How to plant ficus properly at home
Ficus is an indoor evergreen plant that has a decorative function in the room, and also has medicinal properties, which is why it is often used in the manufacture of medicines. Ficus has many forms, among which, in addition to the evergreen, there are also some deciduous. Its varieties are distinguished by the color of the leaves - in some it is monophonic, in others it is motley. Indoor flower is easy to plant at home, if you follow the basic rules of planting and care, which will be discussed in the article.
Basic Ficus Care
Ficus can be called unpretentious, however, like all indoor plants, it needs care and compliance with the basic rules of care:
- A change of residence negatively affects the well-being of the plant. For him, you need to select a place in advance and try not to move it and rotate it anymore. In summer, it is allowed to take the flower out into the fresh air, for example, onto a sunny balcony or loggia.
- It does not tolerate drafts, but at the same time it loves fresh air and airing.
- If possible, the temperature should be kept constant. From a sharp temperature drop, the ficus can get sick.
- Demanding on watering. It prefers abundant watering in the hot season, however, between the irrigations the upper part of the soil should dry by 2-3 cm. In winter, watering should not be so often, preventing moisture stagnation.
- During the growing season in spring and summer, ficus needs feeding. It is applied approximately every two weeks. In winter, they do not feed the indoor flower. For fertilizing, any fertilizer for decorative and deciduous plants is suitable.
- From October to February, the ficus begins to rest. However, if the house is warm and there is additional illumination, then the plant continues to grow, although not so fast. In any case, during this period it is required to reduce watering and lower the temperature.
- It needs regular hygiene, because a dense dust layer on the leaves adversely affects metabolic processes. The leaves can be wiped with a damp sponge on both sides, and in the summer, once or twice a month, the plant can be bathed under a warm shower.
- In order to spray and water, you can use only standing, soft and warm water. Hard chlorinated tap water leaves salt streaks on the sheets.
- Periodically, the ficus needs to be transplanted when the pot becomes small for him. This is evidenced by the completely earthen combs braided by the roots.
Optimal growing conditions
Ficus can be easily grown at home.
It will grow rapidly and maintain a healthy decorative appearance if the following growing conditions are observed:
- Temperature In the summer - from + 25 ° to + 30 ° С, in the winter - from + 16 ° to + 20 ° С. The temperature minimum at which the plant survives is + 15 ° С for ficuses with variegated leaves, + 10 ° С for most species with monophonic foliage. The plant does not tolerate hypothermia, so it is better not to leave the pot in a cold place, for example, on the floor or on the windowsill in the fall and winter.
- Lighting Bright but scattered. He loves a lot of light, but does not tolerate direct sunlight. Some forms with plain dark leaves can live in light partial shade. With a lack of lighting, it loses color and begins to discard sheets.
- Air humidity. Ideally - up to 70%, but 50% is acceptable. In summer, the plant prefers high humidity. In winter, if the room is warm and dry, it needs additional regular spraying and bathing in the shower.
- Soil moisture. The plant does not tolerate stagnation of water, but watering loves plentiful and regular. After each watering, the soil on top should dry by 2-3 cm, and for ficuses that have grown large and have reached the size of a tree, these values increase to 6-7 cm. Water from the pan must be drained after each watering, otherwise the soil will be waterlogged, which will rot the root system.
How to plant ficus at home
Ficus planting technology involves a number of preparatory work, including the preparation of a suitable pot, soil and equipment, and also implies specific planting dates.
Ficus planting is necessary from the beginning of the active vegetation period. This time falls in the spring. The plant develops and grows rapidly. The best planted specimens planted during the spring - from March to May. However, in summer, landing is also acceptable. The main thing is not to try to propagate the indoor flower during the dormant period, when all metabolic processes are slowed down.
Did you know? Known forms of ficus with edible fruits. This is a well-known fig - otherwise it is also called a fig tree or fig tree.
Before you start planting a young ficus in a pot, you must first prepare all the necessary tools for planting.
For planting, you need to prepare the following inventory:
- earth mix;
- warm, settled water;
- drainage - expanded clay, pieces of polystyrene foam, pebbles, cracked brick, small pebbles.
To facilitate planting and ensure cleanliness, you can use additional equipment:
It is very important in which pot the plant will be planted, because it depends on its size, material and shape how well the ficus will feel. Since ficus is thermophilic and does not tolerate hypothermia, it is best to choose a container made of plastic or clay for it. In ceramic and glass pots, the plant will freeze. Plastic pots do not always look aesthetically pleasing. However, this problem can be easily solved with the help of a cache-pot, which, moreover, can also be changed at will, choosing a suitable decoration for the surrounding interior.
Choosing a pot according to size, you can be guided by the following criteria:
- take a pot whose diameter does not exceed 10 cm;
- choose a pot individually for the plant, measuring the distance from the roots to the walls — it should be 2.5 cm;
- measure the width of the root system and pick up a pot that is 2-3 cm in diameter larger than the width of the roots.
