How and when to plant grapes in autumn

Grapes, like fruit trees, can be planted in spring or autumn, and each of these methods has its own subtleties - they must be taken into account to get a good harvest. This review will discuss important features of planting vines in the winter.

Advantages and disadvantages of autumn grape planting

Even among professional winegrowers, there is no consensus on when it is best to plant a vine - in spring or autumn. It is not surprising, because both options have their advantages and disadvantages.

  • In particular, the undoubted advantage of grape planting in the fall is that in this case:
  • there is no need to store the seedling for a long time (planting material is usually prepared in the fall) and, accordingly, the risk of its death is eliminated;
  • for the same reason (the time of digging a seedling for subsequent planting) in autumn, the choice of grapes is very large, and you can easily find the desired variety, while by spring all the most interesting varieties are already sold out;
  • it becomes possible to transfer the seedling “from the ground to the ground”, which in any case minimizes the stress experienced by the plant, keeps the root system fresh, etc .;
  • optimal conditions are provided for rooting the seedling, because with active sap flow, stimulating the growth of young shoots in the spring, not strengthened roots are forced to spend energy on providing the aboveground part of the vine with nutrients, - as a result, a bush that seems to have taken shape and grows well in the summer without having time to form powerful roots, freezes next winter;
  • without a significant temperature difference between air and soil, which is typical for the autumn period, the seedling takes root better;
  • there is no need to provide the young plant with abundant watering, since there is practically no drying out of the soil in autumn.

Did you know? Grapes, along with wheat, have been grown by mankind for many millennia. According to archaeologists, the first traces of viticulture date back to the Bronze Age. So, in ancient Egypt, it appeared 6000 years BC. e.

  • But, despite the seemingly obvious advantages of winter planting, many still prefer to plant the vine in the spring, because in the fall:
  • it is difficult to correctly determine the optimal time for planting operations (if in spring this moment is determined based on the degree of soil warming up, then in autumn it is counted down in the opposite order from the onset of frost, and this event is poorly predicted);
  • there is a danger that a newly planted and immature plant will not be able to withstand additional stress in the form of freezing soil and, especially if the winter is too harsh, will not wake up in the spring (for this reason, only seedlings of the highest quality should always be selected for autumn planting);
  • a young and weakened vine is much harder to tolerate the raids of hares and other animals that love to enjoy the bark of garden plants during the winter;
  • if the decision to plant grapes is made suddenly, there is no possibility to prepare a pit for the seedling in advance, while this moment is very important for the proper development of the vine (by adding all the necessary fertilizers in the fall, you can get perfect soil in the spring, and also when planting in freshly dug the pit increases the risk of soil subsidence, which is especially dangerous for a young plant on the eve of impending frosts);
  • according to some experts, in this case, the fruiting of the vine is delayed by an average of one year.

Because of all this, in regions characterized by harsh winters or frequent and unexpected weather changes, autumn grape planting is considered less preferable than spring planting.

Proper planting of grapes by seedlings in autumn

Having decided to plant grapes in the winter, the following work must be done: Read more

When is it best to plant grapes?

  • choose a place to place the vines and prepare a hole;
  • outline the approximate time for landing, having studied the weather forecast for the coming weeks and, if possible, months;
  • choose a suitable grape variety, taking into account not only your own taste preferences, but also specific climatic conditions (for beginners who are new to the seedling market, it is worthwhile to choose several possible options in case one of them is not for sale);
  • find and purchase a seedling of a selected variety;
  • to land;
  • to prepare the plant for the coming winter, since without additional measures the risk that the vine does not take root increases many times.

When, in what month to plant

Experienced gardeners and gardeners, determining the period for carrying out certain field works, are looking for a clue not in the calendar, but in weather conditions, both current and expected.

Thus, in the northern regions grapes should be planted already in the first half of September, while, for example, in the Crimea, Nikolaev or Odessa, this procedure can be safely postponed until mid-October.

There is another rule: the milder the climate, the more you can reduce the estimated time interval between the planting of the vine and the coming frosts. For example, some winegrowers living in the south of Ukraine practice planting seedlings almost until the frost, which does not prevent the plant from taking root perfectly. Important! It is believed that the young vine should be in the ground about eight weeks before the frosts hit, but it is critical that this period is not less than two weeks. The fact is that rooting is easier if the vegetation phase has already ended, the leaves and shoots in this case do not need additional nutrition and support. Therefore, many gardeners recommend an autumn planting after the leaves on the trees began to actively fall.

Site selection

Perhaps the most important criterion that must be taken into account when choosing a place for planting grapes is good illumination. All other conditions can be adjusted, but if the vine does not have enough light, a good harvest can not be expected.

