How can you spray grapes in the fall from pests and diseases?
Preventive measures for grapes are very important, because any disease is better to prevent than to treat and lose the crop. We learn how to spray grapes in the fall, why it is needed and what can be used for this.
The basic rules for growing grapes
For the successful cultivation of this crop, the following conditions must be met:
- Buy planting material from reliable suppliers. Opt for varieties recommended for the growing region, already tested and well-proven. You should be familiar with the characteristics of the variety - pollination, frost resistance, ripening, resistance to disease, use and cultivation characteristics. For beginners, it is best to choose complex-resistant and frost-resistant varieties with bisexual flowers.
- For planting, choose a sunny place, not blown by winds, on a hill or a slope, without stagnation of water. The best soil for the vineyard is sandy loam, loam and black earth, but rocky and swampy land is undesirable.
- The method of planting and growing depends on the type of soil, grape variety (not all are suitable for arbors and arches) and climate. On loams and clay, or when aquifers are closely located, landing on ridges is recommended. For sandy soils and terrain with severe frosts and a small amount of snow, landing in trenches is recommended.
- It is necessary to observe the recommended distances between the bushes of grapes and to other bushes and trees, buildings. The distance between them is usually from 1.5 to 3 m. From trees with a strong root system, they plant far away - no closer than 5 m. Technical varieties are planted with a gap between bushes of 0.8 m.
- The first years cover even frost-resistant varieties for the winter. Further protection against cold weather depends on the region of cultivation and varietal characteristics.
- Already during planting, it is necessary to introduce organic matter and in the future do the planned top dressing.
- Obligatory garter, proper molding and trimming. The main pruning is carried out in the fall, after dropping the leaves, and in the spring they usually carry out sanitary pruning. Remove the stepchildren, make pinching and thin out the bushes.
- Young bushes are watered 1-2 times a week, depending on the weather. Watering is carried out under the root.
- Perform preventive spraying of bushes.
Why is it necessary to spray grapes in autumn
Autumn processing of grapes will protect the plant from diseases and pests. The increased humidity of this period and the temperature difference can provoke fungal diseases. Their spores, as well as the larvae of insect pests, winter well and tolerate cold in the soil or on the vine under the bark. Therefore, in autumn, the bushes and the soil underneath are sprayed to avoid further damage.
Did you know? On the territory of Georgia, in 2017, clay vessels with wine remains were discovered by an international group of scientists in 50 km from Tbilisi. The age of the find is approximately 6 thousand years BC. e.
Everything else during this period, rodents are active, looking for food and wintering after harvesting from the fields. Weakened by pathogens and pests, the bush will winter better and will not be weakened by spring vegetation, it will bear fruit well. The affected plant by the spring can simply die.
Optimum processing time
When to process, everyone chooses for himself, based on the condition of the bush and weather conditions. If there are signs of pest damage, the treatment is carried out immediately after harvesting or 2-3 weeks before cutting the ripened bunches. In the absence of signs of damage, spraying is done before shelter for the winter, when the bush has already thrown off the leaves and is trimmed.
Important! In order for the grapes to survive the winter well, it must be cut, irrigated with water, fed, processed. Then it must be properly covered and in time to remove the shelter in the spring.
Types of Autumn Treatments
In general, autumn processing can be divided into preventive and therapeutic.
Spend in late autumn, after pruning and before sheltering bushes for the winter. To do this, use a 3% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid. These drugs are the most harmless among chemicals and help to prevent the appearance of fungal diseases. From rodents (mice, hares) that can damage the wood, roots and lashes of grape bushes, chemical preparations such as "Storm" or "Blockade" are used. From pests, spraying with drugs such as Actellik, Fozalin, Akarin, Neoron helps well.
If the slightest signs of disease or the presence of insect pests are detected, it is necessary to spray for medicinal purposes. To do this, you do not need to wait for the autumn, but act immediately after the harvest and use quick-acting preparations. First, it is necessary to remove the affected leaves, branches and burn, and treat the places of cuts with garden var. The soil around the bushes must be cleaned of weed grass and fallen leaves. It is necessary to determine the disease and apply the desired fungicide. Some drugs are allowed to be used during the ripening of the crop.
Learn how to properly care for grapes in the summer so that you have a good harvest.
