How to plant garlic in the fall, so that the crop is pleased in the summer
Growing this culture will not be too time-consuming, because at the minimum cost you can get the maximum yield. Winter garlic, which is planted in the fall, is especially popular with gardeners. How to grow spicy and healthy garlic big and tasty, we will tell in our article.
Selection and preparation of garlic for planting
Winter garlic, unlike its spring colleague, reproduces not only with teeth, but also with bulbs. The difference in these methods of reproduction in time of growth to a full head. A large plant grows from a clove in a year, while a bulb just takes twice as much time.
Before planting, all cloves and bulbs are carefully sorted and discarded damaged, sick or those whose protective shell is damaged. Then, the selected planting material must be disinfected so that the garlic does not rot during the slushy autumn period. To do this, you need to prepare a solution for soaking, which consists of ash and water. The recipe for the solution is quite simple: 400 g of ash are filled with 2 liters of water, after which this mixture should boil for 30 minutes. After cooling the ash base, garlic can be placed in it and soaked for about two hours.
A less time-consuming method is to soak the seed in salt. To do this, take 3 tbsp. l salt and 5 liters of water. All this is well mixed, and it will be enough for the garlic to lie in the solution for a couple of minutes to get the effect. It is important to remember that the better you process the garlic, the larger your yield will be, therefore, to fix the effect, the cloves after saline are additionally disinfected with a solution of copper sulfate, 1 tsp. which is diluted with 10 liters of water.
Of the very simple methods for disinfecting cloves and bulbs, it is worth highlighting the soaking of planting material in a light solution of potassium permanganate. To do this, garlic is placed in a liquid for a couple of hours, after which it is taken out and dried.
But a rich harvest depends not only on the thorough preparation of the cloves and bulbs, but also on the variety of the planting material itself, so it is important to choose the variety that is ideal for growing in your area.
Did you know? Garlic is the first plant that has been cultivated by humans. In the diet of people, he appeared more than 6 millennia ago. Most of all it was consumed in South Asia, and in Japan the product is recognized only as a medicinal herb. Varieties are divided into two types - those that are shooters and those that the arrows do not produce. Varieties with an arrow are characterized by greater endurance and frost resistance.
Among winter varieties, the most popular are the following:
- “Lyubasha” - this variety was bred in Ukraine, and its main advantage is the high tolerance of low temperatures and drought. It can be stored for up to 10 months without losing its properties. The height of the plant reaches a height of 90-120 cm, on average about 7 teeth are placed in the head, weighing 10-15 g. The husk of the head is white with thin purple veins.
- "Ukrainian White" - can be planted both in autumn and spring. This variety has no shooters, but this prevents it from being well stored. The weight of one head is 50–140 g, and the number of teeth in it is up to 12 pieces.
- "Spas" is another brainchild of Ukrainian breeders from Lviv. It has a high yield and is stored for a long time. The head often has 7–9 teeth, and the weight of the bulb is 60–100 g. This garlic is also resistant to certain diseases, such as nematodes and fusarium.
- "Jubilee Gribovsky" is a rather old variety that has a sharp taste and is resistant to parasites and diseases. The weight of the bulb is about 40 g, and the number of teeth in it ranges from 5 to 8.
- "Jubilee 07" - this variety is well stored, gives a sufficiently large yield and does not suffer from Fusarium infection. The head has a white-violet color with stripes and consists of 8 teeth. The taste of garlic is not too spicy.
- “Reliable” is a productive variety with a small spiciness, it is able to maintain its properties for up to a year, even in a warm room. The bulb has 6-7 strokes, a white husk with lilac stripes.
- “Kharkiv Violet” is a little susceptible to diseases, has a high yield, and belongs to the arrow varieties. The head has a specific flattened shape and a purple color. The mass of a mature bulb is 30-60 g, and the number of cloves is on average 6 pieces.
- "Messidor" is a Dutch variety that is characterized by high productivity, the onion consists of 10 cloves and weighs 112 g. It tastes bitter.
When is it best to plant garlic?
It is not difficult to determine the most favorable period, you just need to follow the temperature of the air on the street, which at the time of garlic planting should be +12 ... + 15 ° С. Usually this temperature is set in late September or early November. But do not forget about the climate variability in different years and the landing region, since the period of the desired temperature regime will depend on the combination of these factors.
In addition, the period of planting of garlic can be calculated depending on the onset of the first cold weather. Thus, the teeth should be planted about a month and a half before the arrival of the first frost.