The fact is that the ripening dates, which are an important characteristic of each grape variety, are provided in the presence of the required amount of heat. Heat, in turn, is directly dependent on lighting. A sufficient amount of light determines not only the rate of ripening of the fruit, but also the overall life span of the vine.

The second condition, which is desirable to observe when planning a plot for the vine, is the south side of the house or other structure. Besides the fact that it is usually best lit up, grapes are especially susceptible to the north wind, so the availability of reliable shelter from the north will have a beneficial effect on the development of the bush.

The beginning gardener needs to know that the roots of the grapes go very deep into the ground, and this, in turn, means that groundwater should not go closer than 4-5 m to the surface of the earth, otherwise the vine will begin to rot. Important! Any grape is photophilous, but this need may differ for different varieties. Isabella, Aleshenkin, Ripariya, Kleret white, Super Extra and some other varieties are less demanding of light than others. But the vine does not impose severe requirements on the composition of the soil. The richer and more fertile the land, the greater yields can be expected, however, the plant will develop and bear fruit on poor soil.

Heavy soils with a high clay content are less suitable for vines than light sandstone, so if necessary, the ground for digging a planting hole must first be diluted with sand, sawdust or fine gravel. The acid-base balance of the soil should ideally be neutral or slightly acidic (pH level 5.5 to 7.0).

The choice of seedlings when buying

Success in growing grapes is always laid when choosing a quality seedling. For this purpose, it is best to contact a specialized store with a good reputation, or a familiar winegrower.

Confidence in the seller, if it is justified, eliminates the need for the buyer to independently determine the quality of the seedling. Nevertheless, some basic rules must be known.

Planting material must meet the following characteristics:

  1. Age - 1 year. In exceptional cases (a very rare variety, etc.), you can risk buying a two-year-old seedling, but you need to understand: the older the bush, the harder it transfers the transplant.
  2. The size of the seedling is 40–55 cm long, 0.5 cm thick at the base if there is one shoot, and 0.4 cm if there are two.
  3. The color of the vine is the bark of any shades of brown, but without spots and stains, the flesh on the cut is green.
  4. The state of the vine is absolute integrity, the slightest cracks are an occasion to refuse to buy. When bent, the seedling should not break, although it may crack slightly.
  5. The kidneys are strong and large, in an amount of at least four.
  6. The root system is strong, preferably consisting of at least three main processes from a thickness of 0.2 cm and a length of 20 cm, directed in different directions. Healthy roots should be moist and milky white on a fresh cut. Growths, swelling, cracks, ulcers are unacceptable.
  7. Leaves - no more than 6 pieces, green, without spots and traces of damage. No signs of wilting or twisting are allowed.
  8. Packaging - the root system should not remain open, usually it is wrapped with polyethylene or other material that does not allow air and moisture to pass through.
Important! Even a professional cannot determine a grape variety by the appearance of a seedling. Taking into account that the young vine begins to bear fruit on average no earlier than two years after planting, a mistake with the variety at the time of purchase is very expensive.

Preparatory work

If there is such an opportunity, it is necessary to purchase a seedling immediately before planting, more precisely, taking into account the preparatory measures, 2 days before it. The less time the plant roots spend in air, the better.

Specialists can store planting material for many months, but without observing certain conditions, the viability of a seedling can decrease very quickly, so when buying vines it is better to book and pay for the goods, and order delivery on the required date.

Seedling preparation

Preparatory work with planting material should begin in advance.

Step by step the whole procedure looks like this:

  1. Prepare a sharp pruner shears or scissors and thoroughly wipe the cutting plane with alcohol.
  2. Remove the seedling from its packaging.
  3. If this procedure was not performed at the time of purchase, trim the top of the vine to ensure that the flesh on the cut is fresh, moist, and green. This precaution will save time on planting a known non-viable plant.
  4. Carefully inspect the root system. Trim damaged roots, if any, as well as thin processes located in the upper part of the root (the so-called suction roots).
  5. Grasping the roots of the vine with your left hand at a distance of a few centimeters from the growth point, with one precise motion cut off all the ends of the roots that are on the outside of the girth. The length of each root process, therefore, after trimming should be no more than 15 cm. This procedure stimulates the root system of the vine to actively branch and, in addition, prevents the roots from breaking during planting.
  6. Place the seedling for 24 hours in a bucket of purified water at room temperature.
  7. Over the next 24 hours, you need to soak the seedling in water, into which a growth stimulator has been previously added (you can use the preparations “Kornevin”, “Zircon”, “Epin”, etc., but it is better to resort to using organic compounds based on humate or honey )

See also the best methods and schemes for the formation of grapes.

