How to care for grapes in the middle lane

Having decided to acquire a vineyard in the middle lane, experienced gardeners of these latitudes most often opt for frost-resistant varieties that can tolerate fairly cold winters normally. The modern selection of breeding varieties and their hybrids is quite large, therefore, this article provides general recommendations on how to grow grapes in the middle lane in open ground, which will help novice gardeners get a good harvest.

How to choose healthy seedlings when buying

The choice of a seedling is a very important point, since it depends on a successful acquisition whether it will be possible to plant a good vineyard and whether it will be able to produce a worthy crop in the future.

You can make a purchase:

  • in the nursery;
  • in a large farm specializing in growing grapes;
  • at breeders.

Do you know Currently, there are over 10 thousand grape varieties, and this is a record among cultivated plants.

Before acquiring inexperienced gardeners, it is best to inspect the vineyard bush, see how it bears fruit, find out about the features of its cultivation. It is better to opt for unpretentious varieties of autumn harvesting, since such cuttings are more hardy.

The choice of vine depends on many factors:

  1. First of all, you should carefully examine it. It must be properly trimmed, have a healthy appearance, without damage. It is better to make a purchase in nurseries, where the harvesting of planting material occurs in accordance with the correct technology.
  2. The shoot shoot should be brown, which will be a confirmation of its ripened state. The cut should have a green color, since a darker color will inform about the unsuitability of planting material.
  3. If there are leaves on a seedling, their plate should have a smooth and clean appearance, without dents or bulges, which can be a sign of disease.

The quality of seedlings is determined by their variety:

  • elite - have 4 or more roots, the thickness at the base is 2 mm, the length of the mature growth is 25 cm with a thickness at the base of more than 5 mm;
  • the first - they have several shoots, with one of them ripened by 20 cm or more. Roots at least 4 and they are evenly spaced around the circumference; the thickness of half of them in the stem should be 2 mm or more;
  • the second - they have 3 growth nodes and two matured roots at the base of the stem, and in all other respects they are inferior to the first grade;
  • substandard - are deprived of mature growths and are rejected, or are grown further.

Rules and secrets of landing

Compliance with planting technology is a key point in the process of vine development and crop cultivation.

The main landing rules are:

  • in choosing the right place for growing grapes;
  • in the performance of work in a suitable period for this, when weather conditions have the most favorable effect on the adaptation of the seedling in the open ground and its rooting;
  • in compliance with the rules for planting grape cuttings.

When to plant

You can plant the vine in spring and autumn.

Spring planting is carried out in the following dates:

  • from March to May lignified cuttings are planted, harvested from the growth of the stem and are at rest;
  • from May to June there is a planting of vegetative, green cuttings.

In southern, warm regions, it is recommended that you plant vines in the fall.

Important! If, after the acquisition, it is not possible to immediately plant the cuttings, it is necessary to create the correct storage conditions for them: wind them up with a wet cloth. In wet matter, they will be able to maintain their freshness for a week, after which they will need to be planted in moist soil.

Where to plant on the site

When choosing a site for planting grape bushes, you need to pay attention to the following factors:

  • soil condition;
  • Illumination of the site;
  • groundwater availability.

Different grapes are suitable for grapes.

He can be:

  • sandy;
  • sandy loam;
  • loamy;
  • clayey;
  • black earth;
  • mixed with stones and organics.

However, it is worth knowing that the soil should be:

  1. Loose, air- and permeable. If the soil contains a lot of clay, you should worry about good drainage.
  2. Nutritious. If it is sandy soil, high-quality fertilizers and manure are added to it.
  3. With an acidity level not lower than pH 6. To correct this indicator, you can use lime.
  4. Not salty, which can affect the quality of the crop.

To fertilize the soil in the middle lane are often used:

  • peat;
  • humus;
  • dry leaves.

Important! The vineyard does not tolerate high humidity.

The method of planting also depends on the type of soil, so experts recommend planting seedlings in trenches on sandy soil. If the soil is loam or clay, and there is also a close occurrence of groundwater in a given area, it is better to choose a ridge planting and ensure high-quality drainage.

It is not recommended to plant:

  • in marshland;
  • in the lowland;
  • in areas with close occurrence of groundwater;
  • on the northern slopes.

The amount of sunlight is very important for the taste characteristics of the crop and for the development of the grape bush. Grapes love the abundance of light and the southern, western or south-western side, hidden from strong gusts of wind, is suitable for it.

