How to grow beans at home?
Beans are a favorite delicacy of many; this fruit culture is ideally combined with most products, and is also great for both everyday and festive dishes. That is why novice and experienced growers often try to cultivate this plant right at home, on their own windowsill. From this article you will learn the main features of the cultivation of beans, as well as get acquainted with the basic principles of planting crops.
How to choose a variety for home growing
Today on the market there are a huge number of different types of beans. This plant grows and bears fruit in almost any conditions, which could not but affect the species diversity of the culture.
Many varieties are grown both in greenhouse conditions and in open soil, so often the plant can develop well in room conditions, on a glazed loggia or window sill. However, not all species are conveniently grown in a closed system. Important! Cereal varieties of beans are not suitable for growing on the windowsill, such plants do not give an ovary, which makes the formation of fruits impossible.
There are beans curly, semi-curly and bush. The first two species require garters to support. Although it usually does not exceed 60 cm, for many this brings serious inconvenience, including for owners of small rooms. The most beneficial types of beans will be bush forms, they not only grow well on the windowsill, but also have a short growing season.
An ideal option would be the so-called varieties of asparagus beans. In addition, such plants have a short ripening period, they are undemanding in care and microclimate, which is important for closed growing conditions.
The following varieties are considered the most popular among plant growers:
- Oil king - bears fruit already 2 months after planting, its fruits are tubular in shape, about 20–25 cm long. The resulting crop is excellent for fresh consumption and long-term freezing.
- Caramel is an unpretentious and resistant to the effects of diseases and parasites plant. Fruits are small, but more often of medium size (up to 15 cm in length), characterized by a delicate sweet flavor. The plant is ideal for group growing.
- Saxa - differs in rather miniature dimensions, the total length of the plant does not exceed 40 cm, while the fruits grow on it no more than 10-12 cm in length. The main advantage of the variety is the increased aromatic properties of the fruit, as well as a high content of nutrients in the crop.
Dates of sowing beans
Since this fruit crop is thermophilic, its successful development requires an appropriate temperature regime, as well as the duration of daylight hours. Most often, plant growers germinate its seeds from the second half of February to early March.
In this case, by the middle of spring you will receive full-fledged plantations capable of fruiting soon. But if you plan to grow a crop in an unheated room or on a balcony, you should start sowing seeds no earlier than at the end of May, otherwise the seedlings will instantly freeze out. Did you know? Beans are one of the oldest fruit crops in the world, this plant played a key role in the nutrition of the ancient inhabitants of Peru, Mexico and South America. However, it became known to Europeans only after the second journey of Columbus (end of the 15th century). When growing beans in a heated room, it can be sown at any time of the year, the main thing at the same time is to provide the sprouts with the necessary microclimate and lighting. Thus, a year-round crop can be harvested by alternating sowing of early ripe and late ripening varieties.
To do this, use the seedling method. Young seedlings are obtained from beans, which can later be planted in a permanent large pot.
Despite the fact that an ideal regime and microclimate are created for plants in indoor conditions, they are seriously approaching the preparation of sowing seeds.
When cultivating beans at home, it is imperative to remember that this species, first of all, loves open soil, so even the slightest deviation from the necessary parameters leads to inhibition of the growth of plantations, as well as their fruiting.
Creating an optimal microclimate
It is not difficult to create the necessary conditions for the growth of domestic beans.
Most effectively this plant grows and bears fruit when:
- daily average temperature at +20 ... + 25 ° С;
- humidity about 65%;
- intense lighting for at least 10 hours a day.
You will be interested to know the difference between asparagus and string beans.
Preparation of soil for sowing
Only well-fertilized fertile soils are suitable for growing beans. For this purpose, you can use any purchased substrates from flower shops, but it is best to prepare the soil yourself.
Prepare it on the basis of a mixture of humus and sod land (1: 1). About 10-12 liters of such soil add 200 g of crushed ash, as a source of minerals.
Any substrate for plants is an ideal environment for the growth of all kinds of microflora, as well as the development of pests. As a result, during the development of a plant, they instantly hit it and often seriously deplete, up to death.
To avoid this, both purchased and personally prepared mixtures are disinfected:
- freezing - the soil is kept in the freezer at –20 ...– 25 ° С for 3 days;
- dry heat - the substrate is roasted in the oven for 2 hours, at a temperature of +160 ... + 165 ° C;
- watering - the soil is well watered with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate.
