How to care for ficus robusta at home
Effective air purification, an exotic addition to the interior, a feeling of summer in the winter cold will help create Robusta's indoor ficus. This tree unpretentious in leaving takes a worthy place in a rating of fans of home flowers.
Botanical description of the plant
Ficus leaves reach half a meter in length, 20 cm wide, oval in shape, pointed tip. Differ in a saturated dark green shade, with a pronounced light central vein. A distinctive feature of Robusta foliage is slightly curved edges. New leaves are formed from a scarlet shade plate on top of the bush.
It blooms in small, yellowish inflorescences, the fruits are almost imperceptible, have a diameter of not more than 1 cm.
|Root system||well developed, powerful|
|Stem||upright, no branches|
|Leaf shape||oval, with a tip on the end|
|Leaf color||dark green, with a pronounced central vein|
|Flower shape||small, with round petals|
|Flower color||pale yellow|
Did you know? The oldest known ficus planted in 1781, it grows in Buenos Aires.
What you need to create a home environment
Easy to care for, unpretentious to conditions - the exact characteristic of rubber ficus. It grows rapidly, over three years with proper care, growing to 2 meters.
It adapts well on a brightly lit window sill, and in a slightly shaded corner of the room. You can add artificial color. Ficus himself will tell you that he needs it - the leaves will fade a little.
Ficus Robusta is unpretentious to temperature, but do not abuse drafts. At optimum air temperatures (+18 ... + 25 ° С), it is better to keep windows or a window in the “airing” mode.
In winter, the plant can be “walked” on a glassed-in balcony on a sunny day. Such an event promotes the formation of chlorophyll, the leaves will be saturated in color, with a glossy surface.
At home, such types of ficuses are also grown, such as:
Robusta is a resident of the South, and does not tolerate low temperatures. A decrease in temperature of less than + 10 ° C will lead to yellowing and falling of the foliage. Too high a degree (from + 30 ° С and more) will dry the air, the plant will begin to absorb moisture from the soil and the surrounding air, quickly lose its appearance: folded and yellow leaves, stem growth and the formation of new leaf plates will stop. The optimum temperature of the content is from + 18 ° С to + 25 ° С with proper watering.
Too dry air will harm the "health" of an exotic pet, but you do not need to oversaturate the room with moisture. The best indicator is 50%, allowing the ficus to develop in the right direction: to form new leaves and let go of side shoots, while helping to cleanse the air and create a beautiful interior.
With a natural decrease in humidity in spring and autumn, you can additionally use a spray bottle, as well as clean the surface of the foliage with a woven cloth moistened with water.
How to care at home
The correct approach to the conditions of rubber ficus at home contributes to the formation of a strong trunk and crown, the formation of bright foliage.
Watering Robusta does not require high labor:
- before watering, check the condition of the soil: the surface should be slightly dried out;
- use water at room temperature, first let it stand for a day;
- in the summer they are watered two to three times a week, depending on the ambient temperature;
- in spring and autumn - once every seven days, checking the soil moisture;
- in winter it’s enough once a decade, once every two weeks, if the humidity is not less than 40%.
Important! It is not necessary to be zealous with water: an excessive amount of moisture in the soil leads to rotting of the root and death of the bush. It is better to let the soil dry out a little between watering.
The phase of active growth is the time for feeding ficus. Nitrogen fertilizers give a good start: the speed of creating new “houses” with leaves increases, the plant stretches without losing the strength of the trunk. Top dressing: March 10-15, frequency: 10 days. After November 20, the plant is not fed, contributing to the winter dormancy.
The crown is formed by annual pruning in the period: end of February - beginning of March. The tool is a pruner, a sharp knife is pre-disinfected with an alcohol solution or heated on an open fire, observing safety rules.
- a small plant (up to 20 cm) “pinch” in the region of the apex;
- young shoots are stimulated by pruning 7 cm above the desired leaf, branch;
- the trunk is cut along an oblique line, a straight cut is made along the branch;
- pruning of the central trunk excludes the growth of the bush in height.
Learn more about how to trim ficus.
Early spring, early June - the best time for transplanting ficus into new dishes:
- up to three years of age is carried out once a year; adult bushes - every three years;
- use a store substrate for exotic plants or cooked with one's own hand: sheet soil and peat (2: 1);
- establish a good drainage layer of pebbles or expanded clay.
Large bushes can not be transplanted, it is enough to add a new layer of soil annually.
How to breed at home
Cuttings of ficus Robusta quickly root and begin to grow rapidly. Aerial roots can also give birth to "descendants."
Air lay is carried out following the scheme:
- Cut several leaves with a sharp knife at the location of the layering.
- The sections of the sections are washed with water at room temperature from the spray gun several times until the juice ceases to stand out (“milk”).
- Make accurate circular cuts at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other.
- Carefully strip the bark between the incisions.
- Sprinkle the surface of the trunk with a root stimulant.
- Wrap with sphagnum (moss), previously soaked in water and wrung out. Layer thickness - 6 cm.
- Wrap the moss with a plastic film, tightly fastening the ends with nylon thread to preserve moisture.
- After germination of the roots around the moss, the shoot is cut below the level of the root zone, the film and sphagnum are removed, then a new Robusta is transplanted into a permanent pot.
Important! For propagation, the “mother” plant must be in a phase of intensive growth.
The simplest and most common method is grafting:
- The shoot is cut below the top for two or three sheets along an oblique line. The slice on the plant is washed, disinfected with a special solution.
- The cutlery is placed in the soil (you can in a mini-greenhouse) or in a container of water, where the root growth stimulant is added according to the instructions on the package.
- After the appearance of the roots and their intensive growth, the ficus is transplanted into a permanent container with soil, having a good drainage layer.
The most common mistakes novice gardeners:
- Yellowed leaves, their constant decline. Reasons: draft, lack of moisture, improper lighting.
- Brownish spots on the leaves. Reason: excess moisture. It is necessary to reduce watering, and it is better to stop completely, wait for the soil to dry out by 2-3 cm in depth.
- The bush abruptly dropped its leaves: stress. A sharp change in temperature, drying out, followed by watering with cold water. You may have to restore the plant by cuttings if the shoot growth has not stopped.
- Spider mite . Reason: very dry air. To process a plant from a spray gun with a special tool, previously isolate it from other indoor flowers.
Omens and superstition
Exotic appearance and the ability to clean the air of accumulated phenolic and benzene compounds contributed to the emergence of “supernatural abilities” in indoor ficus:
- cleansing the aura of the home from negative energy;
- protection from evil spirits;
- maintaining financial balance in the house;
- balancing the temper of the hosts.