Did you know? Planting garlic for the winter is a more natural natural process than its summer cultivation. This is due to genetic memory, because the ancestor of garlic is spiky onion, growing in the mountainous regions of Central Asia, where eternal winter.
But the bulbs must be planted even earlier - in order for them to take up well, it is better to place the bulbs in the ground no later than April. This period is necessary so that planted cloves and bulbs have time to take root, which usually has a length of 10–20 cm, which will allow plants to better tolerate winter and give good shoots in spring. Also, newly planted teeth can hatch even before a cold snap, but this is a good sign that the garlic has taken root and even the most severe frosts will not harm him.
But what is better not to do is to plant garlic too soon, otherwise the culture will have time to germinate fully and will disappear before spring. The same applies to late planting - teeth and bulbs simply do not have time to take root and freeze, which naturally will lead to a complete loss of the crop.
Choosing a place for the garden
An important role is also played by the planting site of garlic. It is important to remember that this culture cannot be planted on the same bed every year. Experienced gardeners recommend moving the garlic bed to a new place every season, since garlic can only be returned to the old territory after 3-4 years.
A good choice for planting this crop would be a former bed with:
- early cabbage;
- early greens;
- bushes of berries and all annual plants.
They need to be removed from the beds in advance, and not on the eve of the planting of garlic.
Important! If something grew earlier in the garden where you decided to grow garlic, then you need to remember that this crop must be removed no later than the end of August and the beginning of September. .
A poor choice for placing planting material would be a bed where tomatoes, potatoes and onions were grown, since when planting in these places, garlic will grow very poorly due to soil depletion by these crops. In addition, these plants are removed from the sites too late and you can simply not have time to prepare the soil for planting.
Among other things, we must not forget that garlic is very fond of the sun, so the garden should be in a well-lit, open area. If possible, care must be taken to ensure that the culture is not covered by a shadow, even if it does not turn for long.
The soil should be loose, not to let in air and excess water. In addition, the soil must be sufficiently nutritious and have a neutral pH level. In order for your bed to meet these parameters, you need to take care of the composition of the soil on it already a month before the planting material is planted.
You should not plant garlic in the area where dirt is formed and rainwater stagnates, as well as on dense, clay and sour soil. You should avoid the land, in the impurities of which there is a large amount of peat.
Garlic can be planted in sandy areas, the culture will grow there, but very poorly. Due to the properties of the sand, you have to constantly produce abundant watering of the beds and carefully fertilize the soil, but even with this care, the heads are too small.
How to prepare the soil for planting garlic?
In order for garlic to give a good harvest in the spring, and in the winter it is preserved in the ground and not frozen, you need to prepare the soil for planting in advance. In addition, this will help to avoid the occurrence of diseases in plants. At the same time, it is important to observe all terms and proportions, as well as carefully study the composition of the soil in order to make the right fertilizer in the soil.
Learn also how to prepare a bed for garlic for the winter.
The first top dressing of garlic is carried out in the spring, when the plants hatch well, and several sprouted leaves appeared from the ground. It is necessary to fertilize the soil comprehensively - in addition to organic top dressing, you can also use mineral and nitrogen. More specifically, urea and ammonium nitrate are usually used as fertilizers; their proportion in relation to water should be 2 tbsp. l substances per 10 liters of liquid.
The next top dressing is carried out already at the beginning of the onion formation. This happens from mid to late June. The best way to feed during this period is nitrophoska. To knead a solution for fertilizer you need to take 2 tbsp. l funds and dissolve them in 10 liters of water. For watering 1 m² of garlic beds usually use about 3-4 liters of this mixture. After you pour the garlic, you need to loosen the soil between the rows.
A good fertilizer for garlic is chicken droppings. Therefore, he will benefit from watering this fertilizer every 10 days. To prepare the product, you need to take 1 liter of litter and dilute it with 10 liters of water. The same applies to mullein, a similar amount of which is divorced from 8 liters of liquid. Both of these solutions can be used one bucket in an area of 5 m², pouring garlic to the root. But in no case should you water these two types of fertilizers at the same time so as not to burn the plant. In addition to organic fertilizers, you can also use mineral fertilizers, diluting 75 g of the product in 10 liters of water. This amount is enough for the same 5 m².
Learn also garlic - is it a vegetable or not. Good watering is very important for garlic, while the water should be warmed up in the sun, otherwise the culture will grow worse. In the case of a dry spring, you can save your crop by mulching the plants with humus or peat after the first watering. The layer of mulch should be 1-1.5 cm thick. And watering should be stopped already 20 days before the moment of digging up the culture.
