How to fertilize the earth in the fall under strawberries?
Strawberries can grow in different conditions. But knowing when and how to fertilize the soil under strawberries will help to get a more abundant crop. In addition, plants that feed are more healthy and less susceptible to pest attacks. About how and when to fertilize strawberry plants, read on in the article.
Is autumn strawberry nutrition needed?
Fertilizers play an important role in the growth of strawberries. And their main work takes place long before fruiting. Therefore, nutrients must be introduced when they are necessary for laying the fruit buds, the formation of fruits, or the development of the plant itself.
Important! Strawberries are a weak nutrient consumer. If you overfeed it, then the bushes will actively develop, but not bear fruit. An excess of fertilizer also leads to the development of fruit rot.
During the growing season, 3 dressings are considered:
Autumn is required so that the bushes weakened by fruiting have time to get food and meet the winter prepared. Also in the fall, flower buds of the future crop are laid, and top dressing will contribute to their formation. Application time is September. Be sure to do this after fruiting.
Spring is needed in order to provide the plant with nutrients for growth, development and fruiting. A summer must be held to give the fruits gain maximum weight.
How to fertilize strawberries in the fall?
Whenever you plant strawberries, they must receive fertile soil for growth and development . Soil should be mixed with organic fertilizers if it is not fertile enough. As such, peat, compost, well-rotted manure, and other organic substances can be used. They gradually power outlets, creating a sustainable growth environment.
If you are applying mineral fertilizers, then you will need about 200-400 g of balanced fertilizer for every 10 m² of area. Mineral dressings include basic: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as excipients: manganese, zinc, copper and others.
We recommend reading our electronic magazine about growing strawberries.
If the soil is acidified, ground limestone or dolomite flour is added 6 months before planting. In addition, dolomite limestone contains calcium and magnesium, which are necessary to maintain soil health.
The acidity level of the soil under the strawberries should be between 6.0 and 6.3 pH.
Landing is done in ridges. They use a spatula to prepare landing holes in which mineral fertilizers can be applied. It should be nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a ratio of 10-20-20. The numbers indicate the percentage of a substance in the composition.
Important! Lime or dolomite should be buried in the soil to a depth of 30 cm, which is an effective use zone for the roots of strawberry plants.
6 weeks after planting, the plants may need an additional portion of fertilizer. Especially if they show weak growth. Regardless of the variety, 200 g of ammonium nitrate is required for 9–10 m² of area. Its main substance is nitrogen. It is necessary to enhance the vegetation. This top dressing is also important in the spring for those plants that have been growing on the site for a long time, as well as for those that have been transplanted.
To prepare for the winter
Annual fertilizers are usually applied in late summer or autumn. For this, balanced universal compositions are used. For example, 10-10-10 or 12-12-12. In the first year, 400 g of fertilizer is applied to a 50-meter row of plants. And in the second year - this amount is increased by 2 times. Fertilizers must be dissolved in water so that they are absorbed faster.
We recommend you to read: pollination of strawberries at home.
What fertilizers to use?
In the process of growth and development, strawberries receive nutrients from the soil and convert them into plant tissues using solar energy. Nutrient deficiency is expressed in poor development of rosettes, small leaves, poor harvest. In addition, after harvesting, the plant is depleted, as is the soil. For good fruit formation for the next year, strawberries must be fed.
The main nutrients are nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus. They are contained both in substances of organic and inorganic origin. Organic matter is usually represented by solids, and inorganic dressings are produced in granular or liquid form.
Whatever type of fertilizer you choose, be sure to follow the dosage instructions. Most plants suffer from excess nutrients. Each type of fertilizer has its own specifics.
- The peculiarity of organic fertilizers is that they:
- gradually released;
- affect plants for longer;
- contain more components than inorganic.
Inorganic are used if you need to urgently feed the plants. They are quickly absorbed. They can be supplied in the form of complex fertilizers or just one substance.
Did you know? Strawberries belong to the Rosaceae family. Therefore, next to the strawberry bed, you will definitely feel a bright berry aroma.
