How to grow cranberries from seed at home
One way to plant cranberries in your area is to sow seeds. This method is associated with many features of the culture that should be considered when growing seeds. The following describes the intricacies of planting cranberries at home.
Cranberries - a description of the bush and berries
Garden cranberries grow in the form of a bush weaving on the ground. Shoots are very thin, up to 25-30 cm long. Oblong leaves of dark green color grow on the stems. The average parameters of the leaf plate are 1 cm long, 0.3 cm wide. During flowering, four-petal light pink buds bloom on the bush. Cranberry fruits are rounded red berries with a width in the range of 0.8–1.6 cm.
Cranberry cultivation from seeds
Growing cranberries from seeds is not easy: the method has advantages, but there are also disadvantages. When sowing, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the culture. Planting dates play their role.
The advantages and disadvantages of the method
- There are several benefits to growing cranberries from seeds:
- the opportunity to get seed from a previous crop;
- control over all stages of sowing and transplanting seedlings;
- during breeding work - the possibility of obtaining a new variety.
- The disadvantages of the seed propagation method also have:
- varietal characteristics are not always transmitted;
- the first crop often ripens in 4-5 years after sowing;
- exactingness to all aspects of leaving.
Features of the method
Seed propagation is associated with a number of difficulties. Grains need to be collected and prepared, and crops need to be looked after. After transplanting to a permanent place, the bushes also need constant care. Watering sometimes needs to be done almost daily, and top dressing in the first years is needed every 2 weeks. The culture is sensitive to soil and water - you can not plant and water bushes indiscriminately.
Learn how to plant and care for cranberries in a summer cottage.
Summarizing the features of seed propagation, the following points can be distinguished:
- thorough seed preparation, in particular stratification;
- high acidity requirements;
- the need for acidified water for irrigation;
- obligatory introduction of mineral fertilizing.
Sowing seeds is carried out:
- in summer or autumn after harvest;
- early spring in March.
The most successful is spring planting. Grains are prepared after harvesting and stratified until spring.
Read also about how to properly propagate cranberries.
The technology of seed propagation is as follows: first the seeds are selected, then stratification follows, after which the prepared grains are planted in pots for germinating seedlings. The intricacies of these steps are described below.
Video: an easy way to propagate cranberries with seeds
Cranberries are divided into three main varieties:
- small fruited;
- large fruited.
The selection of seeds depends on the size of the berries. It is advisable to mash small and medium fruits and rinse through a sieve - the softened flesh will leave with the water, but the seeds will remain. Berries of large-fruited varieties, for example, Queen of the Garden, can be cut in half and extract the seeds with tweezers.
Did you know? In the United States and Canada, cranberries are grown with large berries that do not drown in water thanks to special chambers with air. To harvest, planting is poured with water, after which it is easy to collect the berries that have surfaced on the surface.
Regardless of the method of extracting grains, dry them on a saucer before subsequent steps. Depending on varietal characteristics, 10–20 seeds can be obtained from one fruit.
Before planting, it is advisable to stratify the seeds. Planting material is placed in low temperature conditions for a long time. Grains prepared in this way sprout quickly and amicably.
Stratify as follows:
- Mix 4 parts peat and 1 part river sand.
- Pour half of the soil in the box, moisten.
- Place the seeds on top.
- Cover the grains with the remaining half of the sand-peat mixture.
- Place the box in the refrigerator with the set temperature within +3 ... + 7 ° С.
Seeds are stratified for 3 months prior to sowing. After this treatment, remove the seeds from the substrate and clean. Now cranberries can be sown.
Preparing suitable soil for germination
Cranberries love high acid soil. For growth, the culture needs soil with pH values from 3.0 to 5.5. Soil mix can be bought in specialized stores or prepared independently.
Did you know? In the eighteenth century in New England, cranberries were called "bear berry." The culture got its name because it was a favorite treat of local bears.