Grapes can be planted both on the hillsides and along the southern wall of the house, fence or hedge.

Near should not be:

  • large trees;
  • bushes;
  • maize;
  • tomatoes.

  • Good neighbors of a grape bush can be:
  • cucumbers
  • onion;
  • beet;
  • peas;
  • Strawberry.

The predecessors of grapes that favorably affect the composition of the soil include fruit trees, mustard and oats. On the site of the former vineyard, it is best to plant vegetables, grass, or plant a flower garden.

How to plant seedlings

To adapt the seedlings in the open field, it is recommended to carry out preplant planting, which involves:

  • for 1-2 days, the roots of the planting material are soaked in clean water;
  • a shoot of 1 year old is cut at the level of 3-4 eyes;
  • the roots are cut off on the upper nodes, on the lower they are slightly shortened;
  • immediately before planting, the roots are treated in a solution of 2 volumes of clay and 1 volume of rotted mullein.

Planting a seedling is carried out according to the following agricultural technology:

  1. Dig a hole for planting according to the size of the rhizome. Depth, first of all, depends on the climate of a given area, or rather, on the degree of soil cooling during the wintering period. The stronger the frosts, the deeper it is necessary to plant, because if the planting is too superficial, the grapes can freeze. Also, the depth of the depression should depend on the composition of the soil: in chernozem or clay soil - about 80 cm, in the sand - a little deeper. The width and length of the pit should also be about a meter in diameter. Deep planting allows the roots to adapt and take root faster.
  2. It should be borne in mind that the requirement applicable to fruit trees is not applicable for grapes: “dig a seedling to the level of the root neck”. The so-called root neck, that is, the place where the roots go into the vine stem, is present only in grape seedlings, but seedlings that were grown from vine cuttings do not have it. Because of this, the "planting depth" of the seedling means the depth of the location of the bulk of the roots.
  3. When planting a number of grape bushes, the peculiarities of their growth should be taken into account: weak- growing trees plant at a distance of 1.3–1.5 m from each other; medium-sized - 1.5–2 m; vigorous - 2-3 m.
  4. The bottom of the pit is covered with drainage, which is best served as gravel, broken brick or gravel, on top of it they cover with branches and planks, and on them form a mound of dug up earth mixed with fertilizers.
  5. A small plastic tube with a diameter of 5 cm is inserted into the pit at a distance of 10 cm from the edge of the pit. Its height should be such that it rises above the surface of the earth at the level of 10-15 cm after planting a seedling. It will continue to serve for irrigation to the very roots and improve drainage. If the soil is light, it passes water well and the amount of precipitation in the growing region is sufficient, then there is no need to insert a drainage tube.
  6. The roots are treated in a solution of clay and mullein, the shoots are cut into several buds and treated with melted paraffin.
  7. Place the seedling on an earthen hill in a hole and straighten its roots, then cover them with the remains of fertilized soil and lightly tamp.
  8. Pour the planted stalk with warm water.
  9. Cover the hole with mulch or rotted manure.

Depending on the grape variety and the features of its cultivation, recommendations for planting, the depth of the planting hole or trench, fertilizers of the planted cuttings, etc. may differ slightly, which is best learned when buying a seedling in a nursery or grape farm.

When planting grapes in the spring, it is recommended to prepare the planting pit in advance, back in the fall, so that the soil is slightly settled. It is recommended to lay a layer of fertilizers on the drainage layer, which includes a layer of chernozem, then potash and superphosphate fertilizing, which can be replaced with ash, and then another layer of chernozem.

Such a fertile pillow should be moistened and may wait for spring planting. After planting a seedling in the open ground in early spring, it is covered with black garden foil, making a hole for the seedling itself and the tube.

You can also create a warmer microclimate - this can be done with the help of a large plastic container that is worn on top of the seedling.

Important! Abundant fertilization of the soil in the planting pit can damage young roots.

A feature of the autumn planting is the need to well insulate the seedling before the onset of frost, for which they take the following actions:

  • high up with earth;
  • cover with needles or mulch;
  • covered with sawdust and peat.

The landing pit should also not be fresh; it is better to prepare it a few weeks before the intended landing.

It should be noted that vineyards aged 5 years or more do not transplant in the middle lane, since this is a very time-consuming process and it will be difficult for the plant to adapt in a new place. If the vineyard is younger, it is transplanted only in the spring.

