How to plant sweet cherry seedlings in the fall
The productivity of the tree will directly depend on the correctly selected time for planting seedlings. Cherry, like other trees, it is advisable to plant it in the fall, because during the period of "rest" of the tree itself, the root system will rapidly develop and root. However, the winter landing is not suitable for all regions. The intricacies of this process will be discussed in this article.
Advantages and disadvantages of autumn planting
Autumn planting of seedlings is considered the most optimal and has a huge number of positive points.
- The benefits include:
- Experienced gardeners-sellers know that it is right to dig up seedlings intended for sale in the fall, so during this period the assortment on the market is quite large.
- Autumn, as you know, is a season rich in precipitation. And since the young tree requires abundant watering, nature will contribute to a sufficient amount of moisture.
- Trees planted in autumn during the winter will have enough time for dense rooting.
- Also, in autumn, temperature jumps are excluded, and this eliminates the possibility of "burning" of the unformed young crown in the sun.
- Despite the fact that autumn landing is the most desirable, it still has one big drawback - such a procedure is not possible in regions with sharp cold winters. Strong intermittent winds, lowering the temperature lower than the mark of -15 ° C, as well as large snowdrifts will make it almost impossible for the seedling to survive in the cold period.
Optimal landing times
The most optimal time for planting young trees in the open ground in the autumn is the time from mid-September to the end of October. This period is due to the fact that the air temperature has not yet decreased much, and the tree can quite easily adapt to a new place. Planting trees in a later period is considered extremely undesirable, since the soil in November becomes too frozen, not suitable for normal growth of the root system. Did you know? Residents of Europe prefer black varieties of cherries, considering the red that is familiar to Ukrainians and Russians - poor-quality and low-grade.
How to plant sweet cherry in the fall: a step-by-step guide
Planting cherries in autumn has its own characteristics, but the general rules for planting seedlings in open ground remain unchanged.
Choosing the right soil
From the choice of soil in which the tree will grow, its fruitful characteristics will envy. Cherry is a relatively picky tree, but some subtleties must be taken into account.
The tree does not like clay and peat land. The plant prefers light and loose soil, rich in oxygen . The most optimal is sandstone and loam, that is, combined soils.
Soil acidity also plays a large role. The most suitable is neutral earth (6.7–7.1 pH).
Before directly preparing the seedling itself, you need to pay attention to the selection of a suitable young plant.
So, important indicators of sprout quality are:
- the trunk from the “scion" should be clearly visible;
- the presence of the so-called "main conductor";
- roots should be voluminous and not less than 15 cm long;
- the optimal age for planting is a 1-2 year old plant.
After choosing a good material, you need to prepare the future tree for transplanting:
- Before planting, the roots must be well soaked - for this, the entire root system must be leveled (the maximum length should not exceed 15 cm), and then placed in water for 8-10 hours;
- on the branches, it is necessary to remove all the leaves, since they will take away moisture necessary for the roots from the seedling.
Preparing the pit for landing
Preparing the soil for direct tree planting is also of great importance. After choosing a seedling and the soil itself, it is time to move on to preparing the pit for planting.
Important! The seedling pit should be dug 2 to 3 weeks before the expected planting time. The size of the pit depends on the size of the seedling and its root system. On average, the pit diameter should be 85–95 cm and the depth 60–80 cm.
Moreover, the soil needs to be well loosened, and in case of too “heavy” soil, it must be diluted with sand. It is recommended to add compost to the pit, as well as phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizers (150–200 g and 40–60 g, respectively). Nutrient mixtures must be divided into two parts: one is placed at the bottom of the pit, and the other half is used in the process of instilling the seedling.
For stability, it is necessary to drive a peg into the pit, which will correspond to at least half the length of the barrel. With such support, it will be easier for a tree to grow vertically upward without bending to the sides.
Cherry planting technology is standard and consists of several important steps:
- Around a pre-installed support it is necessary to make an earthen hill with a sharp peak.
- On the top of the "mountain" a seedling is carefully placed so that its roots hang down to the sides. No need to exert effort, the roots should occupy the maximum free position.
- From above, it is necessary to gradually fill the earth, covering the entire root system tightly, periodically tamping the soil, and thus completely fill the pit.
- After the pit is completely filled, it is necessary to gently compact the whole earth to avoid the formation of cavities and pour 20-30 l of warm water abundantly. The water should be just warm (+25 ... + 27 ° C), because it is at this temperature that the roots will grow as comfortably as possible into the soil and develop safely.