Often in such cases, copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid is used. They cope well with fungal and bacterial diseases, and also help get rid of moss and lichens. Spraying with fungicides against specific diseases gives a good result. So, against the mildew use drugs "Folpan", "Delan", "Amistar". Against the oidium - Impact, Mikal, Fundazol. With gray rot, Horus and Scala are fighting well. From pests apply "Rovikurt", "Polykhom".
How to spray grapes in the fall against diseases and pests?
Consider the most popular means for autumn processing of grapes against various diseases.
In large vineyards, preventive treatment with copper preparations is often used before the onset of the winter period. For this, copper sulfate is used. This chemical agent is relatively harmless, but it is very effective in combating a wide range of diseases, especially if fungi are their causative agents.
Before use, this drug must be diluted with warm water in a ratio of 1 to 50. Freshly prepared solution should be used on the same day in the first 5 hours after preparation. After a longer period, he begins to lose his structure and clog the atomizer with flakes. About 1 liter of such a solution is consumed per 1 adult plant crop.
Did you know? The very first grape variety is Traminer, which appeared in ancient times. The ancient Roman province of Retsia, whose territories are now at the junction of Switzerland, Germany and Austria, is supposedly considered its homeland.
This drug is prepared on the basis of copper sulfate and is also an excellent tool for preventive spraying from the appearance of various diseases and pests. She copes with fungal diseases such as rot, melanosis, anthracnose. It should be noted that the spraying process can be carried out no more than 5 times per year. For processing using a 3% solution of this drug. It can be purchased at a garden store or made independently.
For cooking, you need to take:
- 450 g quicklime;
- 300 g of copper sulfate;
- 10 liters of water.
First, vitriol is diluted in 1 liter of boiled water, and then diluted with cold water. Lime is also dissolved in the same way. Dishes for the preparation of the solution should not be made of metal, it is better to use plastic. Both solutions must be filtered, and then a solution of copper sulfate is added to the liquid with lime, stirring constantly. After thorough mixing, the treatment solution is ready. All preparations based on copper sulfate are not stored and are used immediately.
Did you know? Polyphenols found in grape berries help to strengthen cartilage in the elderly. Moreover, for women it is more effective than for men.
Another fairly effective remedy is urea. It is used not only as nitrogen fertilizer, but also for controlling and preventing the appearance of harmful insects, such as aphids, weevils, and coppers. For processing grape bushes, a solution is prepared from a ratio of 0.5-0.7 kg per 1 bucket of liquid. With this solution, the bushes are completely sprayed after the leaves have fallen, but always before the onset of frost.
Spraying with soda is used from the appearance of some fungal diseases (gray rot, powdery mildew). This tool helps to get rid of the tracks. Processing with a soda solution promotes the rejuvenation of the plant culture, and spraying the grape brushes makes the berries better in taste. Soda solution for processing is prepared as follows - in a 10 liter bucket of water diluted 1 tbsp. l soda and sunflower oil. For better adhesion, 200 ml of liquid soap (better than household soap) is added to the plant. The processing process takes place in the evening or in cloudy, dry weather.
Video: soda processing grapes
Processing with a solution of potassium permanganate is an excellent tool to combat and prevent fungal diseases. To prepare a solution for processing, 5 g of manganese are diluted in a 10 liter bucket. Water turns pink. The entire bush and soil near it are abundantly sprayed with such a liquid. Manganese in combination with boric acid is a good radical top dressing.
Important! It is necessary to strictly observe the proportions when diluting manganese in water. Too concentrated solution can reduce soil fertility.
Possible processing errors
When conducting preventive treatments against diseases and pests, beginners can make the following mistakes:
- When growing early grape varieties, treatments are carried out immediately after the harvest, since before the onset of November, enough time passes for which various diseases can appear.
- The sprayer for processing must have a good sprayer and nozzle, a sealed pump. The liquid should be sprayed like fog, not like rain.
- Spraying should be carried out in dry and calm weather, as well as without forecasting rains in the coming days.
- Processing under the hot rays of the sun can cause burns to the plant.
- For processing in the fall, it is necessary to use copper sulfate, not iron. This is due to the fact that iron sulfate adversely affects frost resistance and plant crops can die in the cold period. Therefore, it should be used in a warm period.
- Failure to comply with safety regulations can harm humans, animals, and the plant culture itself. It is necessary to strictly observe the proportions and the order of the work.