Care Tips

Beginning gardeners should be aware that growing grape care is seasonal.

In spring, both young and already mature bushes require the following procedures:

  • removal of weed plants that have broken through the bush;
  • loosening of the topsoil to improve aeration and better warming of all soil layers;
  • preventive irrigation of vines with bordeaux solution to improve the vegetation process.

In the spring, grapes are vaccinated, before the sap flow begins.

In summer, grapes need pinching to prevent excess growth of the bush above 170 cm. In July, the intensive appearance and growth of berries begins, and therefore, the plant begins to need more moisture and nutrition.

Watering on these sultry days must be done with warm water that has been left standing for several days. Young bushes can be watered even hot. At air temperatures above 30 ° C, the bushes are “sprinkled”, irrigating them and increasing the humidity, which will help them breathe normally and survive dry times.

Important! Watering grapes cease 3 weeks before harvest.

Just as grapes need water during the heat, they also need top dressing.

It may consist of:

  • potassium sulfate;
  • complex fertilizer;
  • fermented grass;
  • water.

Such a nutritious cocktail will be especially useful for young bushes and old ones, the soil of which is already exhausted. It should be noted that fertilizers must be warmed up under the rays of the sun before application until they become warm.

In early grape varieties, the harvest of which can be harvested already in July, it is recommended to pick leaves that are next to the bunches so that the sun's rays can easily reach the berries, and during ripening they acquire a beautiful appearance.

Learn more about how to care for grapes in summer and autumn.

Care for grapes in August is:

  • in the harvest;
  • in pinching, removing apical buds at the ends of shoots, which allows to improve the ripening of grapes, as well as to begin the process of preparing the bush for winter;
  • in minting, removal of the tops of grape shoots grown to the upper wire. As a result, about 15 leaves and 10-15 buds should remain on one shoot. As a rule, lignification of green bark and acceleration of ripening of late grape varieties depend on this process;
  • watering should be moderate, it is necessary at very hot temperatures in a small volume;
  • top dressing is carried out in conjunction with irrigation, by preparing a potassium-phosphorus solution.

Autumn grape care in September depends on the grape variety.

If it belongs to the late species and the crop has not yet been harvested, then care for the bush will consist of such procedures:

  • watering and top dressing;
  • pruning and bush formation;
  • prevention of pests and diseases.

Watering should be done as necessary, as excessive irrigation will make the grape crop perishable.

If the crop has already been harvested, it's time to start preparing the bush for wintering. The bush has already given a lot of effort to carry fruit, so you need to take care of the introduction of organic fertilizers or mulching, as well as the preventive treatment of vines against diseases and pests.

After falling of all the foliage, autumn care involves the formation of a bush.

In addition, novice gardeners should know:

  • the number of bunches on one vine should not exceed 5-6 pieces;
  • during the period of active vegetation, when the grapes are actively ripening, the plant needs additional fertilizing in the form of fertilizers;
  • during the formation of the kidneys, the soil can be fed with a solution of magnesium sulfate, which will have a beneficial effect on the formation of the vineyard.

Important! When the grapes begin to sing and stain, watering must be stopped.


It is necessary to water the vineyard without fail during this period:

  • in the spring, when the winter shelter is removed. This watering should be plentiful enough, about four buckets of water, with the addition of organic fertilizing;
  • 7-10 days before the appearance of flowering on the bush;
  • at the end of flowering;
  • 7-10 days before the shelter of the vineyard for the winter.

Bushes under the age of 3 years are watered through a pipe dug in a hole. In summer, in cool and rainy weather, irrigation is performed 2 times, in hot and arid conditions - 4 times.

Abundant watering of bushes can lead to stagnation of moisture at the roots, they can begin to rot or may become sick with fungal diseases.

Learn how to water grapes correctly in the summer.

Care for grapes in the first year of planting is as follows:

  • break off green shoots, stepsons, preventing their weaving in the branches;
  • pruning begins after its first bearing;
  • it is possible to remove flowering in order to prevent the appearance of berries, so that the plant puts forth all its forces to form a powerful bush, and not to bear fruit in the first year;
  • garter of the main shoots.