Vydeo: instructions for planting cherry seedlings
Seedling Care Rules
Experienced gardeners know that constant careful care is necessary for a tree only during growth and development. An adult tree does not need a special approach. But the result, namely fruitfulness and appearance, which is important, will depend on the correctness of care for young cherries.
Watering for a growing tree is of the greatest importance. But few people know that watering has its very important features. In the autumn period, watering the tree must be as abundant as possible and very often until the onset of the first frost. During this period, the seedling requires the maximum amount of nutrients to prepare for the upcoming cold season.
Important! It is necessary to water a tree in autumn with exclusively defended warm water (+25 ... + 27 ° С). However, it is necessary to pay attention to precipitation : if the autumn is too rainy, then do not add too much water over natural moisture.
Subsequently, the irrigation scheme is three-phase, standard:
- when buds appear - for faster “awakening” of the tree;
- 1.5–2 weeks before the expected harvest - to help in productivity;
- before the first cold days - to warm the root system.
When feeding seedlings with mineral elements, you must be very careful and act on the principle - do no harm. Since the lack of vitamins is not so detrimental to the plant, as their overabundance or improper concentration. Fertilizing seedlings is the first process of enriching the soil with microelements, and the next such action will need to be carried out no earlier than 2 years later, therefore, this moment needs to be paid special attention.
As mentioned earlier, seedlings are fed directly during planting, adding fertilizer to the soil when the roots fall asleep. Thus, all trace elements during irrigation are evenly distributed and will give maximum benefit to the plant.
As fertilizers, it is necessary to use humus with compost in a ratio of 1: 1, as well as phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizers (150–200 g and 40–60 g, respectively).
Cropping pattern and crown shaping
Cherry, like other trees, has its own characteristics in the formation of crowns . The branches grow in tiers in different directions, so the main task of the summer resident is not to interfere with the shoots to develop independently, but only to simplify the tree this natural task. Learn more about the rules for planting cherry seedlings in spring. There are many types of tree prunings (sparse-tier, cup-shaped, half-flat), but for cherries, a cup-shaped (vase-shaped) is most preferable.
In this case, the crown must be formed as follows:
- the central (main) trunk must be left unchanged;
- it is necessary to form equivalent thick branches that extend from the trunk in the form of a fan.
When choosing this method, all the sweet cherry branches will receive the same amount of sunlight, which will allow the shoots to develop equally smoothly and beautifully.
Protection against diseases and pests
Cherry is a relatively pest-resistant tree, but there are some diseases that can affect even such a persistent plant.
These include pests such as:
- black aphid;
- pipe driver;
Possible tree diseases:
- holey spotting;
- white rust;
- Anthracnose and some others.
But, despite the rather large list of diseases, there are a number of preventive measures that will help to avoid such an unpleasant process as treating the tree from emerging problems.
So, for the prevention of diseases and pests, it is necessary:
- When leaves fall in the autumn, all organic elements must be removed under the tree and around it.
- Conduct seasonal whitewashing and carefully monitor the condition of the trunk.
- Do not neglect spring prophylaxis with fungicidal and insecticidal drugs. In addition, in the spring, you can additionally spray the tree with copper sulfate, urea, or Brunka.
Useful gardening tips
For experienced gardeners, planting cherries is a common thing, but there are a number of useful tips that will help to achieve the best yield and condition of the tree. Learn how to vaccinate cherries on cherries in spring and summer. So, when planting seedlings in autumn, you must remember that:
- Landing at this time of year is not suitable for northern regions with cold, harsh winters.
- The result directly depends on how and where to plant the plant, so if there is any doubt about the variety, time and place of planting, it is better to consult a professional.
- The landing pit should not be very deep, the roots should lie freely at an angle of 45 degrees.
- For the winter, it’s worth to tack the sweet cherry and cover it with earth, mulch, and in winter with snow.
- It is desirable to cover the trunk with burlap.
- In winter, it is necessary to scatter mouse poison around the tree, since mice in winter can damage a young immature trunk.
So, the planting of seedlings in the autumn is more optimal than the spring, because during the fall and winter the plant will have time to form a strong root system. This process has its important, but not complicated features, and, following all the useful tips, the summer resident will be able to achieve an abundant tasty harvest and a beautiful healthy tree on your favorite site.