Organism is everything that plants or animals produce:
- green fertilizers;
- bird droppings;
- meat and bone meal;
- fish emulsion and other compounds.
They are suitable for any soil and plants. In the first year after application, approximately half of the nutrients in the fertilizer are consumed. And after 2 years, such dressing must be renewed.
Bird droppings are one of the varieties of organic fertilizers. It is extremely saturated with nitrogen, potassium, calcium and phosphorus. Its components will affect the composition of the soil 3 years after application. Since this is a very concentrated substance, it is not directly introduced into the soil. To accelerate the process of decomposition of organics, fermentation or infusion of a substance in water is used. Both methods are equally common.
Dilute the litter with water in a ratio of 1:20 and let stand. You can feed the plants, again diluting it with water in a ratio of 1: 5. Bird droppings can be mixed with other components: sawdust, green mass.
All of them are used as root dressing. When watering, be sure that the mixture does not fall on the leaves. The first feeding is recommended at the time of flowering and the formation of ovaries. The second - 1-1.5 months after the first. The third - in the fall. Make a composition of 1 liter under each bush.
Did you know? Strawberries can be grown in containers attached to the ceiling. This method has recently become increasingly popular.
Mullein is manure obtained from cattle. It is one of the most common organic top dressings. To apply it, you need to allow the substance to mature for at least 6 months after its "receipt".
Such aged manure is diluted with water 1:10, allowed to infuse, and also introduced as root top dressing. Application rate under 1 bush: 1 l. Since there is more nitrogen in all types of manure, it is often supplemented with a glass of ash per 10 l of water and 50-60 g of superphosphate. They provide the flow of potassium and phosphorus to the roots.
Slurry is prepared from mullein. To do this, it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 4. The mixture is placed in heat for fermentation. After 3-4 days, uric acid should be released in the solution and react, making it safer. You can add 1 glass of ash to the composition. Immediately before watering, dilute the mixture with water in a ratio of 1: 8.
Mineral fertilizers are divided into:
We recommend learning about the treatment of strawberries with boric acid during flowering.
Potash is represented by potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate. These are compounds, one of the components of which is potassium. It is necessary to improve metabolism in plant tissues. Potassium also enhances disease resistance. Ash is a natural source of this substance.
Phosphoric ones are ammophos, superphosphate and others. Phosphates are absorbed extremely long. Therefore, phosphorus fertilizers are added regularly in order to ensure the yield of the next season and to support plants in this season.
Nitrous - represented by ammonium nitrate and urea. Plants need nitrogen to form leaves and develop roots. Therefore, it is introduced at the beginning of the growing season. Spring fertilizing with mineral fertilizers can be organized as follows: "Aminokat" and "Kelik" 25 ml per 10 liters of water.
Aminokat is an anti-stress stimulant that activates the processes of plant recovery after wintering with unfavorable temperatures. It consists of amino acids involved in the growing process. It also has a small amount of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen: 1-1-3.
Mineral fertilizer Kelik is a source of potassium. It contains 50%. This is a modern drug, which, in contrast to the more famous old counterparts, has a longer duration and better protects the plant from fungal diseases. Follow the dosage standard on the packaging.
Root top dressing is carried out with Calcinite (20 mg / 10 L) or Atlanta with 50 ml / 10 L of water. Calcinite is composed of calcium and nitrogen. It is applied to any crops, but it should not be mixed with other fertilizers containing phosphorus. Otherwise, the substances will react, forming insoluble compounds that will not be absorbed by the roots.
Important! The fruiting of strawberry sockets lasts about 5 years.
Atlanta is a drug that contains phosphorus and potassium, as well as a number of other components. It optimizes the water balance of the plant and increases its resistance to adverse environments. Use one of the drugs, depending on which trace elements your strawberry bed lacks.
Spring top dressing is necessary to increase leaf and root mass. This provides a high fruiting potential and the prevention of putrefactive processes or those caused by soil fungi. During the ripening period, the same substances are used, but their volume of application is increased.
