How to care for grapes in autumn?
After the grape harvest, the plants need rest and replenishment. Autumn care includes a number of measures that contribute to improving the winter hardiness of plants and increasing crop yields in subsequent years. On how to properly prepare the vineyard for winter, read below.
Basic rules for the care of grapes in autumn
During the period of active vegetation, plants give all their strength to the formation of green mass, flowering and fruiting. In the summer, moisture is rarely applied to the soil to avoid the spread of fungal spores and pests, which progress in a warm, humid environment. In August, when there is a peak in the return of juices to fruits, there is no watering at all, therefore, first of all, in September-October, it is necessary to fill the lack of moisture.
Important! The active movement of juice in the vines of grapes begins only with an increase in the average daily temperature and warming the soil to + 10 ° C, before which the plant remains in sleep mode. If in summer the temperature drops sharply to + 5 ° C, the plants will fall into a state of suspended animation.
After removing the fruit from the branches, no events are held for 1-2 weeks. Plants are simply left alone so that they can restore nutrition on their own, taking away the remains of useful elements from the soil. It is important to consider that photosynthesis is still ongoing during this period, so you should wait until the foliage falls off on its own.
What events need to be held
How to care for a vineyard in the fall, largely depends on the age of the plants.
- water-charging irrigation;
- application of root dressings;
- preventive treatment against diseases and pests;
- shelter construction.
In order to have a good harvest next year, it is necessary to carry out winter pruning of the vine and katarovka of dew roots. The procedure will be different for plants planted in the spring, and those that have already wintered on the site. Autumn pruning of fruiting grapes is carried out on the 10-15th day from the moment of shedding all the leaves. On the main shoots, all stepsons formed during the summer period are removed. Next to set the trellis on 2 tiers for tying lashes, after removing the shelter in the spring.
You will also be interested to know how to prune grapes correctly in spring.
The reserve branches are removed, and 2 eyes are left on the trunk, which in the future will form the shoulders. The remaining upper shoots are removed by 3 cm. The growth point is shortened to the desired length. From the fourth year of plant life, the sleeves are shortened, leaving a pair of developed shoots that are located at a distance of 15–20 cm from each other. From the fifth year of life, all shoots shorten to 3 eyes. In addition to pruning vines, carry out katarovka (removal) of dew roots. These are additional small roots that are located in the upper layers of the soil.
The sequence of actions to remove dew roots:
- Remove 15 cm of soil around the stem.
- Treat the secateurs with boron alcohol and remove small thin roots without leaving knots.
- Treat the slices with crushed activated carbon mixed with 5 g of Fundazole.
- Cover the roots with soil.
Video: grape pruning in autumn
The main ways
There are several methods for the formation of vine bushes:
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Depending on the age of the grape
Caring for a young plant involves conducting formative pruning during the first 3 years of life:
- When caring for a one-year-old seedling, which is formed according to a simplified method, in the first fall, the shoot is shortened to 3-4 buds - from them 2 full-fledged vines should be formed next year, otherwise the next part of the ground will be shortened to 3-4 eyes the next fall. If the plant develops normally, then in the second autumn both vines are shortened by 2-3 eyes. In the third year, all vines formed are again shortened by 2-3 eyes, and in the fourth year, only 4 well-ripened skeletal lashes are left, the rest must be removed.
- To form a fan-shaped bush, at the time of planting, in early spring, the stalk is immediately shortened to 2-3 buds. Then in the summer 2 shoots are formed on the plant, which need to be shortened by 2-3 buds. In autumn, the shoots are shortened to the site where the trunk reaches a diameter of 10 mm. In the second year of development, extra eyes are removed in autumn, leaving only the upper ones. In the third year, only 6-7 sleeves are left on the bush, the rest are cut off.
- With a standard formation on the plant in the first autumn, they leave one full shoot . In spring, pruning is carried out, leaving 4 upper shoots. In autumn, in the second year, 2–4 branches are formed from them, depending on the quality of the soil. On heavy soils, two-arm short stems form, on light fertile soils, four-arm high stems. In the future, the shoots are shortened at their discretion.
Water-loading irrigation is carried out a month before the alleged frosts, taking into account the fact that the water moves to a depth of 20 cm per week. The purpose of this event is to provide plants with moisture for the entire winter period and soil compaction to protect against freezing. Watering is carried out in special drainage channels dug at a distance of 50 cm from the stem. For each bush there are 50 liters of water. The temperature of the liquid must be appropriate to the ambient temperature.
Important! Water-charging irrigation is carried out only on condition that the rainy season does not pass in the region during this period.
To get a good harvest, the next year, in the autumn, fertilizers are applied in parallel with watering. To increase the winter hardiness of the bushes, potassium and phosphorus are required. In this regard, potassium monophosphate will be good, 20 g of which is diluted in 10 liters of water. This is enough for one bush.
Aeration of the soil is carried out after every rain, watering and fertilizing.
Did you know? In Portugal and Spain there is a New Year's custom. At the last minute of the year, with each chiming clock, the inhabitants of these countries eat one grape and make wishes.
Autumn requires deep aeration:
- next to the stem - 15 cm;
- between rows - 20–25 cm.
Shelter for the winter
After carrying out all the necessary procedures, a week before the alleged frosts, you need to cover the bushes. The soil around the stem is lined with coniferous branches or a layer of soft hay 10 cm thick. The vine is collected in a sheaf and tied with a piece of fabric. Then lay the vine on the needles. From above, they build a shelter from the boards or install a wooden pallet.
Such a shelter is relevant for:
- areas with frosty winters;
- year-old shoots of any variety;
- for all varieties that do not tolerate cold.
Disease Prevention and Protection
Preventive measures that protect against diseases and pests are all of the above and seasonal agricultural practices. In addition, it is necessary to conduct pre-winter treatment of bushes with copper or iron sulfate. Manipulations are carried out a week after harvest, in dry weather. For spraying with copper sulfate per 10 l of water, add 100 g of powder, iron - 300 g.
Important! Copper and iron sulfate dissolved in water should not be stored. The working solution should be applied within 5 to 6 hours after preparation.
The liquid is placed in a tank for spraying and abundantly irrigate the bush itself and the soil around it. On average, 10 l of solution is enough to process 1 m². Proper preparation of the vineyard for winter includes a number of measures to increase the yield and immunity of plants. The main task of the gardener at this stage is to help plants regain strength after an active growing season.