Fertilizer application

When forming the landing pit after the drainage layer, it is recommended to create a nutrient layer, the composition of which was described above. This mineral nutrition is enough for the bush for several years. With the beginning of the fifth year of growth, when the bush is already formed and successfully bearing fruit, in early spring, mineral nutrition should be introduced into the grooves around the bushes.

To do this, use:

  • ammonium nitrate;
  • urea
  • granular superphosphate (double or single);
  • potassium salt;
  • potassium chloride;
  • potassium sulfate.

Such mineral preparations may also be used:

  • "Ecoplant";
  • "Mortar";
  • "Kemira";
  • "Florovit";
  • "Master".

Before flowering, the plant is also fed with a liquid organic solution from:

  • chicken droppings;
  • Mullein
  • phosphates;
  • potash fertilizer.

And already with the beginning of the ripening of the crop, the earth is fertilized with potash-phosphorus fertilizing. Further, the nutrition of the bush occurs as necessary, controlling the signs of a shortage of certain minerals, with further replenishment of this deficit.

Also, recharge can occur not under the root of the bush, but by treating the plant with fungicides to combat mildew. If ready-made complex products are used for these purposes, they already contain a number of mineral components necessary for the plant.

It should be careful when applying nitrogen fertilizing, since their use is relevant only until the middle of the summer season, so as not to delay the ripening of the crop.

Fertilizing should be planned and regulated, not be spontaneous and not be excessively plentiful.

Did you know? The total area of ​​vineyards on the planet is about 80 thousand km². The harvest they bring is used in winemaking (71%), as a fresh food product (27%) and 2% of the total volume goes to the production of dried fruits.


When forming a landing pit, it is necessary to consider the possibility of creating a support, which can serve as:

  • special design;
  • nearby fence;
  • wall of the house.

If we are talking about the construction of a special structure on which the vine will continue to curl, then it should have several longitudinal tiers with an interval distance between transverse crossbars of 50 cm. Therefore, the support should be in the form of a staircase.

It should be noted that when planting, the seedling should be installed with a slight slope, at an angle to the support.

Shoot garter

The vine is tied to a support for proper formation, as well as to make it convenient to care for the bush and harvest.

Garter occurs twice:

  • dry garter occurs in early spring. This procedure is performed as soon as the winter shelter is removed from the bush before the buds appear on the vine: the branches are tilted to the lower transverse crossbeam and tied up. Подвязывание должно быть плавным, без сильного усилия над лозой и её изгиба, чтобы обеспечить поступление питания и не перекрыть его;
  • зелёная подвязка происходит в тот момент, когда зелёные побеги лозы достигнут длины 40 см. Молодые побеги подвязываются таким образом, чтобы они находились под наклоном к опоре, что позволит им получать хорошее освещение и предотвратит излом под силой ветра.

По достижении следующей поперечной перекладины опоры, побеги крепятся к ней. Всего за период вегетации подвязка происходит 3-4 раза.

Important! Подвязка молодого побега к проволоке производится между 2 и 3 почкой, считая от конца, исключив крепление за верхнее междоузлие.

Кроме горизонтального под наклоном, самого популярного и удобного, по мнению большинства садоводов, способа подвязки, существуют ещё и такие:

  • по дуге;
  • кольцеобразное;
  • строго перпендикулярно.

Для подвязки рекомендуется использовать:

  • мочало, обработанное в воде;
  • канат из проволоки, окутанный бумагой.

Крепление производят в виде «восьмёрки», пропуская материал для сцепки между металлом и стеблем. Это защитит лозу от истирания о проволоку.

Soil care

В течение летнего сезона необходимо производить прополку грунта, его рыхление. Это позволяет улучшить аэрацию почвы и её способность пропускать влагу. После посадки, а также после обильного полива, рекомендуется проводить мульчирование посадочной лунки, что позволит сохранить влагу в почве на более длительное время.

Мульчирование также используется для укрытия корней на зиму.

В случае если корни виноградника оголились, их необходимо укрыть землёй, чтобы они не пересохли.

Профилактическая обработка против болезней и вредителей

Существует большое количество заболеваний, поражающих виноград, среди которых следует выделить:

  • anthracnose;
  • oidium;
  • mildew;
  • black spotting;
  • alternariosis;
  • bacterial cancer;
  • apoplexy;
  • вертициллёз;
  • армилляриоз;
  • белая, серая, чёрная, кислая и корневая гниль;
  • диплодиоз;
  • Fusarium
  • пенициллёз;
  • bacteriosis;
  • церкоспориоз;
  • хлороз.