In some cases, the bed is fertilized with lime - this is done in order to make acidic soil more favorable for growing garlic. In this case, a month before planting, in 1 m² of soil, 200 g of lime is poured, after which they carefully dig this place onto a full bayonet of shovels. Sometimes liming the soil, but then you have to abandon the cultivation of both winter garlic and spring. To carry out the liming procedure, in the fall, 250-300 g of lime are poured into the soil and dug. In the spring it is recommended to plant cabbage at this place and only after harvesting the cabbage is allowed to plant garlic.
In the case when the acidity of the soil is normal and there is no reason to refuse to plant garlic, the soil will also not hinder fertilizing. In this case, on 1 m² of area you need to make a mixture of 10-12 kg of humus, 1 tbsp. l superphosphate and potassium sulfate. After mixing these ingredients and adding them to the soil, you need to dig the bed.
Important! Fresh manure should not be taken to fertilize the beds. It is best to take already rotted fertilizer, which has been lying for at least 4 years.
Formation of beds
In order to properly form the garlic bed, you must first dig it up carefully, driving the shovel to a depth of about 20 cm, then the ground is leveled and compacted. After working with the land, experienced gardeners are advised to treat the soil with copper sulfate to disinfect the soil. For 1 m² of beds it is necessary to take 1 liter of solution, for the manufacture of which 1 tbsp is taken. l vitriol and divorced in a bucket of water. After watering the beds with a solution, this place needs to be covered with a film, which is removed right before the moment of garlic planting.
This culture is usually planted with five-line ribbons, and the distance between the beds is about 20 cm. The plants themselves should also not be placed too tightly, and the spaces between them should be left at least 6-8 cm. If the variety of garlic is large, then the distance between the bulbs must be increased for a couple of cm. Each tooth should be planted in the ground to a depth of about 8 cm, but this indicator can also increase or decrease depending on the size of the planting material and soil structure. It is also worth remembering that a deeper placement of large teeth and bulbs contributes to their better wintering and development of the root system.
After planting the crop, it is recommended to cover the garden bed with a 3-cm layer of peat, and after the snow falls, you can throw it on the garden beds.
Video: Planting garlic in the winter
Gardens are not always perfectly even and are located on high ground. Sometimes it happens that the site is located in a lowland and there is stagnation of water and the accumulation of moisture. In this case, the best solution would be the artificial formation of high beds. Due to its configuration, such a bed will dry twice as fast as usual. But if the site is swampy, then such properties will come in handy, since rainwater will leave faster, and the soil itself will warm up better than the flat. In addition to a number of advantages, high beds also have their drawbacks, among which are high flowability and dry soil.
To form such a bed, a layer of earth with a height of about 20 cm needs to be spread. There are no special requirements for the width, but most often it is made within about 1 m, which creates an optimal area for more convenient weeding. In addition, this place should be fenced so that the soil does not spread.
To prevent the occurrence of diseases in garlic, experienced gardeners advise cultivating the land before planting a 1% solution of copper sulfate. For this, 1 tbsp. l the drug is diluted in 10 liters of water. On average, this amount is enough for an area of about 2 m².
The ready-made solution must be evenly distributed over the entire area where garlic will be planted in the future. This is best done with a watering can, and after watering, the bed is covered with a film.
There is another way to disinfect the soil before planting onions, for which urea is used. In this case, you will need 10-20 g of the product per 1 m², which must be scattered in the same amount throughout the garden. After the area is covered with fertilizer, it is watered with water until the fertilizer is completely absorbed.
In addition to the basic rules for planting garlic in the winter, it is worth taking advantage of the additional experience of gardeners to make your crop even better and more productive:
- Soil preparation . If your site is characterized by soil density, and the soil slowly absorbs moisture, then correct this situation by changing the composition of the soil. To prepare the garlic bed, pour a bucket of sand and peat on each m² of bed. Then this area is deeply dug up, on a full bayonet of a shovel, and leveled.
- Soil compaction . In cases where the soil is too sandy, clay and humus must be added here. In this case, the clay should be sufficiently dry and crumbly. It needs to be thoroughly detailed, making a powder of the material, then mix the clay with sand and sprinkle over the site. For 1 m², pour 2 buckets of such a mixture.
- Decrease in acidity . To improve the chemical composition of the soil using lime, using 250 g of the substance per 1 m² of territory. In addition, in addition to lime, you can prepare a mixture of river sand and clay, and then dig a bed.
