How to propagate cuttings of roses in the fall at home
Cuttings of roses are an ideal option for plant propagation in regions whose climate differs in a sultry summer with a minimum of rainfall or when grown indoors. How to propagate roses by cuttings and what conditions plants need to root, read below.
Brief description of the plant
General characteristics of roses:
- the height of the bush is 25–90 cm, depending on the variety;
- the bush consists of the main shoot, skeletal branches of several orders and bisexual flowers;
- from 5 to 15 leaf blades of predominantly dark green color are formed on each shoot; in some varieties, a copper or purple hue may appear;
- sheet surface matte or glossy;
- all shoots cover large or small spikes;
- flowers are formed at the tops of shoots or over their entire area;
- the color palette of buds can vary from snow-white to almost black.
Did you know? The smallest rose buds are produced by a variety called Ci. Their size does not exceed 1 cm.
Rules and optimal growing conditions
You need to place roses in southern, well-lit areas, closed from the draft. Plants develop better when planted on higher ground, where the distance to groundwater is more than 1.5 m.
During the period of root system build-up, the moisture should be observed within 70–80%. For adult plants, this indicator is not significant. They also develop normally with air humidity in the range of 40-60%.
Preparation of cuttings
Cuttings coincide in terms with autumn pruning of plants, if planting is planned for spring. When planting cuttings in the autumn, planting material is prepared in July or in August. Cuttings are cut, reaching a thickness of 5 mm, without visible traces of mechanical damage, with 3–6 healthy buds.
Learn the basic ways to grow rose from cuttings at home.
Thicker or thinner shoots will not be able to give a full root system.
The slice should be done at a 90 ° angle with a sharpened secateurs pre-treated with alcohol. After each plant, the tool must undergo repeated processing in order to avoid the spread of fungal diseases.
Slices on plants are treated with wood ash. Cut shoots are cut into cuttings 10-15 cm long. Slices are performed at a distance of 0.5 cm to the first kidney and from the last. Each handle should have at least 3 healthy kidneys.
Then all the lower sheets are removed, and the upper ones are shortened by 2 times. The top of the handle is immersed in molten wax to reduce moisture loss. The lower part of the handle before planting is treated with a rooting agent. To do this, you can use "Kornevin."
Important! Kornevin should not be stored in torn packaging. Pour the powder into a glass container after opening the original packaging and place in a dry, dark room - this will extend the shelf life of the drug.
How to save rose cuttings in winter
If the planting of cuttings is delayed in the spring, care must be taken to maintain their quality.
You can save shoots until spring in 3 ways:
- The first method is to dig a trench 15 cm deep in the territory of the site. Lay a burlap on the bottom and distribute the cuttings on it at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. Cover the shoots with a second layer of burlap from above and sprinkle with soil. In this case, both sections must be treated with molten wax.
- The second way is to store the cuttings in the refrigerator. To do this, you need to dilute the drug “Fitosporin-M” in a 1: 2 ratio with water and treat it with sphagnum moss. Then wrap the cuttings with moss, fold them in a bunch, fix, put in polyethylene and place in the refrigerator.
- The third way is to lower the cuttings into the cellar. Before this, fill the bucket with garden soil mixed with peat and perlite in a ratio of 1: 2: 1. Insert the cuttings into the ground and cover the container with a black bag. Once a week, check the condition of the seedlings and, if necessary, irrigate the soil from the spray bottle with water.
Step-by-step instructions for cutting
In the open ground, seedlings can be planted immediately in a permanent place or in the cuticle. The first method is good because the plants will not need to be replanted again. But if some copies do not take root, there will be an uneven distance between the roses, which does not look very beautiful.
When planting in the cuticle (in spring), you can transplant all the plants that have taken root, forming a beautiful flower bed, and not discarding the roots of the plant. In addition, the cuticle is much easier to cover for the winter than a ready-made flowerbed.
Did you know? Japanese chameleon roses are able to change the color of the petals according to the time of day. In the morning they are scarlet, and in the evening they turn white.
In the open ground
Cuttings immediately after slicing are ready for planting.
After appropriate processing of both slices, you can begin planting operations:
- Dig out pits 25–30 cm deep at a distance of 10–15 cm from each other.
- Fill the pits with a third of mowed grass.
- Lay a layer of compost on top of the grass.
- Pour 1 liter of warm water (+ 20 ° С) into the pits.
- As soon as moisture is absorbed, center the pits at an angle of 85 °.
- Fill the voids with soil and compact.
- Mulch the soil around the seedlings with peat.
- Cover the seedlings with transparent glass jars - you can remove them only immediately before transplanting to a new place.
- Between seedlings, also mulch the soil with peat or dry foliage.
When landing directly on a permanent place, all actions are identical to those described above.
Rooting requires a deep, spacious container. It is best to use plastic buckets in this case.