The substrate should consist of the following components:
- high peat with acidity of 3.5–4.5 - 2 parts;
- crushed pine bark in fractions from 1 to 4 cm - 1 part;
- compost from pine bark - 1 part.
Planting seeds in a germination container
Shallow long pots or boxes are suitable for sowing.
Also read about when the cranberries ripen.
The laying of grains is as follows:
- Tanks are filled with prepared substrate.
- The soil mixture is watered with water until a thick, porridge-like consistency is obtained.
- The seed is laid out on the ground, buried by a maximum of 0.5 cm.
Further, plants need to provide optimal conditions for germination.
Creating and maintaining favorable conditions for germination
Crops are covered with plastic wrap or glass - shelter with transparent material will provide the necessary humidity. Every day, containers must be opened for ventilation and moisten the soil in them from the spray gun. Pots must be placed on the windowsill for a sufficient amount of lighting.
Terms of germination and rooting of seedlings
The first shoots germinate a week after sowing. Mass germination begins after 20 days. By the first decade of May, 2-3 leaves sprout on the seedling, and by mid-May, seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place.
When each seedling grows 2-3 real leaves, seedlings can begin to harden. To do this, the pots are transferred to a cold greenhouse. Hardening lasts 2 weeks. On the first day, the plants are taken out for 1 hour. In the following days, the stay of seedlings is increased by another hour. By the end of the hardening, the seedlings should be out all day.
Important! Despite the fact that under natural conditions the culture grows mainly in swamps, it is undesirable to choose lowlands where water accumulates after rains.
Planting seedlings in a permanent place
For the growth of culture, the quality of the site is very important - a correctly selected and prepared place will ensure successful growth of plants. Landing technology is also important. Together with the correct planting algorithm, the gardener needs to take care of the arrangement of the bushes.
Cranberry bushes prefer flat terrain with good lighting. Groundwater at a height of up to 40 cm is acceptable for shrub growth.
Cranberries are demanding on soil acidity - in a low-acid substrate, plants will grow poorly and bear fruit. However, any type of soil on the site can be adapted for growing crops.
The preparation of ridges is carried out as follows:
- Remove 20 cm of soil.
- Fill the trench with horse peat.
- Sprinkle the area with sulfur at the rate of 50 g per 1 m².
- Mix the soil and tamp.
- Pour out river sand onto a substrate with a layer of 5 cm.
- Moisten the ridge with a mixture of 10 liters of water and 100 ml of apple cider vinegar at a concentration of 9% based on the calculation of a bucket of liquid per 1 m².
Thus acidified plot is ready for planting seedlings.
I advise you to find out what a beak is.
Seedlings are placed with a distance of 20-30 cm.
The landing pattern is as follows:
- Dig up pits 10 cm deep and about 9 cm wide.
- Moisten the seedlings in the pot and carefully remove the seedling. Leave the root system closed.
- Place seedlings in pits and cover with soil.
- Water all the plants.
- Sprinkle the soil with 1 cm of sand.
Care for young plants
Cranberry fruiting is not possible without proper care. The list of necessary procedures for growing crops primarily includes watering and top dressing. All care measures have their own characteristics; they must be closely monitored so as not to destroy the plants.
Cranberries feature - acidic watering. The optimum pH level is 4.0. For acidification, you can use any vinegar essence. The first 14 days after planting, the plants are watered daily.
Important! The acidity level of the water is checked by litmus paper. You can purchase material in garden centers.
Further, the bushes need to be moistened moderately so that the water does not stagnate in the deep layers of the soil - it is enough to maintain the upper part of the soil in a slightly wet state. The frequency of irrigation is affected by air temperature and rainfall. In the heat, you need to irrigate the earth every day.
The culture responds well to top dressing with minerals, which are best applied to top dressing by watering the plants under the root.
The fertilizer scheme depends on the age of the shrub.
|from 4 years|
Chlorine-containing substances should be avoided. In addition, the introduction of organic matter, such as manure and compost, is unacceptable. Cranberry seed propagation is not an easy task, but it is extremely interesting.