How to apply iron sulfate for grapes
Viticulture every day strengthens its position in gardening. But to get the expected results from growing grapes, you should carefully take care of your plantings: competently take care of them and protect them from pests. Among the main defenders of grape plantations, vitriol occupies the first place, since it can eliminate many pests and diseases of the crop and thereby protect the crop.
Why use iron sulfate for grapes
The practice of using iron sulfate for spraying vineyards has been popular in viticulture since ancient times. The secret to her success is efficiency. The peculiarity of iron sulfate is that it combines the functions of fungicides, insecticides and mineral fertilizers.
Did you know? Iron sulfate has been successfully used in medicine and is part of the drugs for treating iron deficiency in the blood.
Iron sulfate has an impressive list of benefits that apply to the processed grape variety.
- Among the most eloquent, it is worth highlighting:
- the ability to increase and improve the fruitfulness of a crop;
- the ability to form chlorophyll and thereby improve leaf color;
- possession of disinfectant properties, which is important for carrying out preventive work to prevent and eliminate fungal diseases (mildew, oidium, anthracnose, spotted necrosis, bacterial cancer), the formation of moss and lichen on the vine, and the elimination of damage;
- a beneficial effect on the bark of the vine, which manifests itself in an increase in its elasticity;
- processing safety;
- improved growth and development of bushes, a positive effect on the formation of new side shoots, decorative foliage (increase in diameter, the acquisition of an attractive color).
All of the above positive effects in the aggregate favorably affect the yield of grapes.
Mechanism of action
Iron sulfate has a contact mechanism of action. Its ions enter into active reactions with cellular complexes of the pathogen (lipoproteins, enzymes) and provoke irreversible changes that cause a suppression of activity, and soon the death of the source of the disease.
Important! The product is available in the form of granules or powder, painted in light or gray-green color. This powder is a 53% salt formed due to the interaction of sulfuric acid (which is bound by water molecules) with ferrous iron.
When to process grapes with iron sulfate
Processing of grape plantations with ferrous sulfate can be carried out both in spring and in autumn, in order to balance (or restore) the balance of iron necessary for the full vitality of grapes and prevention from the appearance of harmful microorganisms.
Regardless of the time of year, it is necessary to spray a solution of iron sulfate on the vine and on the root part, or rather the root zone of the earth, because pathogens can also hide in the rhizome.
The advantage of spring treatment is that the procedure will help protect the buds that appear soon from possible frosts, which can not only cause loss of harvest, but also provoke the death of the plant. It is recommended to carry out spring spraying of bushes with iron sulfate immediately after opening.
If your grape has been treated with an iron preparation, then a kind of protective film has formed on the surface of its vine, the functions of which are to delay the period of bud germination by a maximum of 14 days. Accordingly, the risk of frostbite is practically reduced to zero.
Important! Experienced winegrowers also note the effectiveness of vitriol treatment for cuttings, which is a slight inhibition of kidney development. This allows the cuttings to take root faster: while the kidneys are sleeping, roots are actively forming, but the concentration of the drug should be weak - 0.5–1%.
Despite the eloquent advantages of spring treatment with iron sulfate, experienced winegrowers, as well as scientists agree that it is still more effective to do this in the autumn. The fact is that the functionality and vitality of the bushes in the next season largely depends on how they wintered.
So, if in the autumn the plant became ill and the infection spread on it, then as soon as the shelter is removed in the spring, it activates and destroys the culture. Moreover, shelter can become a favorable environment for the propagation of fungal spores.
It is necessary to carry out autumn spraying of grapes with vitriol of iron immediately after he dropped the foliage and bunches, was fertilized and trimmed. The vine is carefully inspected in order to determine the presence of disease.
Important! Such a grape disease, like oidium, can only be seen after treatment with iron sulfate has been carried out (diseased areas darken).
How to breed iron sulfate
The preparation of the solution for processing grapes should strictly comply with the dosages indicated in the instructions, in addition, you should focus on the processing time (spring or autumn), and in autumn - on the age of the plant. The goals of the procedure are also taken into account.
A solution for spraying grapes in spring is prepared according to the following scheme: 500 g of the drug is dissolved in 10 l of water (0.5% concentration of the substance is obtained). Water for the preparation of such a liquid must be warm.
Whether the solution becomes a healer or pest depends on how much powder you have taken. After all, exceeding the indicated dosages can cause irreversible damage to the plant.
Autumn spraying of vineyards is carried out mainly in mid-October - early November. The procedure for preparing the autumn solution has significant differences, since here you need to focus on the age of the bushes - the main criterion that affects the proportions of the components.
