How to grow grapes in Siberia
Growing grapes in Siberia raises many questions because of the thermophilic nature of the plant. Siberian winegrowers were able to prove that even in northern climates, various varieties of this plant can be successfully grown. However, before planting bushes in these latitudes, it is important to study all the subtleties of this matter.
The best varieties for Siberia
Frost-resistant varieties are the best choice for growing in Siberian climates. The list of varieties with this characteristic is very extensive. The following varieties are popular among winegrowers in Siberia.
- Thumbelina. Bisexual high-yielding variety of early-medium ripening dates. Bunches are ripe by the end of August. The fruits are blue. The application is universal.
- Memory of Dombkowska. The variety has an early ripening period. Seedless berries of dark blue color. Besides frost resistance, tolerates drought well. Without additional shelter, it can survive the winter frost to -27 ° C.
- Siberian Cheryomushka. The fruits are sweet, the skin color is dark blue. The variety is early, so the crop can be removed in the first ten days of August. Bisexual flowers. Appointment table.
- Rusven. High-yielding early variety with pink berries. Cuttings quickly take root and often bear fruit as early as the next year after planting.
- The riddle of Sharov. The variety, universal in use, withstands frosts down to -34 ° С. The berries are dark blue with a rich sweet taste.
- Tukay. A table variety of early ripening. The color of the berries is light, there is an aftertaste of nutmeg. Winter hardiness up to -25 ° С.
How to choose quality seedlings when buying
The subsequent growth of the grape and its fruitfulness depends on the quality of the seedling. That is why winegrowers carefully choose the appropriate planting material. Good specimens are sold by nurseries, garden centers and specialty stores. Sellers in the markets are not always responsible for the quality of the goods, so this option is suitable for an experienced gardener. The optimal age of the seedling is 1 year. Two-year-old bushes also successfully root.
A quality seedling has the following properties:
- root system with 3-4 strong processes, a section of a light brown hue;
- a vine with a length of at least 50 cm;
- leaves of the correct form of a uniform light green color;
- the absence of visible damage, rot, breaks, deposits.
Did you know? Viticulture as a kind of agricultural activity arose about 6 thousand years ago in ancient Egypt.
How to plant grapes in Siberia
Due to climatic conditions not favorable for viticulture, bushes are planted according to clear rules. It depends on time, place and planting technology whether a plant will take root or not.
In Siberia, grapes are planted in spring in the period from late May to early June. With autumn planting, bushes take root extremely rarely.
An important role is played by the landing site. Light and loose soil is suitable for vine bushes. It is better to avoid places where groundwater is located at a depth above 1.5 m. Grapes require a lot of light. The best option would be a site on a small hill. Experienced winegrowers are also advised to place seedlings near buildings and fences on the north and northwest sides.
Planting pits are prepared 14-21 days before planting seedlings. Bushes are located at a distance of 2 m from each other. The distance between the rows can be made up to 3 m. In the process of preparing the pit, you first need to dig a trench 0.8 m wide and 0.3 m deep. Dig holes with a diameter of 0.6 m and the same depth in the trench, taking into account the landing pattern. The primary fertilizer of the planting pit is an important stage, having missed which the winegrower risks persistence in the development of the bush and its viability.
At the bottom of the pit lay layers:
- ash (1 shovel);
- superphosphate (200 g);
- cut branches and stems of weeds;
- mix of sand, soil and humus in a ratio of 1: 2: 2.
Did you know? In the CIS grows more than 3 thousand grape varieties.
Landing is carried out according to the following algorithm:
- When planting seedlings from a pot, make a depression in the pit. If the bush has an open root system, pour a small earthen hill at the bottom.
- Prepare seedlings. Remove the bushes from the pots with an earthen lump or straighten the root system if the seedling is without a container.
- Place the seedling in the center of the hole, tilting it slightly. It depends on which side the gardener will tilt the vine before shelter for the winter. The root neck is best placed below ground level.
- Fill the pit with soil and compact.
- Pour a bucket of water under the base of the barrel.
- Mulch the soil.
Video: planting grapes
How to care for grapes
After the planting of the plant and its successful rooting, the duty of the winegrower is to take care of the care. Watering, top dressing, pruning and other procedures affect the quality and quantity of the crop.
Important! During flowering, moistening the soil is highly discouraged.
Vine bushes are watered by irrigation of the soil near the trunk. You can also use ground and underground drip irrigation systems or irrigation trenches. On average, 30-50 l of water goes under 1 bush, but the exact amount is determined depending on the variety.
Water the plant 4 times per growing season:
- after spring awakening;
- 14 days before flowering;
- 14 days after flowering;
- during the preparation of the winter shelter.
The exact doses, proportion and periods of application of drugs vary depending on the variety. According to general recommendations, liquid fertilizers are applied under the bush along with watering.
During the period of active growth, 2 top dressings are carried out:
- in the first half of the growing season - the application of organic products, for example, "Humate";
- in the second half of the growing season - top dressing with mineral preparations mainly based on potassium and phosphorus.
Find out in more detail how to properly feed the grapes in the fall.
Weeds are removed as they appear, however this is the recommended measure. Mandatory procedures include loosening the soil 2-3 days after moistening the soil. Siberian winegrowers pay special attention to mulching. Mulch is laid in the spring after the bush wakes up, when the soil has warmed up well. Suitable materials are straw, hay, grass or sawdust. The advantage of mulching is to preserve the looseness of the soil and retain moisture. When the mulch rots, it turns into a natural fertilizer, which also benefits the plant.
Gardeners install supporting structures to support the vines. The best option in Siberia are trellises. For construction, pillars of metal or wood are driven into the ground. They are horizontally pulled and tied with wires at the same distance from each other. Trellis is often upgraded: add visors, fit the ends with cellophane and install aluminum screens to reflect light. Such designs contribute to heat saving on cold days.
You will be interested to know how to properly care for grapes in summer and autumn.
Shoots are tied to trellises so that the vines do not grow in different directions and do not block the access of light to other stems. Depending on the grape variety, the formation patterns of the bush and trellis, they are fixed horizontally, vertically, in a ring or arc. According to Siberian agricultural standards, garter should be carried out no earlier than the end of spring frosts. In the summer, tying is carried out with a minimum frequency only as necessary.
Pruning is carried out according to the recommendations for the cultivation of individual varieties. However, there are general rules for forming a bush. So, in Siberia pruning is carried out 2 times during the growing season. From the end of summer to the end of September, when the shoots are still green, and the fruits are already taken, weak, damaged and dry vines should be removed. Closer to the winter shelter spend the second pruning. Experienced Siberian winegrowers advise pruning the vine to 5-6 eyes, not afraid to leave long shoots for the winter. In the rest, the formation of the bush is individual and depends on the variety of grapes.
Important! Spring pruning in Siberia is fraught with poor healing of slices due to active sap flow, so you should not resort to it.
Shelter of grapes for the winter
In the conditions of Siberian winters, even frost-resistant varieties need shelter. The procedure should be carried out after the final harvest before the onset of the first frost. Exact dates are determined by grape. Most varieties grown in Siberia are early or mid-early, so you can cover the vines in October. You can remove the shelter in June, when there is no threat of frost.
The procedure for sheltering grapes is as follows:
- Cover the soil with polyethylene or cellophane.
- Bend and lay vines on it.
- Install iron arches over bent shoots.
- Stretch the cellophane film over them.
- Sprinkle the edges of the film with soil.
Viticulture in Siberia is developing successfully. Having studied all the basics of caring for bushes in the north, Siberian gardeners successfully plant vineyards and are content with a rich harvest.