Pre-soaking is a powerful impetus for the rapid development of the root system of the plant, simplifies the process of strengthening it in a new place and helps the vine easier to tolerate winter.

Preparing the soil for planting

While the seedling is steeped, it is necessary to prepare a pit. For a powerful root system of grapes, it should be quite spacious. Depending on the type of vine and the size of the planting material, the depth and diameter of the pit may vary, but the minimum dimensions of each of these parameters should be 60–70 cm.

At the bottom of the pit, it is necessary to lay a nutrient layer with a thickness of at least 25 cm. For its preparation, part of the land recovered during digging is mixed with the same amount of manure, a small portion of wood ash and superphosphate (the last two components are taken at a rate of 1 liter and 200 g for each seedling). Important! If the groundwater passes too close to the surface of the earth, or if the site is in a lowland and the soil is often swampy, you need to dig a hole deeper and fill it with drainage in the form of gravel, screenings or broken brick. On top of the nutrient layer, lay 5 cm of ordinary earth left over from digging a hole, after which the surface at the bottom of the hole is well compacted. It is better that in this state the pit stood for at least a few days, so that the earth sags a little. The density of planting grapes depends on its variety, the method of formation of the bush, as well as the composition of the soil.

Approximate parameters are given in the table:

Selection criteriaPlanting scheme (distance between bushes and rows in meters)
Medium tall variety on regular trellis2 x 2
Weedy variety on a short trellis with low fertility soil1.5 x 1.5
Vigorous variety on a trellis of two planes with fertile soil1 x 3
High trellis ("on the arbor")1 row with a distance between bushes 1–1.5 m

How to plant

With proper preparation of the pit and the seedling itself, the planting process is quick and easy.

The sequence of actions and the basic rules are as follows:

  1. At the bottom of the pit (on top of the nutrient and intermediate soil layer) lay a hill of land on which it will be convenient to place the root system of the seedling.
  2. Set the seedling in the center of the earthen hill so that its heel is at a depth of 50 cm from the surface of the earth and is directed to the south. The upper bud of the plant should not reach the edges of the pit 10-15 cm and also head south. It should be borne in mind that the usual rule for planting fruit trees is to dig a seedling to the level of the root neck (the point of transition from the roots to the stem), it does not work in the case of grapes. Its seedlings, which are grown from cuttings, have no root neck.
  3. Half fill the pit with fresh earth and tamp well.
  4. Pour 2-3 buckets of slightly warmed water into the pit (watering should not be ignored even if the earth seems to be moist enough, you can only slightly reduce the amount of water).
  5. Allow water to soak completely into the ground.
  6. Add earth to the edges of the pit. To compact the soil at this stage is no longer necessary.

Video: autumn grape planting

How to cover grape seedlings planted in autumn

Regardless of how severe the winters are in a particular region and what are the indicators of frost resistance of the selected vine variety, it should be protected from winter cold during the autumn planting of a seedling. Another reason why a young vine needs to be sheltered for the winter is hares. They can cause the plant no less harm than low temperatures.

If the seedling was planted in late autumn, and the onset of frost is expected in the coming weeks, shelter can be carried out immediately; if the days are warm, it is better to postpone the procedure. See also what are the ways of sheltering grapes for the winter.

As a shelter, you can use any material that allows air to pass through well - cut branches of trees, fallen leaves, peat, straw, sawdust, coniferous paws, etc., it is only important that the covering layer is sufficiently thick. A tarpaulin, agrofibre or burlap should be placed on top of the embankment made in this way, so that light organics are not blown apart by a gust of wind, and secured around the perimeter with any load (for example, bricks).

There is another option for winter sheltering the vine - bend it to the ground and carefully sprinkle with a soil layer of at least 20 cm thick.For young seedlings this method is not very convenient, since in spring they can be easily damaged during the process of digging. But the rest of the earth is no less reliable insulation than any other organic material.

Important! Before sheltering, the seedling must be watered abundantly. Saturation of the soil with moisture is an additional guarantee that the root system of the grapes will not freeze during the winter.

How to plant grapes with chubuk in autumn

In addition to the use of annual seedlings, the reproduction of grapes can also be carried out using cuttings (the so-called "Chubuk"). Such planting material usually remains in abundance after the autumn pruning of the vine and is a reliable guarantee for a new bush of a well-known variety.

However, it should be borne in mind that the survival rate of Chubuk is much lower than that of seedlings, so this method of planting grapes is considered extremely unreliable.

Did you know? The grapevine on average lives and bears fruit from 50 to 80 years, but there are also centenarians. Interestingly, in the wild, where the vine is not propagated by cuttings, but by seeds, the plant's life cycle can last up to four centuries.