- Soil preparation period . It is necessary to prepare the bed in advance, namely not later than 15–20 days before the alleged planting of garlic. So, if you decide to plant a crop at the end of the month, then you need to prepare the soil from the first days.
- The value of processing material for planting . Long-term experience in growing garlic both by private farms and large farmers shows that the processing of cloves and bulbs has little effect on the further yield. The subsequent agrotechnical actions are much more important.
- Planting teeth . It is not recommended to stick teeth into the ground with all their strength, otherwise you can cause them physical damage. For planting, you must first loosen the soil so that it is soft, after which it is allowed to carefully deepen the planting material. After planting, it is recommended to sprinkle the bed with ash, 200 g per 1 m².
- Watering . After planting, garlic does not require special watering, since it is quite moisture from rains. Но если целый месяц осадков не наблюдалось, то нелишним будет один раз полить культуру в количестве одного ведра на 1 м².
Читайте также чем укрыть чеснок на зиму от мороза.
- Утепление . Если снега ещё нет, а морозы сильные, можно накрыть грядку опавшими листьями, слой которых должен составлять 15–25 см. Поверх этого утепления не лишним будет поместить полотно, но не тканное. К тому же можно использовать только ткань, а листья не трогать вовсе. Если же холода совсем лютые, то чеснок можно укрывать смесью навоза и опилок или перегноем, слоем в 20 см. Весной это укрытие убирают, стараясь не повредить молодые побеги. Но такой способ используется крайне редко и только в северных районах.
- Разрыхление . Подождав месяц после схода снега, разрешается начинать разрыхление почвы. Для этого нужно пройтись между рядами на пару см вглубь.
Основные правила ухода за чесноком во время выращивания
Озимый чеснок не особо прихотлив в уходе, если он высажен в открытый грунт. Эта культура устойчива к холодам и непогоде. Если грядка подготовлена правильно, а сам чеснок успел развить хорошую корневую систему, то зиму он перенесёт стойко. А вот весной вам придётся немного позаботиться об этой культуре.
Для этого важно соблюдать следующие рекомендации:
- Подготовка к росту . С приходом весны необходимость укрывания чеснока отпадает, поэтому слой мульчи на пару см снимают, освобождая молодую поросль. К тому же вовремя убранное укрытие позволит быстрее прогреться земле.
- Стрелки . Ближе к двадцатым числам июня чеснок уже активно растёт и начинает выпускать стрелки. Это не очень хорошо для качества будущих луковиц, поэтому все стрелки нужно сломать, пока они не выросли на 10 см. Если этого не сделать, то сила растения уйдёт на развитие стрелки и семян, а головки получатся очень маленькими.
- Удобрение . С появлением зелёных пёрышек чеснок нужно подкормить азотными удобрениями, такими как мочевина, навоз или птичий помёт. А уже в июне — июле необходимо будет удобрить чеснок золой, растворив 200 г этого удобрения в ведре воды. Важно помнить о том, что лучшей подкормкой для чеснока станут органические удобрения.
Советуем прочитать чем подкормить и как поливать чеснок после зимы.
- Полив . Чеснок любит полив, который должен быть достаточно обильным, поэтому во время активного роста культуры не стоит скупиться на воду, конечно же, в пределах разумного. А вот уже к моменту формирования головок количество воды уменьшают, а в случае, когда на улице дожди, дополнительный полив и вовсе стоит прекратить. Это делается для того, чтобы избежать болезней растения и гниения луковиц, к чему может привести избыток влаги.
- Прополка . Росту луковиц не помешает и лишний раз прорыхлить почву. Эту процедуру стоит проводить после каждого полива или дождя, а также нужно освободить грядку от сорняков. Но если ваш участок замульчирован, то эти действия не придётся выполнять слишком часто.
- Уборка чеснока . Уборку чеснока рекомендуется делать в солнечную погоду, после того, как нижние листья станут жёлтыми. Такой вид чеснок обычно приобретает к последним числам июля или в первую половину августа, на несколько недель ранее ярового.
- Подготовка к хранению . После того как головки выкопаны, их необходимо просушить на солнце около 5 дней и укоротить стебель на 10–20 см, а также обрезать корни. Важно строго следить за сроками выкапывания чеснока, иначе он перезреет, и головки попросту распадутся.
Видео: Хитрости посадки чеснока под зиму
Выращивание чеснока — это довольно благодарное занятие, поскольку оно не является сложным, но даёт хороший результат. Следуя нехитрым рекомендациям, уже через год вы сможете порадоваться своему урожаю и получить целый кладезь витаминов в одной культуре.