Important! The soil should be neutral or slightly acidic, with a pH level of 5.5 to 7.
What should be the soil
The soil for the ficus should be light, loose, breathable, rich in nitrogen and fertile. He does not like heavy, dense and greasy soil.
The optimal composition of the soil mixture:
- sheet earth;
- coarse river sand.
All ingredients for the soil mixture must be mixed in equal amounts. As a result, you will get light and airy earth. When the ficus grows, it is recommended to add another part of the turf soil to the substrate. When filling the earth mixture, place it so that there is a drainage layer at the bottom, the main part consists of soil, and you can sprinkle the soil on top with a layer of clean sand - this will provide additional permeability. If you do not have the opportunity to prepare the soil mixture yourself, in the flower shop you can buy ready-made soil from the manufacturer under the name "Ficus" or "Palm".
Important! Disinfection of the soil destroys the beneficial flora necessary for plant life. To restore it, biological preparations must be added to the steamed earth, for example, Trichodermin.
There are several ways to propagate ficus:
- air layering;
- a leaf (or from a branch cut at the bottom of the tree);
In this way, most ficuses are predominantly propagated. It is from the cuttings that this indoor flower most quickly takes root, takes root in the soil mixture and grows actively. The shoot for reproduction is taken on the apical part of the plant. An already lignified shoot of about 15 cm long is chosen. It must be cut with a sharp knife (for example, a clerical one) along an oblique line. If there are many large leaves on the process, then half of them must be removed. If the ficus has small leaves, then you need to remove them only from the bottom.
Important! Ficus contains milky juice, which is toxic and causes burns in contact with skin, so all work must be done with gloves.
Planting rooted cuttings is as follows:
- Take a pre-prepared pot and disinfected and enriched nutrient soil mixture;
- At the bottom of the pot containing drainage holes, pour drainage (pebbles, polystyrene, chipped brick, etc.);
- On ¾ fill the pot with soil. Do not tamper or crush the soil - it should be light, breathable and loose. In rammed earth, the ficus cannot develop the root system.
- Moisten the covered earth. In the center, make a small depression of 2-3 cm - the roots of the sprout will be placed in it. Make sure that at least 2-3 cm remain from the bottom of the roots to the bottom.
- Place the appendix in the recess and sprinkle with the remaining soil.
- Water the planted sprout well. Drain excess water from the drip tray.
- Set the pot of young ficus in a permanent place.
Video: planting cuttings of ficus
This method of reproduction is most often used for large woody forms of ficus. It is rather slow and requires a certain skill of the grower. Not used for young plants and species with thin shoots. The essence of the method is that a new root system is created on the finished shoot, after which cuttings with aerial roots are cut off and transplanted into the ground.
Did you know? Tree-like forms of ficus in nature grow in huge trees. They release aerial roots that take root and give life to new trees. This is how real forests are formed.
Air lay is obtained as follows:
- Choose a strong and young branch. The length of the selected shoot can be large and reach 50 cm.
- Decide on the place on the branch where the roots will grow.
- In a selected place, make a shallow incision with a sharp knife.
- Treat the cut site with activated charcoal and phytohormones for root growth.
- Insert a piece of match into the slice as a spacer. This is necessary so that the milky juice does not clog the wound, interfering with the formation of roots.
- Wrap the stalk with sphagnum moss around the notch. It will serve as a substrate for rooting.
- Moisten the moss well and wrap it around with cellophane or cling film.
- Tie and fasten the polyethylene with threads from above above the moss and from below under it. The film creates a greenhouse effect - increased temperature and humidity. It is in such conditions that the ficus is best rooted.
- Moss should always be wet. If the sphagnum is lighter, then it has dried up and it is time to water it.
- The layer will be ready for separation from the mother plant and transplanted into a separate pot when young roots completely braid a lump of moss.
- In order to separate the shoot, it needs to be cut just below the root formation.
- Transplant the branch with the formed roots into a separate pot with the prepared soil mixture.
Video: propagation of ficus by air layers
From the leaflet
For the propagation of ficus in this way, not any leaf is suitable. It is necessary to take a young and strong leaf from the top of the plant. Moreover, you need to cut not only the leaf, but also part of the stem (petiole), only in this case it will take root. You need to cut the leaf about 1.5 cm below the internode by an oblique incision. After cutting, the leaf is treated in the same way as the stem, washing, allowing to stand in water, drying and sprinkling with activated charcoal.
Important! From one shoot of ficus you can get as many leafy cuttings as there are leaves on it.
Ficus seeds are available at the store. When choosing material for seedlings, pay attention that it is not damaged, does not contain traces of parasites and mold. Before planting the seeds, they must be soaked in water at room temperature and left to stand for 2 hours. For better germination and growth after soaking the grains, it is necessary to dip into the liquid with a growth stimulator for a day. For this, you can use drugs such as Epin or Humate. Next, the seeds must be planted in pots, one seed per container. Prepare nutrient soil and drainage in advance. Do not bury the seeds in the ground when planting. Sprinkle with a light substrate or a mixture of sand.
