in the fall or spring and planted separately. After dropping a side shoot, its connection with the parent bush is not lost and the shoot continues to receive all the necessary nutrients. This contributes to the accelerated formation of adventitious roots on the layering, as a result of which the new young plant becomes stable and strong, retains all the qualities of the parent bush.
Important! With the help of layering, those grape varieties that are difficult to root can be successfully propagated.
To make layering better rooted, they need warmth, sunlight, and regular watering. Therefore, the reproduction of grapes in this way is recommended to begin in July, when the total length of the grape shoots will be about 2.5 m. In this case, by the beginning of autumn, the young bush will have branched roots and it can be separated from the parent plant.
For propagation by layering, only the most productive and strong grape bushes are selected. The instillation of parts of the grape bush for its propagation can be carried out in several ways. Let us consider in more detail how to properly grape grapes with each of them.
Layers can be:
- Horizontal - they select one lateral young vine at the base of the vine bush. They dig a long ditch in the ground up to 20 cm deep and fill it with humus mixed with ash, superphosphate and fertile soil. The selected vine is placed in this ditch so that the buds are not sprinkled with earth and fix the dug grape shoot with the help of hairpins. When young shoots up to 10 cm long appear from the buds, their bases are covered with moist soil, and the dug vine itself is completely covered with soil. After this, young shoots are spudded, and the earth around them is loosened all summer, moistened and cleaned of weeds. As they grow, young plants are tied up, and in mid-August they pinch their tops. By the beginning of autumn, roots form at the bases of young shoots. After that, new plants are unlearned and separated from the parent bush using a secateurs.
- Arched - for this, they select one vine of any age, which is most convenient to lay in the soil and only its bend is pressed to the ground. The places of pressure are fixed with the help of studs. The upper part of the pinned side shoot is brought to the surface and tied to an installed support. For such layering, you can use a whole grape sleeve, if it fits comfortably into the soil. Rooting of a lateral shoot located in the ground occurs at the end of summer, and in the fall you can separate the lay from the parent plant.
- Green - during spring pruning, they retain several lateral grape shoots that can be conveniently bent to the surface of the soil. When these green shoots reach a height of 1 m, all leaves and antennae are removed from them, and next to the mother bush, for each shoot, dig small grooves up to 20 cm deep. Pour some water into the recesses to moisten the soil and place the shoots in them, placing them in an arc . Then, the arc of the shoot laid in the groove is sprinkled with earth, and the upper part of the shoot is raised above the ground and tied to a support. All summer they carry out moderate watering of cuttings, weeding and loosening the soil around them. In mid-August, pinch the top of the layers to stimulate the formation of roots and stop their growth in height. Roots on such layers are formed by the beginning of autumn. You can separate young plants from the parent bush in the fall or next spring.
- Vertical. To apply this method of propagation, the grape bush should initially be planted in a pit so that its “head” is placed 30 cm below the edges of the recess. When spring pruning, all shoots on the bush are cut so that they have only a couple of eyes left on them. When shoots grow up to 20 cm long from the kidneys, a hill of nutrient soil is poured near their base. In the same way, hilling is carried out again after the shoots grow another 15–20 cm. A low hill should form around the base. After that, pinch the tops of the shoots, leaving several pairs of leaves on them. Throughout the summer, watering, weeding and loosening of soil around grapes is carried out, and in mid-August their tops are cut off. Shoots root at the end of the growing season, in the fall they can be separated using a secateurs. From the stumps remaining on the parent bush, new young shoots grow next spring.
- Katavlak - at the same time, the entire mother bush is used as a layering . To do this, from the base of the bush to the place where the new plant will be located, dig a long ditch about 50 cm wide. The bottom of the depression is well loosened and a little fertile soil is poured there. When digging such a ditch, the roots of the parent bush are exposed and cut off, leaving only the heel roots, which will provide the plant with nutrients. Strong annual shoots are left on the bush and their eyes are removed on them in those places that will be covered with earth. After that, the entire bush with shoots is laid in a ditch, bending one of the shoots in the form of a loop and passing it under the mother bush so that the end of the shoot goes out next to it. The remaining shoots of the bush, placed in a ditch, bring to the surface of the soil in the place where the new plant will be placed. Then they are cut, leaving on each shoot for 2-3 buds placed above the surface of the soil. A ditch with a bush laid is sprinkled on top of the earth in the form of a knoll, compacted and periodically watered. The shoots of a dug grape bush that were bred above the ground take root by the end of summer.
Important! Reproduction by layering significantly depletes the mother plant, since until the moment of separation, a new bush is fed at the expense of the parent.
Self-propagation of grape bushes at home requires patience and strength from the gardener, as it is associated with significant labor costs. But with the help of the rules and recommendations described above, you can increase the number of grape bushes in your area, which will lead to an increase in yield.