So, "Atlanta" or "Kelik" is recommended to be used as part of 30-50 mg per 10 liters of water. “Calcinite” - 20 mg / 10 l. In this period, top dressing contributes to the weight gain of fruits, improve their quality, and also supports resistance to disease. Spend autumn top dressing with Atlanta to improve the laying of fruit buds and increase resistance to frost.
Wood ash is a source of potassium. It is introduced in spring and summer during fruiting. It can be scattered between the rows and then it will also become a means of protection against some pests, or add ash when making liquid root dressings. On 1 m². a bucket of liquid and 0.5-1 cups of ash are enough.
Did you know? The ancient Romans used strawberries to treat everything in the world, from depression to fever and sore throats.
Nitrogen deficiency turns the leaves yellow to light to intense. Most often, the lower leaves acquire such a color. The plant slows growth, its foliage becomes smaller. This condition is ensured not only by the absence of phosphorus in the soil, but also by the stagnation of water due to which nutrients are not absorbed. Therefore, first remove excess moisture.
If it is not, then plants are fed with ammonium nitrate or urea in accordance with the instructions for the nitrogen-containing drug. If it is possible to check the chemical composition of the soil, then the nitrogen norm in it is from 2 to 4%. The soil is often tested before planting, in order to understand what top dressing needs to be done.
If the outer edge of the leaf darkens on the leaves, and then the darkening spreads along the veins on the leaf, then you need to feed the plants with potassium. Darkening will spread over the entire leaf plate, which will lead to leaf falling. The range of potassium sufficiency in the soil for strawberries is from 1.5 to 2.5%.
How to fertilize: step by step instructions
The purpose of strawberry fertilizer is to provide it with all the nutrients necessary for normal development.
- To do this, you need to know the amount of nutrients that the plant needs in order to:
- build up green mass;
- maintain current activity;
- create fruits.
If the site is used by several types of plants, then when root top dressing, you need to make as much as they are required according to the instructions for the drug for this culture.
Important! Leaf feeding is optional. They are carried out only when there is a problem with the absorption of nutrients from the soil.
For strawberries, the following should be considered:
- Its root system is quite small. ~ 70% of the roots are located in the upper 7 cm of soil.
- A plant may suffer from salt water or watering with chlorine. Therefore, water for irrigation and top dressing is upheld for a day.
- Differentiation of flower buds depends on the nutrient reserves of the plant and occurs immediately after the harvest.
- Soil nutrient intake is maximized during flowering.
Basic fertilizer application: 3 times during the growing season. But weekly top dressing with small doses of mineral fertilizers is also used. To do this, you need to divide the rate of the substance per season by the number of top dressings.
Extra care in the fall
Strawberries grow best when there is enough space between plants. But the tendrils that it releases can thicken the site or not be in those places where you would like to. Therefore, the beds are inspected to determine which plants need to be moved or removed.
Read also about the features of growing strawberries in greenhouses all year round.
- Plants that have signs of rotting or are poorly developed are removed.
- Transplant healthy outlets to expand an existing bed or create new ones.
- Strawberries must be watered well in the fall. It is at this time that the buds are laying and the plant needs irrigation.
- If the region has cold winters, the bed is mulched. It can be straw, wood chips, needles or sawdust. Layer thickness - 3-4 cm. Avoid manure and hay. Manure will “burn” plants, and hay will bring an excellent weed crop in spring! Be sure to wait until the ground freezes before mulching the bed. Early application of mulch can cause root rot.
- In severe frosts, gardeners close the plantings with a film cover. But do not leave it for a long time, as this will lead to addiction to heat and subsequent temperature shock.
- Selective pruning is also performed by removing old plants. This should stimulate the development of young outlets and the laying of kidneys. Small weakened plants with reduced bearing must be removed.
- At the end of August, old leaves are cut.
- In autumn, at the beginning of September or the end of August, the last mineral top dressing is introduced.
Video: How to fertilize strawberries in the fall.
Fortunately, strawberries are a pretty hardy plant. She tolerates winter well. And it will provide you with a crop for the next year if you follow the simple rules for caring for it.