- Make drainage holes in the bottom of the tank with a 1 cm diameter wood-heated screw.
- Cover the bottom of the tank with expanded clay.
- Mix the soil with peat in a ratio of 1: 1.
- Add 20% vermiculite to the resulting substrate.
- Fill the containers with the substrate and add 0.5 l of water.
- Mark with a wooden stick holes at a distance of 10 cm from each other.
- Insert cuttings into the wells and compact the soil around them.
- Cover the container with a transparent bag, securely fastened around the edges to create a vacuum effect.
- Rearrange the containers on a glazed balcony.
Did you know? An even number of flowers does not always symbolize a mourning event. For example, in England to receive as a gift from a man 2 yellow roses means a declaration of love.
Plant care after cuttings
When planting cuttings in open ground in autumn, you need to take care of reliable shelter of the cuticle.
To do this, build a mini-greenhouse according to the following scheme:
- Cover the plantations with coniferous branches.
- Install metal arcs above the landing at a distance of 50 cm from each other.
- Cover the top of the arc with agrofibre.
- Press down the hanging edges of agrofibre with boards or bricks.
- Sprinkle fallen leaves on the mini-greenhouse.
- As soon as the snow falls, cover them with a greenhouse.
When landing on a permanent place in the open ground, such shelters need to be built over each plant. With the advent of spring, shelter is removed in layers, focusing on the temperature regime. As the temperature rises to + 10 ° С, the first layer of the shelter is removed, and then - every 5–7 days along the layer.
Did you know? For the production of 1 liter of rose oil, it is necessary to spend about 3 tons of petals.
In the spring, 2 weeks before transplanting rooted cuttings into the ground, dig a site, pour 1% solution of copper sulfate. After 2 days, re-dig the soil, add 10 kg of sand and compost for each 1 m². After 10 days, dig the soil again, level the area and make a convenient layout for the flowerbed.
Add 10 g of superphosphate to each well.
For planting, mix soil from holes with rotted manure, add 400 g of wood ash for every 10 kg of soil. 2-3 hours before planting, water the plants. After removing the seedlings from the soil, assess the state of the root system, treat with “Kornevin” mixed with activated carbon and “Fundazole”.
After the transplant, water the plants with a small amount of water, approximately 300-400 ml per well.
The first full watering after transplantation is carried out after 2 weeks. At the same time, you can carefully remove the layer of wax that has been used to treat the upper end of the seedling. Fertilizers begin to be applied one month after planting. You can use universal dressings for roses.
For the first time, dilute them at a concentration 2 times lower than indicated in the instructions. With each subsequent time, increase the dosage by 10%, bringing it to the maximum.
In this regard, potassium monophosphate proved to be quite good. It is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 3 and used as root and foliar top dressing. Watering is moderate, about once a week, after drying of the upper earthen coma to a depth of 3-5 cm.
It will also be useful for you to learn how to grow roses from seeds properly.
Pest and Disease Control
Roses can suffer from diseases such as:
- Powdery mildew - progresses in the second half of July, spreads rapidly to all plants. The main symptom of the disease is the appearance of white plaque on the leaves and shoots. If the first symptoms are detected, carry out the treatment with Skor (2 ml / 10 l of water), cutting off the previously affected parts of the plant. For prevention in spring, treat with copper sulfate solution (100 g / 10 l of water).
- Rust - caused by fungal spores. Signs of the disease are the appearance of orange-colored pillow-shaped seals on the leaves and shoots. Spraying with the drug “Khom” (40 g / 10 l of water) will help to cope with the disease.
- Aphids - get rid of the pest three times spraying with an interval of 10 days with the drug "Agrovertin" (2 ml / 1 liter of water).
- Spider mite - spend 3 treatments every 7 days with colloidal sulfur (40 g / 10 l of water).
- Leafloader - a one-time treatment with the Iskra preparation (1 tablet / 10 l of water) will help.
- Nutcracker beetle - you can get rid of the pest by introducing the Bazudin preparation (20 g / 1 m²) into the soil.
Important! After pollination, roses form fruits in place of flowers. A wilted bud must be removed from the bush, otherwise the formation of the ovaries will jeopardize further flowering this season, since the plant will direct all its efforts to laying the seeds.
To get beautiful rose bushes, take some useful tips into service:
- Water not under the root, but in the ditch (depth 10 cm), dug at a distance of 20 cm from the main stem of the rose - this will help to avoid decay of the roots.
- Loosen and mulch the soil with compost after watering - this will save soil moisture and additionally nourish the plants.
- When planting grafted roses, bury the place of budding in the soil by 3-5 cm.
- The last top dressing in September is carried out with potash fertilizers - this will help increase the winter hardiness of plants.
The best way to propagate roses is considered to be cuttings that coincide with autumn pruning. The main task of the gardener is to provide future plants with reliable shelter for the winter. To do this, you can use any of the above methods.