Cutting cuttings

Cuttings can be taken only from an absolutely healthy plant that does not have signs of infection with infectious diseases or pests. Поскольку укоренение чубуков — процесс долгий и сложный, лучше подбирать для посадки районированные материнские кусты, то есть лозу, растущую в той же зоне, в которой планируется высадить черенок.

Для отбора посадочного материала материнский куст должен полностью отплодоносить и подготовиться к зиме. Почки в этот период входят в фазу так называемого органического покоя, то есть состояния, при котором их прорастание полностью исключается до следующей весны.

Нарезка чубуков проводится с однолетних побегов. Оптимальная длина — 20–30 см. Отростки нужно выбирать таким образом, чтобы они были максимально ровными и не имели никаких повреждений на коре. Толщина черенка на всём отрезке должна быть примерно одинаковой и составлять 8–12 мм. Для этого под черенок лучше всего брать центральную часть побега с 2-3 отчётливыми почками. Узнайте подробнее о том, как правильно выращивать виноград из черенков. Выбрав отрезок под обрезку, следует вооружиться острым и предварительно обеззараженным секатором и сделать в намеченных местах побега два косых среза, причём нижний срез делается с отступом в 2-3 см от междоузлия.

Training

После нарезки черенков с них первым делом удаляются листья, усы и пасынки, если они имеются. Чтобы упростить доступ питательных веществ к лишённому корневой системы чубуку, в его нижней части рекомендуется сделать несколько вертикальных надрезов, нарушающих целостность коры, но не травмирующих сердцевину лозы.

Подготовленный таким способом черенок в течение суток вымачивается в стимулирующем рост растворе. Для этих целей можно использовать те же препараты, которые упоминались ранее при описании работы с саженцами.

Укоренение побегов

Предварительное укоренение побегов не является обязательной процедурой при осенней высадке чубуков винограда. Более того, использование для этих целей воды большинство виноградарей считает нецелесообразным, поскольку такой способ может привести к преждевременному пробуждению почек, что истощит черенок и снизит его жизнеспособность. Did you know? Один из мифов Древней Греции рассказывает о любимце Диониса Ампеле, погибшем в результате падения с дерева, куда несчастный сын сатира и нимфы попытался взобраться за спелой виноградной гроздью. В честь юноши виноградная лоза в греческом языке называется «ампелос» (αμπέλου). Кроме того, прорастающие в воде корни всегда очень слабые и при посадке, как правило, обламываются или отмирают в последующем. Таким образом, выдерживание чубука в воде не стимулирует приживаемость растения, а скорее препятствует ей.

Тем не менее существует особый способ укоренения чубуков. Его суть состоит в том, что будущий саженец помещается в ёмкость с водой, уровень которой составляет всего 2-3 см. Во влажной среде, таким образом, находится лишь нижняя часть черенка, а появляющиеся корни оказываются вне водной среды.

Однако следует отметить, что даже этот метод лучше не использовать при осенней посадке, поскольку он не решает проблему нежелательного пробуждения почек.

Landing

Для высадки чубуков винограда на участке выбирается специальная грядка, так называемая «школка» (хотя можно разместить побег сразу на постоянное место, но вероятность того, что он приживётся, не очень велика, поэтому обычно используются несколько черенков). Рекомендуем прочитать, чем можно опрыскать виноград осенью от вредителей и болезней.

Чтобы лозе легче было укорениться, ей нужно подготовить подходящую питательную смесь. С этой целью достаточно выкопать траншею глубиной 20 см и примерно такой же ширины, заполнить её до половины перегноем, засыпать землёй и снова вскопать, чтобы органическое удобрение хорошо перемешалось с почвой. Если грядка слишком сухая, её нужно полить и оставить до следующего дня. Почва при посадке должна быть в меру влажной.

Подготовленные чубуки винограда заглубляют в подготовленную грядку с небольшим уклоном на юг, соблюдая дистанцию между побегами от 10 до 15 см. Глубина посадки должна быть рассчитана таким образом, чтобы одна почка оставалась на поверхности, а остальные под землёй.

Сразу после посадки чубуки нужно полить подогретой примерно до +20°С водой. Примерно за две недели до ожидаемых заморозков чубуки следует тщательно укрыть. Процедура проводится аналогично вышеописанной защите саженцев винограда.

Осенний период отлично подходит для посадки винограда, независимо от того, используются для этого саженцы или черенки. Такой способ имеет ряд серьёзных преимуществ перед весенней посадкой, однако чтобы растение прижилось, надо строго соблюдать все изложенные рекомендации, начиная от выбора посадочного материала и заканчивая защитой лозы от близких морозов.

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