Important! The maximum depth for immersing seeds in the soil is half a centimeter. If it is larger, then the grains can rot in the ground.
Ficus rooting technology
Strong, healthy, developed roots are the key to the active and successful growth of a plant, therefore, only those sprouts that are already well rooted can be planted.
The procedure can be performed as follows:
- Washed, soaked for a couple of hours in water, after which the dried and charcoal-treated stalk should be placed in a small container with water for rooting.
- Water needs to be taken purified and necessarily warm. It should be warmer than room temperature, but not hot.
- The container in which the shoot or leaf will take root must be dark and opaque.
- Place the stalk in water so that the lower leaves do not touch the water.
- Observe temperature (+ 25-30 °) and light conditions. The more bright scattered light will be available to the shoot, the faster it will take root.
- Create a greenhouse effect. To do this, use a plastic bag worn on top of a container with a sprout. The package should not constrain leaflets. Between the top of the handle and the package should be a gap of a couple of centimeters. Or use a clear plastic cropped bottle. In addition, make small openings in the bottle for oxygen access.
Important! High temperature (up to + 30 °) and high humidity are necessary conditions for the successful and quick rooting of any ficus cuttings.
Rooting in water is the easiest and most effective way. You can also root cuttings in the ground. In this case, the procedure is carried out similarly, but instead of a glass of water, a glass with a nutrient substrate is needed, into which the processes or leaves are immersed, they are watered abundantly and a miniature greenhouse is created.
Вне зависимости от способа укоренения этот процесс занимает от 2 до 5 недель. Скорость образования корневой системы зависит от вида черенков (отросток или листок), температуры, обработки стимуляторами роста и количества освещения.
Plant care after planting
Для того чтобы только посаженный фикус был здоровым и быстро рос, необходимо соблюдать следующие рекомендации:
- После посадки в постоянный горшок хорошо полейте землю — так, чтобы водой пропитался весь земляной ком. Через 15–20 минут после полива слейте лишнюю воду из поддона. Поливайте растение первые два дня, после чего переходите на полив в зависимости от подсыхания верхнего слоя грунта.
- Всегда для полива фикуса используйте мягкую и тёплую воду. Идеально, если температура воды будет на 2° выше, чем температура в комнате. Также лучше использовать отстоянную или очищенную воду, так как вода из-под крана содержит большое количество вредных примесей, тормозящих рост молодого растения.
- Лучше всего рассматриваемый комнатный цветок растёт при высоких температурах. Росток будет быстрее развиваться, если температура воздуха будет свыше +25°С.
- Освещение также влияет на скорость роста и самочувствие фикуса. Для активного протекания процессов фотосинтеза света должно быть много, поэтому лучше установить дополнительную подсветку.
- Почаще опрыскивайте молодое растение, обеспечивая его повышенной влажностью.
- Сразу после посадки фикус не нуждается в подкормке. Исключение составляют только экземпляры, высаженные в безземельные смеси, которые бедны сами по себе. В этом случае такой субстрат нужно обогатить комплексными удобрениями для фикусов. Если же почва плодородная, то она не нуждается в дополнительной подкормке — питательных веществ в ней растению хватает на 2 месяца. Только по истечении этого времени можно начинать вносить подкормку с периодичностью раз в 2 недели.
What difficulties may arise?
Размножение фикуса — дело довольно простое. Возникновение трудностей возможно при несоблюдении основных правил подготовки черенка и грунта.
Did you know? Самый большой баньян (фикус бенгальский в виде дерева-леса) растёт в Калькуттском ботаническом саду. Он занимает площадь диаметром 300 м и насчитывает не менее 300 стволов. Это единственное в мире дерево, которое одновременно является лесом, а его возраст составляет около 200 лет.
Росток не будет расти и пускать корни, если:
- размножение происходит в период покоя зимой;
- подобран слишком плотный грунт;
- земля утрамбована при посадке;
- почвенная смесь недостаточно питательная;
- полив осуществлялся холодной или хлорированной водой;
- недостаточно света;
- температура воздуха менее +25°С;
- недостаточный парниковый эффект;
- без проветривания во время укоренения черенки могут взопреть;
- неправильно подобран горшок;
- черенки или семена не обработаны активированным углём, из-за чего могут заразиться различными паразитами;
- материнское растение больно;
- семена, приобретённые в магазине, поражены плесенью.
Узнайте подробнее, каким должен быть состав грунта для фикуса.
Посадка фикуса возможна несколькими способами. Самым распространённым и быстрым является черенкование — оно подходит для большинства видов фикусов. Фикусы с крупными листьями можно размножать листками, а крупные древовидные формы — воздушными отводками. Каким бы способом вы ни разводили это растение, для успешной посадки ему необходимо тепло, влажность и много света.