Beans are distinguished by a rather dense and durable peel, in natural conditions it helps to protect the sprout located in the kernel, but in practice it brings a lot of trouble to the gardener. Such seed requires careful preparation, otherwise it will simply rot after getting into the soil. To avoid this, bean sprouts are germinated.
- Pour the beans with 2% potassium permanganate solution for 20 minutes (for disinfection). You can replace it with a 70% alcohol solution.
- Soak the seed in a growth stimulator throughout the day. Use solutions of Zircon, Epin or Energen preparations for this.
- Wrap the beans in a damp cloth and transfer them to a warm place with a temperature of +22 ... + 26 ° С.
- As soon as a small sprout about 0.5 cm long appears on the seed, it becomes suitable for movement into the soil.
Technology and stages of landing
After you have carefully prepared the soil and seeds, you can begin to sow them. For this, they use both common large containers and individual pots made of plastic, metal, glass and other non-toxic materials.
Carry out the procedure as follows:
- Prepare containers for disembarkation. To do this, make a drainage hole in their bottom, lay a drainage layer of gravel or small expanded clay on the bottom, on top of which pour soil and compact it tightly.
- Water pots with soil well, if the substrate settles, add it to the desired level.
- Create indentations in the soil with a depth of about 4 cm and place the sprouted beans in them with the sprout up. If you plant beans in general containers, there should be a distance of at least 15 cm between each plant.
- Fill the seed with soil and firmly compact, while it is necessary to avoid damage to the sprout.
- Cover the flowerpots with clear plastic wrap or glass, and then transfer them to a warm, well-lit area.
- After the seedlings enter phase 2 of these leaves, remove the shelter.
After rooting the sprouts, you need to provide them with daily care. First of all, this concerns the correct water regime, since the plant requires moderate, but frequent watering. The soil is moistened as it dries, after the appearance of a dry crust on it with a thickness of 2-3 cm.
Horse irrigation is considered the most optimal for this, while moisture should not fall on the green mass, because this will cause damage to the crops with fungi. Only clean, warmed up to room temperature water is used for the procedure.
Beans should be provided with additional illumination, especially during short daylight hours or in cloudy weather. Do this using a special garden or desk lamp, so that daylight hours are at least 10 hours a day. The light source is installed at a distance of at least 30 cm from the plants, otherwise excessively intense lighting can cause burns of green mass. Important! Nitrogenous substances for feeding beans are prohibited, since they activate the growth of shoots and leaves, which inhibits the formation of fruits. Beans do not need top dressing, however, this measure will help increase crop productivity, as well as its early maturity. They use complex mineral fertilizers based on phosphorus or potassium (potassium nitrate, nitrophosphate, superphosphate). The first feeding is carried out when the plants reach the phase of 4 leaves, and then 1-2 times a month.
Pest and Disease Control
Although homemade beans are grown far from the natural environment, plantings can often be affected by all kinds of pests and infections. There can be many reasons for this: from spreading them naturally to errors in care. That is why every plant grower who cultivates beans at home should be sure to know about them and how to eliminate them.
Of the parasites, aphids, thrips and bean grains can often be found. Fight them with any complex insecticide. The most popular drug is Fitoverm, which is used in any phase of development, since the crop after processing is suitable for food after 48 hours.
Among the diseases most often in beans, viral bacteriosis and anthracnose can be diagnosed. To eliminate them, the affected plants are treated with a solution of "Fitosporin" or "Zircon". For preventive purposes, the treatment is carried out twice, with an interval of 14 days, before flowering.
Depending on the variety, the first fruits of domestic beans are harvested 2–4 months after sowing the beans. With spring cultivation of the plant, this period begins in mid-May. Find out for sure that beans are protein or carbohydrates. In the case of cascade cultivation, crop yields can be observed almost throughout the whole year. Harvested immediately, until complete ripening, so as not to lose the taste of beans.
Of course, beans can be called one of the most useful crops known to man. The fruits of the plant are rich in many vitamins and minerals, and in nutrition they can easily compete with meat. It’s easy to grow culture, even on your own windowsill. The main thing at the same time is to provide beans with proper lighting, temperature and water conditions.