- The vitriol solution for young grape bushes should be of low concentration - 0.3%. To prepare it, you need to dilute in 10 liters of warm water 300 g of sulfate.
- If we are talking about adult grapes, then a 0.5% solution is prepared for its processing: 500 g of the preparation / 10 l of warm water.
It is not difficult to prepare a sulfate mixture, the main thing is to observe the proportions.
How to handle grapes with iron sulfate
The purpose of processing vineyards with this substance may be to feed, prevent disease and disinfect bushes. The main guideline for the use of healing fluid in any case is instructions for the use of the substance. For more information about target-oriented processing rules, consider the following.
It will also be useful for you to find out how spraying grapes with baking soda helps.
As a top dressing
Often, growers note a slowdown in the growth of bushes, the thinness of their vines, blanching and falling leaves. Such phenomena indicate that the bushes suffer from a lack of iron, and you need to re-spray with a solution of the drug, despite the fact that the leaves have already appeared.
The main thing here is not to overdo it with the concentration of the solution, which directly depends on how many grams of iron sulfate you took, since the amount of water for preparing the nutrient mixture is invariably 10 l. But the powder you need to take only 10-20 g.
From diseases and pests
Spraying vineyards with iron sulfate in order to eliminate and prevent diseases and pests has its own nuances, depending on the type of disease:
- For the treatment of chlorosis detected on grapes, a 0.05% solution of green vitriol (50 g / 10 l of water) should be prepared. The disease can attack both the roots and foliage, therefore, in the fight against it, it is advisable to spray the affected leaves with the prepared liquid, and also introduce it into the root zone of the bush. The disease will not disappear after one spray, you need to repeat the procedure 5-7 times before the fruits begin to form.
- Get rid of oidium (in the case of this disease and detect it) and mildew will help 4-5% solution of green vitriol (400-500 g / 10 l of water). It is recommended to spray both in autumn and spring.
- If lichens and moss appeared on the bark of the vine, then a 3% sulfate solution (300 g of the preparation / 10 l of water) will help to eliminate them. Spray the substance into the affected area using a sprayer whose bell is narrow (does not spread the substance to the young vine and leaves). After 2-3 hours after the procedure, mosses and lichens weaken under the influence of the drug, and it is necessary to clean the treated bark: manually remove the growths of parasites, the remaining spores will die. Such measures can be carried out both in autumn and spring.
Disinfection of wounds and cracks
Green vitriol is also widely known for its disinfecting abilities. So, it is used to treat wounds and cracks formed on the vine. Damage to the vine can be triggered by various factors: strong wind, pets, careless handling of people.
Did you know? Mosses easily scratch off their surface due to the fact that they have no roots.
Even the smallest wounds can pose a great threat to the vitality of grapes, because they are a green light for the penetration of infections and pests. A 1% solution of iron sulfate (100 g / 10 l of water) will help protect the plant from possible risks. The tool is applied with a soft brush to the damaged area of the vine.
After about 1 hour, the treated area dries up, that is, a protective sulfate film appears on it, through which bacteria have no chance to penetrate.
It is recommended to process the grapevine with vitriol for disinfection in dry weather. Immediately after rain, the protective sulfate film ceases, so experienced growers are advised to repeat the procedure.
Despite the fact that iron sulfate does not belong to dangerous and toxic substances, working with it, it is imperative to follow some rules in order not to harm either yourself or the vineyard:
- It is advisable to start preparing a solution of iron sulfate in special clothing that will protect your skin and mucous membranes from possible damage. So, getting sulphate on the skin can cause burns or irritation. In this case, immediately rinse the skin (baking soda + water). Avoid contact with eyes.
- The solution of this drug is dangerous for pollinating insects, so it is not recommended to use it if there is an apiary nearby, or during the period when the bees massively fly out of the hive.
- Never store the substance in the same place as food or household items.
- During processing, no children or pets should be in the vineyard. Generally, any visitors.
Important! When disinfecting wounds and cracks, it is forbidden to treat the affected area of the vine with a sprayer.
Common mistakes gardeners
Even the most experienced growers can make mistakes during the processing of the vineyard with iron sulfate:
- Prepare the solution in an inappropriate container, namely in a metal dish. The fact is that a chemical contact may occur between the metal and the solution, which will cause a decrease in the effectiveness of the sulfate preparation. It is best to prepare such a liquid in containers made of glass or plastic.
- Failure to comply with the dosage . A smaller portion of the substance is not so scary, in extreme cases, you will not see the desired effect. If you used more vitriol than necessary to prepare the solution, then grapes can be harmed instead of good.
- Combination of iron sulfate with lime . Such a mixture will damage the culture.