Страдать куст может и от различных вредителей, среди которых можно выделить такие виды:

  • phylloxera;
  • блошка виноградная;
  • pads;
  • mining moth;
  • виноградный комарик;
  • goldfish;
  • odoriferous odoriferous;
  • клещи — паутинный, войлочный, европейский красный;
  • tick;
  • листовретки: двулетная и гроздевая;
  • осы;
  • thrips;
  • mealybugs;
  • цикады.

Вам также полезно будет узнать, зачем и как правильно применять железный купорос и пищевую соду для винограда.

Следует отметить, что нельзя гарантированно обезопасить куст от болезней или вредителей, однако ухоженный куст имеет больше шансов противостоять их губительному влиянию.

Профилактика очень важна в процессе выращивания винограда, поскольку она призвана спасти от инфекции здоровые ткани растения, уничтожая очаг инфицирования, но не лечит уже заражённые участки. Эта работа должна проводиться систематически. Особый контроль за состоянием растения должен проводиться при нарушении условий выращивания.

К примеру, при повышенной влажности воздуха, появлении ранней росы и при дождливом периоде виноградной лозе следует уделить внимание и обработать куст многоцелевым раствором, или жидкостью против появления фитофтороза, оидиума и милдью.

Весенняя профилактика включает обработку для укрепления иммунитета против войлочного клеща и грибков.

Здесь применяют:

  • бордоскую жидкость 3%;
  • коллоидную серу 1%;
  • хлорокись меди;
  • специальные препараты «Полихом» или «Ридомил» согласно инструкции.

Вторая профилактическая обработка производится до появления цветения на лозе при помощи системного фунгицида, к примеру, «Строби».

Затем повторное использование тех же фунгицидов происходит после цветения.

В момент появления виноградных «горошин» обработка куста производится при помощи:

  • бордоской жидкости,
  • хлорокиси меди;
  • коллоидной серы.

Далее профилактика производится в конце июля препаратами, эффективными в борьбе с милдью и оидиумом.

Осенняя обработка производится после опадания листьев медьсодержащими препаратами для профилактики появления грибковых спор.


В средней полосе процедура обрезки должна производиться два раза в год:

  • осенняя — более основательная и предполагает подготовку куста к зимовке, укрытию на зиму;
  • весенняя — заключается в удалении отмёрзших и засохших побегов, появившихся после раскрытия винограда после того, как он перезимовал.

В процессе роста виноградной лозы производят регулярный контроль формирования куста, прищипывая побеги, подвергая его пасынкованию и чеканке с целью улучшения питания лозы и увеличения урожайности.

Обрезка лозы первого года заключается в максимальном удалении боковых пасынков и её правильном формировании до наступления холодов. Во второй год роста производится обрезка верхушки ростка в самом начале весны, до появления почек.

На третий год для формирования плодоносной лозы оставляют только два побега, один из которых будет плодоносным, а другой — побегом замещения.

Для обрезки используют секатор, которым производят срез под углом 45˚ на расстоянии 1-2 см выше почки. Место среза ничем не обрабатывают.

Winter preparations

Сорта со слабой морозостойкостью, как и молодые кусты, требуют защиты на зимний период.

Для этого производят:

  • окучивание землёй основания кустарников;
  • обрезку лозы для того, чтобы её можно было пригнуть к земле и накрыть лапником или сугробом.

Начало подготовительных работ приходится на конец октября, когда проводят:

  1. Обрезку куста.
  2. Снятие лозы со шпалер.
  3. Лёгкое связывание лозы в пучки.
  4. Укладывание.

Для покрытия лозы на зимний период можно использовать:

  • fir spruce branches;
  • slate;
  • plywood;
  • толстый слой мульчи;
  • слой земли;
  • снежный сугроб.

Многие современные сорта винограда, а в частности гибридные, могут переносить понижение температуры до -25°C, поэтому не нуждаются в укрытии на зиму.

Выращивание винограда — трудоёмкая и хлопотная работа, которая предполагает поэтапное выполнение определённых процедур по выбору и посадке саженцев, уходу за виноградной лозой с соблюдением правильной технологии полива, обрезки, прищипывания, внесения удобрений и профилактической обработки. От выполнения всех этих условий зависит качество и объём будущего урожая.

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